2021-2022 Flight Crew Recency Requirements Self-Paced Study Program

Refer to paragraph 421.05(2)(d) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), which is designed for pilots to update their knowledge on subjects such as human factors, meteorology, flight planning and navigation, and aviation regulations.

Completion of this questionnaire satisfies the 24-month recurrent training program requirements of CAR 401.05(2)(a). It is to be retained by the pilot.

All pilots are to answer questions 1 to 49. In addition:

  • aeroplane pilots are to answer questions 50 to 55;
  • ultra-light aeroplane pilots are to answer questions 56 to 65;
  • helicopter pilots are to answer questions 66 to 67;
  • balloon pilots are to answer questions 68 to 69
  • glider pilots are to answer questions 70 to 76; and
  • gyroplane pilots are to answer questions 77 to 78.

The completed copy is to be retained by the pilot.

References are listed after each question. Amendments to these publications may result in changes to answers and/or references. Many answers may be found in the following sources:


  1. How do you subscribe to receive e-mail notifications for the Aviation Safety Letter Electronic Bulletin (ASL e-Bulletin) (TP185)?

    Reference: TC AIM GEN 2.2.4 Safety Promotion

    Answer 1

    Readers can subscribe to the Aviation Safety Letter (ASL) (TP185) e-Bulletin notification service to receive e-mails that announce the release of each new issue by going to the Transport Canada Civil Aviation e-Bulletin page and following the step-by-step instructions.


  1. At flight service stations and remote advisory services equipped with direct wind reading instruments located at the aerodrome, what does it mean when a Flight Service Specialist says “Runway 03” ?

    Reference: NAV CANADA Blog - Safety and TC AIM RAC

    Answer 2

    Runway 03 is the determined runway for use. The new Flight Service Specialist runway determination allows Flight Service Specialists to determine the runway with clearer and more concise phraseology. This change will take effect only at flight service stations and remote advisory services equipped with direct wind reading instruments located at the aerodrome. See the following chart:

    Old phraseology New phraseology

    "preferred runway xx"

    "runway xx"

    "active runway xx"

    "roger runway xx, active runway xx"

    "runway xx, [traffic]"

    (pilot advises use of a runway, with another runway more suitable for operations)

    "roger runway"

    "roger runway xx (advisory), runway xx is available"

  2. If you see this taxiway sign, what does it mean and where is the threshold of Runway 16?

    taxiway sign, 34-16 C

    Reference: TC AGA 5.8.3 Mandatory Instruction Signs

    Answer 3

    It identifies runway designations, holding positions, NO-ENTRY areas, and obstacle-free zones, where pilots must receive further ATC clearance to proceed. At uncontrolled aerodromes, pilots are required to hold at points marked by these signs until they have ascertained that there is no air traffic conflict. The threshold of Runway 16 is to the right.

  3. What is the wind speed when the dry standard wind direction indicator is 5º below horizontal?

    Reference: TC AIM AGA 5.9 Wind Direction Indicators

    Answer 4

    10 knots (kt).

  4. On approach to land, the PAPI (P1,P2, P3) indicates you are .
    Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) indicating slightly low

    Reference: TC AIM AGA 7.6.3 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) and Abbreviated PAPI (APAPI)

    Answer 5

    slightly low

  5. How long does aircraft radio control of aerodrome lighting (ARCAL) remain illuminated once activated? How do you reset the timing cycle?

    Reference: TC AGA 7.14 Aircraft Radio Control of Aerodrome Lighting (ARCAL)

    Answer 6

    Each activation will start a timer to illuminate the lights for a period of approximately 15 minutes (min). The timing cycle may be restarted at any time by repeating the specified keying sequence.

  6. On landing, when would you expect Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) vehicles to be in position adjacent to the landing runway? How long will they remain?

    Reference: TC AIM AGA 8.4 Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) Standby Request

    Answer 7

    When an emergency is declared by a pilot, the airport ARFF unit will take up emergency positions adjacent to the landing runway and stand by to provide assistance. The ARFF unit will remain at the increased state of alert until informed that the pilot-in-command (PIC) has terminated the emergency. After the landing, ARFF will intervene as necessary and, unless the PIC authorizes their release, escort the aircraft to the apron and remain in position until all engines are shut down.


