Airworthiness Chapter 566 Appendix C - Part 4 Curriculum and Topic Guides Aircraft Structures Maintenance Training Standard - Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)

Content last revised: 1999/12/01

(amended 1999/12/01)

1.0 Safety


1. Potential health hazards.

2. Potential fire hazards.

3. Types and classes of fires.

Apply: (to comply with standard)

4. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).

5. Use of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).

6. Local governmental safety regulations.

7. Company safety regulations.

8. Use of personal safety equipment.

9. Use of protective clothing.

10. The Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB) reporting procedures for personal injuries.

11. The effects of human factors contributing to maintenance errors.

2.0 Regulations and Documentation


1. The purpose of the Advisory Material (AMA) sheets.

2. The purpose of an aircraft journey log.

3. The purpose of an aircraft technical records.

4. The purpose of a Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS).

5. The purpose of a Supplemental Type Certificat (STC).

6. The Repair Design Certificate (RDC) process.

7. Privileges of an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO).

8. Delegated authority.

9. The legal and moral responsibilities of maintenance technicians and ames.

10. The definition of specialized maintenance.

Apply: (to comply with standard)

11. Applicable sections of the Canadian Air Regulations (cars).

12. Applicable sections of the Airworthiness Manual (AWM).

13. Technical records entry procedures following repairs or modifications.

3.0 Technical Information


1. The Air Transport Association Specification No. 100 (A.T.A. Spec. No. 100 System).

2. The General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) Specification No. 2.

3. Maintenance Manuals (MM).

4. Illustrated Parts Catalogs (IPC).

5. Structural Repair Manuals (SRM).

6. The FAA Manual AC-43.13 (USA).

7. The Military Specifications (MIL-Specs) (USA).

8. The National Aeronautical Standards (NAS) (USA).

9. Service Bulletins (sbs).

10. Alert Service Bulletins (ASBs).

11. Shop records, work orders or similar documentation.

12. Technical drawings.

13. Aircraft hardware standards, i.e. AC, AN, MS, NAS and Manufacturer’s standards.

14. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aeronautical Material Specifications (AMS).

15. Equipment manufacturers’ specifications.

4.0 General


1. English measurement system.

2. Shop mathematics.

3. Basic physics.

4. Aircraft on ground (AOG) priority procedures.

5. North American drafting standard (third-angle projection).

6. World drafting standard (first-angle projection)

7. Title blocks.

8. List of materials.

9. Notes and specifications.

10. Revision and application blocks.

11. Fastener codes.

12. Types of projections, i.e. Perspective, orthographic and isometric.

13. Schematic diagrams.

14. Lines used in drawings.

15. Dimensions and tolerances.


16. Blueprint reading.

17. Drawing shop sketches.

18. Storing and handling of aircraft materials.

5.0 Aircraft Systems


1. Fixed and rotary wing theory of flight

2. Aircraft flight control systems

3. Aircraft propulsion systems

4. Hydraulic and pneumatic systems

5. Landing gear systems

6. Environmental systems

7. Ice protection systems

8. Fire protection systems

9. Emergency systems

6.0 Tools and Equipment


Hand tools such as:

1. Measuring devices.

2. Approved marking methods.

3. Lay-out devices, i.e. templates.

4. Lights and mirrors.

5. Clamping devices.

6. Cutting tools, i.e. saws. files, shears, reamers, chisels, scrapers etc.

7. Boring tools, i.e. drill bits, countersinks, counterbores, fly cutters.

8. Abrasives.

9. Punches.

10. Hole finders.

11. De-burring tools.

12. Chassis punches.

13. Hammers and mallets.

14. Pliers.

15. Sidecutters.

16. Screwdrivers.

17. Internal wrenching tools.

18. Open-end and box wrenches.

19. Socket wrenches.

20. Torque-limiting wrenches.

21. Special wrenches, i.e. ratcheting box wrench, flare-nut wrenches.

22. Safety-wire twisters.

23. Cotter pin pullers.

24. Sealing guns.

25. Suction cups.

26. Tube benders.

27. Tube beaders.

Machine tools such as:

28. Portable drill motors.

29. Drill presses.

30. Routers.

31. Ketts saws.

32. Jigsaws.

33. Grinders.

34. Dimpling machines.

35. Beading machines.

36. Foot and power squaring shears.

37. Throatless shears.

38. Bench bending brakes.

39. Press brakes.

40. Punch presses.

41. Slip-roll formers.

42. Wheeling machines.

43. Flanging machines.

44. Power planishing hammers.

45. Shrinkers and Stretchers.

46. Band saws.

47. Cut-off saws.

48. Pneumatic rivet guns.

49. Blind rivet pullers.

50. Portable and fixed rivet squeezers.

51.Pneumatic squeeze guns.

