To teach how to maintain safe flight control in all configurations while manoeuvring at speeds in the approach speed range.
During take-off, approach and landing, the student will have to manoeuvre the aeroplane in an approach speed range. The ability to control the aeroplane safely throughout this speed range is critical. Approach airspeeds may be necessary for circuit spacing, during a circling approach, while overshooting, or may be encountered if the pilot is distracted.
Essential Background Knowledge
- speed to be used
- handling characteristics
- power management
Explain effects of gear and flap.
Advice to Instructors
Teach the student how to monitor the instruments while maintaining a good lookout. With the reduction in airspeed, engine cooling is reduced. Engine gauges should be monitored to avoid overheating.
Have the student retract flap in stages. The aeroplane may be difficult to control in pitch and may develop a high sink rate if flaps are moved from fully down to fully up in one action.
The candidate will be tested at the full-flap final approach speed.
Instruction and Student Practice
Have the student stabilize the aeroplane at 1.3 VSO or VMC + 10 knots, whichever is greater, with landing gear and flap retracted. Manoeuvre the aeroplane through climbs, descents and turns.
Return to straight and level flight while maintaining the full flap final approach speed. Select landing gear "DOWN", noting the difference in pitch attitude and power required to maintain altitude and airspeed. Manoeuvre the aeroplane through climbs, descents and turns.
Again return to straight and level flight while maintaining the selected airspeed. Now select the flap "DOWN" in stages. Again note the difference pitch attitude and power required to maintain altitude and airspeed. Manoeuvre the aeroplane through climbs, descents and turns.
Maintaining level flight, retract the landing gear and flaps and note the effect on aircraft handling. Increase the power and resume normal cruise flight.
With each configuration or power change the student should re-trim the aeroplane. As the student gains proficiency with this exercise, landing gear and flap extension and retraction should be practised during climbs, descents and turns.