Airworthiness Chapter 549 Subchapter B - Fixed-Wing Aircraft - Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)

Content last revised: 1998/02/17

Subchapter B fixed-wing aircraft

549.101 General

  1. (a) This subchapter contains standards of airworthiness for:
    1. (1) aeroplanes, powered by one or more engines;
    2. (2) gliders; and
    3. (3) single-engined powered gliders,
  2. (b) [Aircraft shall meet the applicable mass limits specified in section 549.103.
  3. [(c)] Upon receipt of a Special Certificate of Airworthiness with modified operating conditions issued pursuant to Chapter 507, Appendix D of this manual the prohibition of aerobatic flights may be removed on the basis of:
    1. [(1) a one-off aerobatic demonstration; or

      [Information note:

      (Ref. AMA 549.101A, paragraph 5 - Part A)

    2. [(2) a type evaluation.]

      [Information note:

      (Ref. AMA 549.101A, paragraph 6 - Part B)]

(Amendment 549-2 (96-04-01))

549.103 [Maximum Take-Off Mass and Wing Loading

  1. (a) For the purpose of this sub-chapter:
    1. (1) The wing area S is defined as:
      1. (i) the area enclosed by the wing outline including ailerons and flaps in the retracted position, (obtained by extending the wing leading and trailing edges through nacelles and fuselage to the aircraft centre line). Wing strakes planform area may be added, if applicable; or
      2. (ii) for multi-wing aircraft, Canard types included, the area of each wing, which provides positive lift in the landing configuration.
    2. (2) High performance amateur-built aeroplanes are amateur-built aeroplanes having a wing loading exceeding the values given in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

      Information note:

      (Ref. AMA 549.103/1 and AMA 549.103/2)

    3. (3) Single place and two place amateur-built aeroplanes meeting the maximum take-off mass and stall speed limits of advanced ultra-light aeroplanes may be identified as "amateur-built light aeroplanes"

      Information note:

      (Ref. AMA 549.103/2).

  2. (b) Aeroplanes:
    1. (1) The maximum permissible take-off mass M shall not exceed 1,800 Kg (weight W=3,968 lb). For multi-wing aircraft, Canard types included, the area referred to in 549.103 (a)(1)(ii), may be used to determine the maximum permissible mass for each wing and the results will be added to determine the aircraft maximum permissible take-off mass.
    2. (2) Except for high performance amateur-built aeroplanes, the wing loading M/S (W/S) shall not be greater than:
      1. (i) For wings without flaps, M/S = 65 Kg/m2 (W/S=13.3 lb/ft2); or
      2. (ii) For wings with flaps, the value calculated using the method of Appendix A of this Chapter, but not exceeding 100 Kg/m2 (20.4 lb/ft2).
  3. (c) Gliders: The maximum permissible take-off mass shall not exceed 750 kg (1650 lb).
  4. (d) Powered gliders: The maximum permissible take-off mass shall not exceed 909 kg (2,000 lb) and the design value M/b2 (mass to span2) shall not be greater than 3 kg/m2 (W/b2 not greater than 0.615 lb/ft2).

(Change 549-1 (93-06-30))

549.105 Number of Seats

  1. (a) All aircraft: For the purpose of applying the requirements of section 549.107, only one aircraft seat may be designated as a pilot's seat; and
  2. (b) Aeroplanes: All seats, other than the pilot's seat defined in sub-paragraph (a), will be designated as passenger seats and the maximum number will be as stated in section 549.107, but in any case shall not exceed three seats.
  3. (c) Gliders and powered gliders: The number of passenger seats shall not exceed one seat.

(Change 549-1 (93-06-30))

549.107 Maximum Empty Mass

To ensure that an adequate minimum useful load, including fuel, can be carried within the maximum permissible take-off mass declared by the applicant in accordance with section 549.103, the maximum empty mass MEmax (weight WEmax) of the aircraft shall not be greater than that determined by the following equation:




MTOmax(WTOmax) = maximum permissible take-off mass (weight) selected by the applicant in kg (lb);

a = number of passenger seats, as defined in 549.105;

P = rated power of engine(s) in KW (BHP).