52. Pneumatic broach guns.

53. Rivet shavers.

54. Spot welders.

55. Tube bending machines.

56. Hot bonders.

57. Sanders.

58. Table (bench) saw.

59. Jointer.

7.0 Airframe Structures and Designs


1. Types and missions of fixed and rotary wing aircraft.

2. Major assembly breakdown of fixed and rotary wing aircraft.

3. Forces acting on an aircraft in flight and on the ground.

4. Truss type fuselage construction.

5. Monocoque and semi-monocoque type fuselage construction.

6. Types of wing and rotor arrangements and construction.

7. Types and arrangements of landing gears.

8.0 Structural Materials


1. Ferrous metals.

2. Non-ferrous metals.

3. Types of composites.

4. Composite materials.

5. Aircraft quality wood.

6. Wrought aluminum alloys.

7. Titanium alloys.

8. Monel.

9. Stainless steel.

10. Chrome-molybdenum steel.

11. Superalloys (high temperature).

12. Markings on ferrous and non-ferrous sheet metal.

13. Markings on ferrous and non-ferrous tubing.

9.0 Heat Treatment


1. Solution heat treatment.

2. Precipitation heat treatment.

3. Quenching.

4. Natural aging.

5. Artificial aging.

6. Normalizing.

7. Annealing.

8. Hardening.

9. Tempering.

10. Work hardening.

10.0 Corrosion Control


1. Causes of corrosion.

2. Locations susceptible to corrosion.

3. Surface corrosion.

4. Intergranular corrosion.

5. Exfoliation.

6. Stress corrosion.

7. Dissimilar metal (galvanic) corrosion.

8. Concentration cell corrosion.

9. Fretting corrosion.

10. Magnesium corrosion.

11. Filiform corrosion.

12. Nickel and chrome plating processes.

13. Galvanizing

14. Metal spray coating.

15. Metal cladding.

16. Anodizing.

17. Corrosion removal methods on high-strength steel.

18. Acceptable cleaning processes.


19. Conversion coatings.

20. Primers and paints.

21. Water displacing compounds.

22. Leveling compounds.

23. Sacrificial anodes.


24. Mechanical corrosion removal, i.e. abrasive blasting.

25. Chemical treatment of corroded areas.

26. Polishing of metal surfaces.

11.0 Dameage Assessment


1. Scanning and detail inspection.

2. Limitations of liquid penetrant testing.

3. Magnetic testing.

4. Radiography (X - Ray).

5. Ultrasonic testing.

6. Eddy-current testing.

7. Infrared thermography.

8. Lifting and shoring procedures.

9. Impact damage and force travel.

10. Fire damage indications.


11. Corrosive substances inspections, i.e. mercury and acids.

12. Lightning strike inspections.

13. Abnormal flight load inspections.

14. Heavy landing and tail strike inspections.

15. Bird strike inspections.

16. Aging aircraft checks (SSID).

17. Composite delamination inspections.

12.0 Sheet Metal Repairs


1. Acceptable methods, techniques, and practices from AC 43.13.

2. Inspection for repair or replacement assessment.

3. Support of aircraft components during repair, i.e. Jigs or fixtures.

4. Selection of acceptable repair material.

5. Permissible fastener edge distance margins.

6. Minimum and maximum fastener spacing in pitch and gauge.

7. Acceptable oversizing of fastener holes.

8. Minimum allowable sheet thickness for countersinking.

9. Calculation of number of fasteners required using the rivet formulae.

10. Minimum bend-radii.

11. Acceptable rivet dimensions after bucking.


12. Alignment check procedures during repairs.

13. Aerodynamic smoothers.

14. Sealing compounds.

15. Corrosion inhibiting primers.


16. Removal of rivets and special fasteners.

17. Removal of damaged parts.

18. Stop-drilling of cracks.

19. Deburring of sheet metal edges.

20. Cutting of corner radii.

21. Calculation of bend allowances.

22. Fastener hole preparations, i.e. pre-drilling, reaming and broaching (cold working).

23. Locating of blind holes.

24. Driving and bucking of solid rivets.

25. Installation of blind rivets and bolts.

26. Installation of bolts, washers and nuts.

27. Skin repairs with surface and flush patches.

28. Repairs by splicing.

29. Installation of doublers.

30. Corrugated skin repairs.