    • In communications checks, the readability scale 2 mean

    Reference: RIC-21 5.7.5 Signal (or Radio) Checks and VFR Phraseology - Radio Check

    Answer 8
    • Poor (readable now and then)
  1. Can you use visual flight rules (VFR) global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers for primary navigation to replace current charts?

    Reference: TC AIM-COM 5.11 Proper Use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

    Answer 9

    No. Use VFR GNSS receivers only to supplement map reading in visual conditions, not as a replacement for current charts.

  2. Why it is not reasonable to rely on your moving map hand-held device for navigation into marginal weather?

    Reference: TC AIM-COM 5.11 Proper Use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

    Answer 10

    Resist the urge to fly into marginal weather when navigating VFR. The risk of becoming lost is small when using GNSS, but the risk of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) increases in low visibility. VFR into IMC is dangerous and illegal.

  3. For definitions of terminology and phraseology used in aviation in Canada, refer to the , which is available on TC’s Web site. Another valuable resource available is NAV CANADA’s VFR Phraseology Guide, which is available on NAV CANADA’s Web site.

    Reference: TC AIM COM 1.3 Language

    Answer 11

    Glossary for Pilots and Air Traffic Services Personnel (AC 100-001)

  4. What is a “MEDEVAC” flight?

    Reference: TC AIM COM GEN 5.1 Glossary of Aeronautical terms

    Answer 12

    MEDEVAC is a term used to request ATS priority handling for a medical evacuation flight based on a medical emergency in the transport of patients, organ donors, organs or other urgently needed life-saving medical material

  5. During visual flight rules (VFR) flight in low-level airspace, the pilot should adjust the transponder to reply on the following unless otherwise assigned by an air traffic services (ATS) unit:

    • a) 
    • b) 

    Note: Pilots of aircraft equipped with a transponder capable of Mode C automatic altitude reporting should adjust their transponder to reply on Mode C when operating in Canadian airspace unless otherwise assigned by an ATS unit.

    Reference: TC AIM COM 8.4 Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Operations

    Answer 13
    • a) Mode A, Code 1200 for operation at or below 12 500 ft above sea level (ASL); or
    • b) Mode A, Code 1400 for operation above 12 500 ft ASL.


  1. Advisories will be disseminated through the aeronautical fixed service (AFS) if civil aviation is affected by space weather phenomena, notably with respect to GNSS positioning and navigation. Increases in the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere lead to an increase in the transit time of the GNSS signal, producing in GNSS receivers.

    Reference: TC AIM MET 14.1 Introduction and 14.2 Nature of the Disturbances

    Answer 14

    position errors

  2. When wind sensors are not functioning at a human aerodrome routine meteorological report (METAR) site, the wind speed and direction will be estimated, and which remark will be added to the report?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 8.3 Sample Message, (f) Wind (iii)

    Answer 15


  3. Please provide the meaning of the abbreviation “CIGS” found in the following graphic area forecast (GFA) weather information below.

    graphic area forecast (GFA) weather information

    Reference: Manual of Word Abbreviations (MANAB)

    Answer 16


  4. Where can you find the suggested format for pilot weather reports (PIREPs)?

    Reference: TC AIM MET Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs)

    Answer 17

    The back cover of the CFS and the Canadian Water Aerodrome Supplement (CWAS)

  5. Which regulation from the CARs requires the PIC to be familiar with the available weather information that is appropriate to the intended flight?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 1.1.9 Pilot Responsibility

    Answer 18

    CAR 602.72

  6. METAR CYOW 211300Z 15006KT 6SM -SN BKN014 OVC020 01/M01 A2920 RMK SC6SC2 SLP894=

    SPECI CYOW 211246Z 18009G15KT 4SM R32/5000VP6000FT/U R07/5500VP6000FT/U -SN BKN014 OVC025 01/M01 A2921 RMK SC6SC2 SLP898

    How much has the ceiling changed from the SPECI to the METAR in the sample message above? feet (ft)