549.109 Minimum Rated Engine Power

(a) Piston engines: To ensure that there is a reasonable expectation of meeting the climb test requirements set out in section 549.111, the minimum permissible rated engine power shall be determined by the following equation:




Pmin = rated power of the engine(s) in kw (BHP);

b = wing span in metres (ft);

M (W) = declared maximum T.O. mass in kg (weight in lb);

C = 0.01339 (for use with fps units = 0.018) for monoplanes (including tandem wing and canard aeroplanes); or

C = 0.01711 (for use with fps units = 0.023) for biplanes or triplanes.

(b) Turbine engines: The minimum permissible rated power/thrust will be evaluated on an individual basis.

(Change 549-1 (93-06-30))

549.111 Performance: Rate of Climb

  1. (a) In standard sea-level atmospheric conditions at the maximum approved weight, the aircraft shall demonstrate the capability of climbing, as follows:
    1. (1) Aeroplanes: 360 m (1180 ft) in 3 minutes.
    2. (2) Powered gliders: 300 m (984 ft) in 4 minutes.
  2. (b) Test in conditions other than standard sea-level may be accepted by the Minister.

Information note:

(Ref. paragraph 11 of Appendix B of AMA 549/1A)

549.113 Equipment and Instruments

[The following applies:

  1. (a) Aeroplanes and powered gliders: Subject to 549.113 (b), all the equipment and instruments specified in section 549.13 are required as a minimum.
  2. (b) Open cockpit aircraft: Compliance with 549.13 (a)(4) is not required.
  3. (c) Gliders: Only items (a)(1), (b)(1), (b)(2) and (b)(3) of section 549.13 are required.
  4. [(d) Aerobatic aeroplanes: A peak recording accelerometer shall be permanently installed.]

(Amendment 549-2 (96-04-01))

[549.115 Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)

  1. [(a) Upon receipt of a Special Certificate of Airworthiness with modified operating conditions issued pursuant to Chapter 507 of this Manual, the owner of an amateur-built aircraft may apply for the removal of the "Visual Flight Rules only" restriction.
  2. [(b) The application shall contain a declaration by the owner that the aircraft is equipped in accordance with Air Navigation Order (ANO), Series V, No. 22.
  3. [(c) The aeroplane and the installed equipment shall be maintained according to the applicable maintenance requirements of Chapter 571.

[Information notes:

  1. [ (a)The amateur builder is alerted to the specific requirements of:
    1. [ (1) Air Regulations - Part V, Rules of the Air, Division IV - Instrument Flight Rules.
    2. [ (2) ANO, Series V, No. 5; and
    3. [ (3) ANO, Series V, No. 11.
    4. [ (4) ANO, Series V, No. 22.
    5. [ (5) CAR 601.03, 605.17, 605.29 and 605.67.
  2. [ (b)Examples of applicable maintenance requirements are:
    1. [(1) 571.213 Altimeters and Pitot and Static Pressure Systems Test Inspections.
    2. [(2) 571.215 Magnetic Direction Indicator Calibration.]

(Amendment 549-2 (96-04-01))

[549.117] Placards

In addition to the placards specified in 549.15, the following are required in the cockpit or cabin in full view of the pilot:

  1. (a)

    "Aerobatics Prohibited"


    "Acrobaties aériennes interdites"

    unless the "aerobatics prohibited" restriction has been removed from the aeroplane's special certificate of airworthiness for amateur-built aircraft.

  2. (b) [For aerobatic aeroplanes that obtained the restriction removed by using the simplified one-off aerobatic demonstration procedure: (refer to AMA 549.101A, paragraph 5(e)), the placards specified in 549.117 (a) may be replaced by the following:

    "The Following Aerobatic Manoeuvers, and Combinations
    Thereof, May Be Performed in this Aeroplane":
    [ 1. .............
    [ 2. ..........
    [ 3. .................


    "Les manoeuvres d'acrobaties aérienne suivantes et toute combinaison
    de celles-ci peuvent être exécutées au moyen de cet avion"
    [ 1. .............
    [ 2. ..........
    [ 3. .................

  3. [(c)] For high performance aeroplanes:

    "This Aeroplane is a High PerformanceAmateur-Built Aeroplane.
    Operation Requires a Pilot Licence With a High Performance
    Type Rating";


    "Cet avion est un avion à hautes performance de construction amateur.
    Son utilisation requiert une licence de pilote à hautes performances".

(Change 549-1 (93-06-30))

(Amendment 549-2 (96-04-01))