Typical analytical methods used for the development of maintenance programs have not provided a focus on wiring. As a result most operators have not adequately addressed deterioration of EWIS in their programs. The regulatory authorities reviewed the current inspection philosophies with the objectives of identifying improvements that could lead to a more consistent application of the inspection requirements, whether they are Zonal, Stand-alone GVI, or DET inspections.
TCCA believes that it would be beneficial to provide guidance on the type of deterioration that a person performing a GVI, DET, or Zonal Inspection would be expected to discover. Though it may be realistically assumed that all operators provide such guidance to their inspectors, it is evident that significant variations exist and, in certain areas of the world, a significant enhancement of the inspection could be obtained if internationally agreed guidance material could be produced. The guidance provided by this TP assumes each operator will adopt recent improvements made to the definitions of GVI and DET Inspections. This information should be incorporated in operators' training material and in the introductory section of maintenance planning documentation.
This section is divided into three parts. The first part addresses the levels of inspection applicable to EWIS, the second part provides guidance for performing zonal inspections, and the third part provides lists of installations and areas of concern.
a. Levels of inspection applicable to EWIS.
1. Detailed Inspection (DET).
An intensive examination of a specific item, installation or assembly to detect damage, failure or irregularity. Available lighting is normally supplemented with a direct source of good lighting at an intensity deemed appropriate. Inspection aids such as mirrors, magnifying lenses or other means may be necessary. Surface cleaning and elaborate access procedures may be required.
A DET can be more than just a visual inspection since it may include tactile assessment in which a component or assembly is checked for tightness/security. This is of particular significance when identifying applicable and effective tasks to ensure the continued integrity of installations such as bonding jumpers, terminal connectors, etc.
Note: Though the term Detailed Visual Inspection remains valid for DETs using only eyesight, it should be recognized that this may represent only part of the inspection called for in the source documents used to establish an operator's Maintenance Program. For this reason it is recommend that the acronym "DVI" not be used since it excludes tactile examination from this level of inspection.
2. General Visual Inspection (GVI).
A visual examination of an interior or exterior area, installation or assembly to detect obvious damage, failure or irregularity. This level of inspection is made from within touching distance unless otherwise specified. A mirror may be necessary to enhance visual access to all exposed surfaces in the inspection area. This level of inspection is made under normally available lighting conditions such as daylight, hangar lighting, flashlight or droplight and may require removal or opening of access panels or doors. Stands, ladders or platforms may be required to gain proximity to the area being checked.
Recent changes to this definition have added proximity guidance (within touching distance) and the allowance to use a mirror to enhance visual access to exposed surfaces when performing a GVI. These changes should result in more consistent application of GVI and support the expectations of what types of EWIS discrepancies should be detected by a GVI.
Though flashlights and mirrors may be required to provide an adequate view of all exposed surfaces, there is no requirement for equipment removal or displacement unless this is specifically called for in the access instructions. Paint and/or sealant removal is not necessary and should be avoided unless the observed condition is suspect. Should unsatisfactory conditions be suspected, items may need to be removed or displaced in order to permit proper assessment.
It is expected that the area to be inspected is clean enough to minimize the possibility that accumulated dirt or grease might hide unsatisfactory conditions that would otherwise be obvious. Any cleaning that is considered necessary should be performed in accordance with accepted procedures in order to minimize the possibility of the cleaning process itself introducing anomalies.
In general, the person performing a GVI is expected to identify degradation due to wear, vibration, moisture, contamination, excessive heat, aging, etc., and make an assessment as to what actions are appropriate to address a noted discrepancy. In making this assessment, any potential effect on adjacent system installations should be considered, particularly if these include wiring. Observations of discrepancies, such as chafing, broken clamps, sagging, interference, contamination, etc., need to be addressed.
3. Zonal Inspection.
A collective term comprising selected General Visual Inspections and visual checks that are applied to each zone, defined by access and area, to check system and power plant installations and structure for security and general condition.
A Zonal Inspection is essentially a GVI of an area or zone to detect obvious unsatisfactory conditions and discrepancies. Unlike a stand-alone GVI, it is not directed to any specified component or assembly.
b. Guidance for Zonal Inspections.
The following EWIS degradation items are typical of what should be detectable and subsequently addressed as a result of a zonal inspection (as well as a result of a stand-alone GVI). It is also recommended that these items be included in maintenance and training documentation. This list is not intended to be exhaustive and may be expanded as considered appropriate.