31. Re-balancing of control surfaces after repairs.

32. Return to service inspections.

13.0 Standard and Special Fasteners


1. Standard aircraft screws.

2. Standard aircraft bolts.

3. Special (Manufacturer’s) aircraft bolts.

4. Special blind bolts.

5. Standard aircraft plain and locking nuts.

6. Special aircraft nuts, i.e. Tinnerman, anchor, blind nuts, etc.

7. Plain and special aircraft washers.

8. Locking devices, i.e. cotter pins, locking wire.

9. Straight and taper pins.

10. Standard solid aircraft rivets.

11. Special blind rivets.

12. Panel and cowling fasteners.

14.0 Composite Repairs


1. Personal hygiene protection methods specific to composites.

2. Personal protection devices.

3. Absence of universal repair standards.

4. Fiber materials, i.e. glass, aramid, graphite, carbon, boron, metal.

5. Warp and woof (A.K.A. fill or weft) threads.

6. Lay-up warp clock.

7. Types of fabric weaves.

8. Unidirectional fibbers.

9. Honeycomb core materials.

10. Solid core materials.

11. Foam core materials.

12. Cold curing and thermosetting matrix resins.

13. Damage assessment methods, i.e. coin tapping, ultrasonic, radiography,
thermography, acoustic emission.

14. Repair or replacement evaluation.

15. Manufacturer’s specified repair methods, i.e. riveted patches, cold/hot-bonding, autoclave.

16. Repair resins (matrix materials).

17. Manufacturer’s specified core filling limits.

18. Pre-impregnated fabrics (B - State).


19. Delamination detection by coin tapping.

20. Vacuum bagging.

21. Hot bonding.

22. Delamination repairs.

23. Routing with templates.

24. Core replacement repairs with honeycomb or balsa wood.

25. Core replacement repairs with syntactic foam.

26. Core replacement repairs with microballoons.

27. Removal of entrapped water.

28. Surface scratch removal.

29. Priming and painting.

30. Cleaning and polishing.

31. Re-balancing of control surfaces after completed repairs.

15.0 Tubular Repairs (welding excluded)


1. Acceptable methods, techniques, and practices from AC 43.13.

2. Inspection methods for internal corrosion.

3. Steel parts that are not permitted to be repaired by welding.

4. Support of tubular structure for repair, i.e. holding fixtures and jigs.

5. Acceptable replacement materials.

6. Cold-straightening limits for bent tubing.

7. Repair or replacement evaluation.


8. Internal corrosion protection oils or water displacing compounds.

9. External corrosion protection primers and paints.


10. Cold removal of dents in thin walled steel tubing.

11. Removal of damaged tubing.

12. Cutting and fitting for splicing of replacement tubes by inner-sleeve and outer-sleeve method.

13. Cutting of scarf joints.

14. Cutting of fishmouth joints.

15. Drilling for rosette welds.

16. Fabrication of surface patches for dents or holes.

17. Fabrication of finger patches for cluster repairs.

18. Alignment checks.

16.0 Wood Repairs


1. Acceptable methods, techniques, and practices from AC 43.13.

2. Acceptable solid aircraft woods.

3. Acceptable aircraft plywoods.

4. Acceptable defects in aircraft woods.

5. Limitations on spar repairs.

6. Visual inspection procedures.

7. Stress inspection procedures.

8. Visual indications of decay, i.e. dry-rot.

9. Indications of separated glue joints.

10. Indications of deteriorated glue joints.

11. Causes of cracks, i.e. checks, shakes, splits.

12. Causes of compression failure.


13. Doublers and re-enforcement plates.

14. Bonding agents (glues).

15. Wood sealers by brushing or spraying.


16. Cutting of scarf joints.

17. Acceptable glue joint surface preparation.

18. Splicing of solid wood members, i.e. spars, ribs.

19. Plywood skin repairs, i.e. overlay, splayed, plug, and scarf patches.

20. Re-finishing of repaired wood structures.

17.0 Fabric Repairs


1. Acceptable organic fabrics and grades.

2. Acceptable inorganic (synthetic) fabrics and grades.

3. Traditional methods of attaching fabric, i.e. rib-stitch, screws, blind rivets, clips.