    Reference: TC AIM MET 8.3 Sample Message, (k) Sky conditions

    Answer 19


  7. Are the winds reported as true or magnetic in a METAR?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 8.1 The Aerodrome Routine Meteorological Report (METAR) Code

    Answer 20

    Wind direction is always given in degrees (true)

  8. METAR CYOW 211100Z 09013KT 15SM BKN087 00/M05 A2924 RMK AC7 PRESFR SLP908=

    In the above METAR, the abbreviation “PRESFR” means?

    Reference: MANAB

    Answer 21

    pressure falling rapidly

  9. SPECI CYOW 211220Z 10007KT 8SM -SN OVC029 02/M05 A2923 RMK SC8 SLP902=

    Please decode the above SPECI.

    Reference: NAV CANADA Aviation Weather Services Guide

    Answer 22

    Aerodrome Special Meteorological Report / Ottawa airport on the 21st of the month at 12:20 UTC / Winds from 100º true at 7 kt / Visibility 8 statute miles (SM) / Light snow / Sky condition—overcast at 2 900 ft / Temperature plus 2 and dew point minus 5 / Altimeter setting 29.23 / Remarks: stratocumulus at 8 oktas / Mean sea level pressure 990.2 Hectopascals.

  10. TAF CYOW 211138Z 2112/2212 09012G22KT 6SM -SHSN OVC030 TEMPO 2112/2114 11/2SM -SHSN OVC020 PROB30 2112/2114 6SM –SNPL

    Please decode the above aerodrome forecast (TAF).

    Reference: TC AIM MET 7.4 Sample Message

    Answer 23

    Aerodrome Forecast for Ottawa Airport, issued on the 21st of the month at 11:38 UTC / validity period 21st of the month at 12:00 UTC to the 22nd of the month at 12:00 UTC / Surface wind from 090º true at 12 kt, gusting to 22 kt / Visibility greater than 6 SM with light snow showers / Sky condition—overcast at 3 000 ft / Temporarily between the 21st of the month at 12:00 UTC and the 21st of the month at 14:00 UTC / Visibility one and a half miles in light snow showers / Sky condition—overcast at 2 000 ft and 30% probability between the 21st of the month at 12:00 UTC and the 21st of the month at 14:00 UTC of visibility 6 SM in light snow and ice pellets.

RAC–Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services

  1. Pilots intending to fly in Class F advisory airspace are encouraged to monitor an appropriate frequency, to broadcast their intentions when and the area, and to communicate, as , with other users to ensure flight safety in the airspace. In a Class F advisory uncontrolled airspace area, MHz would be an appropriate frequency.

    Reference: TC RAC 2.8.6 Class F Airspace

    Answer 24

    entering; leaving; necessary; 126.7

  2. What are the three methods to compute passenger weights?

    • 1. 
    • 2. 
    • 3. 

    Reference: RAC 3.4.7 Computation of Passenger and Baggage Weights

    Answer 25

    actual weights, standard weights, and segmented weights

  3. When should you use actual passenger weights? What should the weight figure include?

    Reference: RAC 3.4.7 Computation of Passenger and Baggage Weights

    Answer 26

    For aircraft with a passenger seating capacity of less than five. The weight figure includes: the total of the person’s weight, personal clothing, and carry-on baggage. (The use of actual weights provides the greatest accuracy in calculating the weight and balance of the aircraft; therefore, the use of standard or segmented passenger weights is not recommended.)

  4. What is the requirement to file a flight plan between Canada and the U.S.?

    Reference: RAC 3.5.3 Flight Plan Requirements—Flights Between Canada and a Foreign State and RAC 3.14.3 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

    Answer 27

    Flight plans for international flights originating in, or entering, Canada shall be filed in the ICAO format. “Advise customs” (ADCUS) notification is no longer accepted on flight plans for transborder flights departing from Canada to the U.S. or from the U.S. to Canada. Pilots are required to file a flight plan to an acceptable customs destination in the U.S. and are also required to contact U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to make customs arrangements prior to their flight. Failure to do so may subject the pilot to a penalty.