1. Wire/Wire Harnesses
- Wire bundle/wire bundle or wire bundle/structure contact/chafing
- Wire bundle sagging or improperly secured
- Wires damaged (obvious damage due to mechanical impact, overheat, localized chafing, etc.)
- Lacing tape and/or ties missing/incorrectly installed
- Wiring protection sheath/conduit deformity or incorrectly installed
- End of sheath rubbing on end attachment device
- Grommet missing or damaged
- Dust and lint accumulation
- Surface contamination by metal shavings/swarf
- Contamination by liquids
- Deterioration of previous repairs (e.g., splices)
- Deterioration of production splices
- Inappropriate repairs (e.g., incorrect splice)
- Inappropriate attachments to or separation from fluid lines
- External corrosion on receptacles
- Backshell tail broken
- Rubber pad or packing on backshell missing
- No backshell wire securing device
- Fool proofing chain broken
- Missing or broken safety wire
- Discoloration/evidence of overheat on terminal lugs/blocks
- Torque stripe misalignment
- Rear protection cap damaged
4. Ground points
5. Bonding braid/bonding jumper
- Braid broken or disconnected
- Multiple strands corroded
- Multiple strands broken
6. Wiring clamps or brackets
- Bent or twisted
- Faulty attachment (bad attachment or fastener missing)
- Protection/cushion damaged
7. Supports (rails or tubes/conduit)
- Fastener missing
- Missing edge protection on rims of feed through holes
- Racetrack cushion damaged
- Obstructed drainage holes (in conduits)
8. Circuit breakers, contactors or relays
- Signs of overheating
- Signs of arcing
c. Wiring installations and areas of concern.
Research has shown that the following installations and areas need to be addressed in existing maintenance material.
1. Wiring installations.
Clamping points – Wire chafing is aggravated by damaged clamps, clamp cushion migration, or improper clamp installations. Aircraft manufacturers specify clamp type and part number for EWIS throughout the aircraft. When replacing clamps use those specified by the aircraft manufacturer. Tie wraps provide a rapid method of clamping especially during line maintenance operations. Improperly installed tie wraps can have a detrimental effect on wire insulation. When new wiring is installed as part of a STC, or modification the drawings will provide wiring routing, clamp type and size, and proper location. Examples of significant wiring modifications are the installation of new avionics systems, new galley installations and new instrumentation. Wire routing, type of clamp and clamping location should conform to the approved drawings. Adding new wire to existing wire bundles may overload the clamps causing wire bundle to sag and wires to chafe. Raceway clamp foam cushions may deteriorate with age, fall apart, and consequently would not provide proper clamping.
Connectors – Worn environmental seals, loose connectors, missing seal plugs, missing dummy contacts, or lack of strain relief on connector grommets can compromise connector integrity and allow contamination to enter the connector, leading to corrosion or grommet degradation. Connector pin corrosion can cause overheating, arcing and pin-to-pin shorting. Drip loops should be maintained when connectors are below the level of the harness and tight bends at connectors should be avoided or corrected.
Terminations – Terminations, such as terminal lugs and terminal blocks, are susceptible to mechanical damage, corrosion, heat damage and contamination from chemicals, dust and dirt. High current-carrying feeder cable terminal lugs can over time lose their original torque value due to vibration. One sign of this is heat discoloration at the terminal end. Proper build-up and nut torque is especially critical on high current carrying feeder cable lugs. Corrosion on terminal lugs and blocks can cause high resistance and overheating. Dust, dirt and other debris are combustible and therefore could sustain a fire if ignited from an overheated or arcing terminal lug. Terminal blocks and terminal strips located in equipment power centers (EPC), avionics compartments and throughout the aircraft need to be kept clean and free of any combustibles.
Backshells – Wires may break at backshells, due to excessive flexing, lack of strain relief, or improper build-up. Loss of backshell bonding may also occur due to these and other factors.
Sleeving and Conduits – Damage to sleeving and conduits, if not corrected, may lead to wire damage. Therefore, damage such as cuts, dents and creases on conduits may require further investigation for condition of wiring within.
Grounding Points – Grounding points should be checked for security (i.e., finger tightness), condition of the termination, cleanliness, and corrosion. Any grounding points that are corroded or have lost their protective coating should be repaired.
