Chapter 4 - Preventative Measures and Deicing Procedures

Pre-Take-off Contamination Inspection

74.  As required by regulations, immediately prior to take-off, a pre-take-off inspection shall be made to determine whether frost, ice or snow is adhering to any of the aircraft critical surfaces, except where the operator has established a program in accordance with GOFR 622.11 and complies with that program. The pilot may need the assistance of qualified personnel to perform this inspection.

75.  Unless other procedures have been specifically approved, a tactile external inspection must be conducted on all aeroplanes without leading edge devices (i.e., hard-wing), such as the DC9-10, the CRJ-50 and the F-28.

76.  The components that can be inspected vary according to aircraft design. In some aircraft, the entire wing, and portions of the empennage are visible from the cockpit or the cabin. In other aircraft, these surfaces are so remote that only portions of the upper surface of the wing are in view. The under surface of wings and the landing gear are visible only in high wing type aircraft. A practice in use by some operators is to perform a visual inspection of wing surfaces, leading edges, engine inlets, and other components of the aircraft that are in view from either the cockpit or cabin, whichever provides the maximum visibility. The PIC may call upon the assistance of other qualified personnel. The pre-take-off inspection should concentrate on the leading edge in conjunction with the trailing edge. The trailing edge control surfaces and/or spoilers usually provide an early indication of imminent fluid failure on the leading edge. If, under any circumstances, the PIC cannot ascertain that the critical surfaces are free of any adhering frost, ice or snow, take-off must not be attempted.

77.  If any aircraft surfaces have not been treated with FPD fluid, the PIC or another crew member should look for and examine any evidence of melting snow and possible refreezing. In addition, any evidence of ice formation that may have been induced by taxi operations should be removed. If the aircraft has been treated with FPD fluid, aircraft surfaces should appear glossy, smooth, and wet. Frost, ice or snow on top of deicing or anti-icing fluids must be considered as adhering to the aircraft and take-off must not be attempted. In this case, the aircraft should be returned for additional deicing and, where appropriate, anti-icing.

78.  Conducting a pre-take-off inspection in the manner described requires the PIC and other crew members, including flight attendants, to be knowledgeable of ground deicing and anti-icing procedures and danger signs. This inspection should ensure that ground deicing and anti-icing were conducted in a thorough and uniform manner and that critical surfaces not in view from the cockpit or cabin are also clean.