This page contains abstracts of research on lithium battery transport done by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Directorate.
On this page
- Assessment of the Environmental Conditions for Lithium Batteries Shipping – October 2019
- Review of environmental conditions during freight transportation – October 2016
- Lithium batteries market data collection and analysis final report – May 2016
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Assessment of the environmental conditions for lithium batteries shipping – October 2019
Every year, large quantities of lithium-ion cells and batteries (LiB) are shipped around the world by air. If they’re damaged, mishandled or have manufacturing defects, they can ignite and start a fire. Several incidents have already occurred when LiBs have been shipped.
To mitigate these risks, LiBs are required to pass the UN’s Manual of Tests and Criteria, Sub-Section 38.3 (UN 38.3), before they’re prepared for transport. UN 38.3 outlines testing to minimize hazards that might occur during transportation by all modes, including air.
To better understand the conditions LiBs experience in transport, Transport Canada shipped several instrumented packages. LiB packages weighing 5 kg and 32 kg with data loggers were sent to Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and within North America. The packages logged environmental & physical conditions (temperature, pressure, humidity, shock and vibration) during transport. This lets us compare what packages experience with different destinations.
We also sent packages via several couriers. Some instrumented packages included lithium-ion batteries, while others did not. The packages that included lithium batteries were labelled with appropriate dangerous goods markings. The goal was to compare the handling differences of regular packages versus dangerous goods marked packages.
Our study found:
- most LiB packages in our study experienced environmental conditions within the test limits of UN 38.3
- environmental & physical conditions were about the same, no matter the package’s weight, markings, or courier used
- one package marked as a dangerous good was dropped from a height higher than specified in UN 38.3, occurring at the courier’s sorting facility
- many packages were exposed to humid environments, becoming less rigid after being stored for a long time
- some packages experienced levels of random vibrations that were above the limit recommended for air transportation, during transportation by rail or road
- handling conditions were inconsistent, so package shock profiles varied regardless of their weight and dangerous goods markings
Recommendations to improve the safety of LiB shipments include:
- that all couriers should use best practices to make sure that only properly packaged and marked LiBs enter the transportation system
- looking into the effects that high humidity, vibrations and large drops have on packages
Review of environmental conditions during freight transportation – October 2016
As the global demand for lithium batteries continues to increase, so does the demand for safe shipping particularly by air.
In this study, NRC assesses the environmental, mechanical and human induced conditions that lithium batteries are exposed to while in the transportation cycle. The study focuses on the risks posed by lithium batteries and will help to explore effective mitigation strategies for air shipments in various segments of the supply chain.
During transportation, lithium batteries are exposed to many environmental stressors, including low pressure (due to altitude), high humidity, temperature extremes, high rates of temperature change and air quality. While there are a number of cell and battery standards as well as shipping and packaging standards to address some of these exposures, gaps still exist in currently adopted standards and testing related to mechanical stressors such as shock, vibration, drop, puncture and abrasion.
Human factors are also important to consider when assessing the risks associated with lithium battery transportation. Appropriate, standardized procedures for safe handling and transportation are required to avoid serious incidents. However, many of the existing requirements are difficult to monitor for compliance.
Further investigation is required to identify the gaps in battery certification and shipping standards, as well as inconsistencies between different standards.
Lithium batteries market data collection and analysis final report – May 2016
In this study, NRC explores the supply chain and commodity flows of lithium batteries and equipment containing lithium batteries in Canada to better understand and mitigate the hazards involved with the transportation of lithium battery shipments, with a focus on products travelling by air.
The report includes global and Canadian trade data analyses of lithium batteries and products containing batteries. It also contains data and trends in the global lithium battery market and an industry survey on the transportation of lithium batteries and practices within various organizations in the Canadian supply chain.
Safety Research and Analysis Branch
Transportation of Dangerous Goods Directorate