4. Methods of re-covering components, i.e. envelope.

5. Acceptable coating materials (dopes), i.e. nitrate, butyrate.

6. Purpose of fungicidal additives.

7. Acceptable solvents and thinners.

8. Purpose of retarders.

9. Causes of blushing.

10. Methods of ultraviolet-ray (UV) protection.

11. Purpose of rejuvenators.

12. Approval requirements (STC) for proprietary covering materials.

13. Causes of fabric deterioration.

14. Visual indications of fabric coating deterioration, i.e. peeling, ring-worms.

15. Methods of testing fabric strength.

16. Repair or replacement evaluation.


17. Proprietary coating materials by brushing and spraying.

18. Reinforcing and surface tapes.

19. Primers and paint.


20. Testing of fabric covered aircraft components with hand testing equipment, i.e. seyboth, maule.

21. Machine sewing of fabric panels.

22. Doped-on panel repairs.

23. Sewn-in patch repairs.

24. Fabric rejuvenation procedures.

25. Shrinking of synthetic fabric by heating.

26. Installation of grommets and inspection rings.

18.0 Sheet Metal Fabrication


1. Protection of sheet metal from damage during production.

2. Transfer of measurements from sample or technical drawing.

3. Lay-out procedures.

4. Flat pattern lay-out.

5. Templates.

6. Drilling jigs and assembly fixtures.


7. Sheet metal cutting by hand and machine cutters.

8. Punch press operation for blanking of sheet metal.

9. Routing of sheet metal blanks.

10. Drilling or punching of relief holes.

11. Edge deburring procedures.

12. Sheet metal bending with hand and power brakes.

13. Rolling of sheet metal with hand and power slip rollers.

14. Joggling of flat sheets and flanges.

15. Shrinking and stretching of flanged sheet metal.

16. Forming of sheet metal with rubber punch press.

17. Forming of sheet metal with stretch press.

18. Forming of sheet metal with wheeling machines.

19. Sheet metal bumping.

19.0 Ccomposite Fabrication


1. Master mould construction methods.

2. Autoclave curing procedures.

3. Curing steps and cycles.

4. Mould removal methods.


5. Mould polishes.

6. Mould release agents.

7. Ultraviolet ray (UV) protection.

8. Lightning strike protection, i.e. metal spray, discharge devices.


9. Edge trimming of cured composites.

10. Final inspections.

11. Priming and painting.

20.0 Fluid Lines and Conduits


1. Fluid lines identification codes.

2. Pressure, return, breather and drain lines.

3. Rigid fluid lines (pipes).

4. Semi-rigid fluid lines (tubes).

5. Acceptable pipe and tubing materials.

6. Minimum bend allowance for thin walled tubing.

7. Acceptable bend distortion limits.

8. Standard threaded pipe and tube fittings.

9. Acceptable flaring angles.


10. Tube and pipe cutting.

11. Bending of thin walled tubing using distortion limiting materials, i.e. sand, rosin or bending alloys.

12. Bending of thin walled tubing using distortion limiting devices, i.e. mandrels, coil springs or bending blocks.

13. Bending of thin walled tubing using hand benders.

14. Bending of thin walled tubing using bending machines.

15. Swaging of fittings.

16. Selection and attaching of flared fittings.

17. Flaring using single-flare method.

18. Flaring using double-flare method.

19. Pressure testing of completed assemblies.

20. Drilling of drain holes in conduits.

21. Beading of breather or drain lines

21.0 Thermoplastics


1. Acceptable transparent thermoplastic materials.


2. Inspection of installed windows and lenses with prisms.

3. Installation precautions for plastic windows and lenses.

4. Repair or replacement evaluation.

5. Storage and surface protection.

6. Cleaning/buffing procedures and precautions.


7. Cutting of various plastic materials.

8. Gluing of various plastic materials.

9. Heat treatment of plastic glue joints.

10. Cold and hot forming of plastic windows and lenses.

11. Drilling with special drill bit angles.

12. Crack repairs.

13. Hole repairs.

14. Installations of plastic windows and lenses.