Full Examination

Applicants for the Private Pilot Licence-Aeroplane Category shall demonstrate their knowledge by writing a Transport Canada multiple-choice examination on subjects contained in this guide. Applicants must be able to read the examination questions in either English or French without assistance.

Examination Questions Time Limit Pass Mark
Private Pilot-Aeroplane (PPAER) 100 3 hours 60%

This examination is sectionalized into four mandatory subject areas and requires an overall pass mark of 60%. As well, the candidate must achieve 60% in the following four subject areas:

Mandatory Subjects  
AIR LAW Air Law and Procedures
NAVIGATION Navigation and Radio Aids

Airframes, Engines, and Systems
Theory of Flight

Flight Instruments

Flight Operations

Human Factors

Questions fall under one of the four mandatory subject areas. However, there may be occasions where knowledge from another section is required to arrive at the correct response. For example, a practical question on fuel calculations under NAVIGATION may require knowledge of VFR fuel requirements under AIR LAW.

Applicants who obtain less than 60% on the overall examination will, for licensing purposes, be required to rewrite the complete exam, as specified in CARs 421.26.