Ever since the recognition of birds as hazards to aircraft safety, there has been serious interest in techniques and products that could control this hazard. Indeed, the need for effective bird control measures at airports and elsewhere has only increased over the years. The constantly expanding level of air traffic, and the development of larger, faster, and quieter jet-engined aircraft, has raised the risk of serious bird strikes. In Canada, with the passing of the day-to-day management of airports from Transport Canada to private airport authorities, the authorities are assuming responsibility (and significant potential liability) for the control of the bird hazards at their airports. It is important that the airport authorities show due diligence by employing bird control measures that are appropriate for their particular situations. They must use appropriate products and techniques but it also is important to them that they know what is the most costeffective approach.

Over the past 30-40 years, many techniques and types of equipment have been used or proposed for use to control birds at airports and other locations. There is much first hand experience with this equipment and these techniques but most of it is unpublished and not available to other interested workers. Much of what is published on bird control techniques is scattered and difficult to locate. Consequently, without a serious compilation, review, and evaluation of bird control products and techniques, money has been wasted "re-inventing the wheel" with ineffective equipment and inappropriate methods. This had led to the dangerous creation of a false sense of security in many situations. Transport Canada recognized the need for a critical analysis of all available and proposed equipment and techniques for airport bird control. Therefore, Transport Canada has funded this critical review.

The emphasis of this report is to evaluate, rigorously and objectively, each of the identified control measures. It is designed to complement the existing "Wildlife Control Procedures Manual" (Transport Canada 1994). The report provides information on the efficacy of the various control methods listed in the Transport Canada manual, and on additional products and techniques. The reviews and evaluations presented here focus on measures that can be used at airports and/or in surrounding areas, but do not include on-aircraft measures. A brief description of each type of equipment and its use is provided, together with a summary review of tests or experiments that have been conducted. A critical evaluation of the efficacy of each technique and type of equipment follows. Advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed. This report does not include any new tests of equipment or techniques. However, studies of promising but inadequately tested approaches are recommended. This report is based on a thorough review of the extensive worldwide literature on bird control techniques, and on a survey of bird control professionals that work at airports and elsewhere. The reviews also take account of the experience and judgement of the authors and other LGL Limited personnel.