Splices – Both sealed and non-sealed splices are susceptible to vibration, mechanical damage, corrosion, heat damage, chemical contamination, and environmental deterioration. Power feeder cables normally carry high current levels and are very susceptible to installation error and splice degradation. All splices should conform to the TC or STC holder's published recommendations. In the absence of published recommendations, environmental splices are recommended to be used.
2. Areas of concern.
Wire Raceways and Bundles – Adding wires to existing wire raceways may cause undue wear and chafing of the wire installation and inability to maintain the wire in the raceway. Adding wire to existing bundles may cause wire to sag against the structure, which can cause chafing.
Wings – The wing leading and trailing edges are areas that experience difficult environments for wiring installations. The wing leading and trailing edge wiring is exposed on some aircraft models whenever the flaps or slats are extended. Other potential damage sources include slat torque shafts and bleed air ducts.
Engine, Pylon, and Nacelle Area – These areas experience high vibration, heat, frequent maintenance, and are susceptible to chemical contamination.
Accessory compartment and equipment bays – These areas typically contain items such as electrical components, pneumatic components and ducting, hydraulic components and plumbing, and may be susceptible to vibration, heat, and liquid contamination.
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) – Like the engine/nacelle area, the APU is susceptible to high vibration, heat, frequent maintenance, and chemical contamination.
Landing Gear and Wheel Wells – This area is exposed to severe external environmental conditions in addition to vibration and chemical contamination.
Electrical Panels and Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) – Panel wiring is particularly prone to broken wires and damaged insulation when these high density areas are disturbed during troubleshooting activities, major modifications, and refurbishments. Wire damage may be minimized by tying wiring to wooden dowels to reduce wire disturbance during modification. There may be some configurations where connector support brackets would be more desirable and cause less disturbance of the wiring than removal of individual connectors from the supports.
Batteries – Wires in the vicinity of all aircraft batteries are susceptible to corrosion and discoloration. These wires should be inspected for corrosion and discoloration. Discolored wires should be inspected for serviceability.
Power Feeders – High current wiring and associated connections have the potential to generate intense heat. Power feeder cables, terminals, and splices may be subject to degradation or loosening due to vibration. If any signs of overheating are seen, splices or termination should be replaced. Depending on design, service experience may highlight a need to periodically check for proper torque of power feeder cable terminal ends, especially in high vibration areas. This applies to galley and engine/APU generator power feeders.
Under Galleys, Lavatories, and Cockpit – Areas under the galleys, lavatories, and cockpit, are particularly susceptible to contamination from coffee, food, water, soft drinks, lavatory fluids, dust, lint, etc. This contamination can be minimized by adherence to proper floor panel sealing procedures in these areas.
Fluid Drain plumbing – Leaks from fluid drain plumbing may lead to liquid contamination of wiring. In addition to routine visual inspections, service experience may highlight a need for periodic leak checks or cleaning.
Fuselage Drain provisions – Some installations include features designed to catch leakage that is plumbed to an appropriate exit. Blockage of the drain path can result in liquid contamination of wiring. In addition to routine visual inspections, service experience may highlight that these installations and associated plumbing should be periodically checked to ensure the drain path is free of obstructions.
Cargo Bay/Under floor – Damage to wiring in the cargo bay under floor can occur due to maintenance activities in the area.
Wiring subject to movement – Wiring that is subject to movement or bending during normal operation or maintenance access should be inspected at locations such as doors, actuators, landing gear mechanisms, and electrical access panels.
Access Panels – Wiring near access panels may receive accidental damage as a result of repetitive maintenance access and thus may warrant special attention.
Under Doors – Areas under cargo, passenger and service entry doors are susceptible to fluid ingress from rain, snow and liquid spills. Fluid drain provisions and floor panel sealing should be periodically inspected and repaired as necessary.
Under Cockpit Sliding Windows – Areas under cockpit sliding windows are susceptible to water ingress from rain and snow. Fluid drain provisions should be periodically inspected and repaired as necessary.
Areas where wiring is difficult to access – Areas where wiring is difficult to access (e.g., flight deck instrument panels, cockpit pedestal area) may accumulate excessive dust and other contaminants as a result of infrequent cleaning. In these areas it may be necessary to remove components and disassemble other systems to facilitate access to the area.