  5. Unless otherwise advised by ATC, pilots do (require/not require) permission to change from tower frequency once clear of the control zone and (should /should not) request release from this frequency or report clear of the zone when there is considerable frequency congestion.

    Reference: TC RAC 4.2.9 Release from Tower Frequency

    Answer 28

    not require; should not

  6. Where no mandatory frequency (MF) procedures are in effect, aircraft (should/should not) approach the traffic circuit from the (upwind, downwind, base, final) side. Alternatively, once the pilot has ascertained without any doubt that there will be no with other traffic entering the circuit or established within it, the pilot may join the circuit on the leg.

    Reference: TC RAC 4.5.2 Traffic Circuit Procedures—Uncontrolled Aerodromes; Flight Training Manual (FTM), Joining the circuit, page 102

    Answer 29

    should; upwind; conflict; downwind

  7. METAR CYQT 281700Z 24013G22KT 20SM BKN013 OVC025 14/12 A2987 RMK SC7SC1 SLP120=

    Using the weather information provided above, determine the altitude above ground at which an aircraft should fly when joining the circuit in a control zone.

    Reference: CAR 602.114(c)

    Answer 30

    800 ft above ground level (AGL)

  8. What procedures can be used to enter the circuit at an uncontrolled aerodrome not within an MF area?

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 4.5.2 Traffic Circuit Procedures—Uncontrolled Aerodromes, (a) Joining the Circuit; and VFR Circuit Procedures at Uncontrolled Aerodromes

    Answer 31

    Aircraft should approach the traffic circuit from the upwind side. Alternatively, once the pilot has ascertained without any doubt that there will be no conflict with other traffic entering the circuit or established within it, the pilot may join the circuit on the downwind leg.

  9. At what altitude do you enter the circuit?

    Reference: CAR 602.114(c), TC AIM RAC 4.5.2(a), and VFR Circuit Procedures at Uncontrolled Aerodromes

    Answer 32

    1 000 AGL unless otherwise specified in the CFS and as weather permits.

  10. When overflying an aerodrome at which you are not intending to land, you must be no lower than what altitude?

    Reference: CAR 602.96(4)

    Answer 33

    No less than 2 000 ft over the aerodrome.

  11. If it is necessary to cross over the aerodrome prior to joining the circuit, or after departure, it is recommended that the crossover be made at what altitude?

    Reference: VFR Circuit Procedures at Uncontrolled Aerodromes (TP11541)

    Answer 34

    500 ft above circuit altitude

  12. No person shall operate an aircraft over a forest fire area, or over any area that is located within nautical miles (NM) of a forest fire area, at an altitude of less than ft AGL.

    Reference: CAR 601.15(a)

    Answer 35

    5; 3 000

  13. No person shall act as a crew member of an aircraft within hours (hr) after consuming an alcoholic beverage.

    Reference: TC AIM RAC Annex and CAR 602.03

    Answer 36


  14. How long must a pilot wait after cannabis use prior to exercising duties as a crew member?

    Reference: CAR 602.02 and 602.03 and guidance to the policy on cannabis legalization

    Answer 37

    The CARs require fitness for duty. No person shall act as a crew member of an aircraft while using or under the influence of any drug that impairs the person’s faculties to the extent that aviation safety is affected. The 28-day policy is based on existing CARs which require pilots, flight engineers, and air traffic controllers to be fit for duty and free of the effects of any drugs or medications.

SAR–Search & Rescue

  1. What are the primary sources of information used by search and rescue (SAR) to ensure detection and rescue from an emergency locator transmitters (ELTs)?

    Reference: TC AIM SAR 2.1 General

    Answer 38

    Flight plan and Flight itinerary

  2. As soon as information is received that an aircraft is overdue, operators or owners should immediately:

    Reference: TC AIM SAR 2.2 Request for Search and Rescue (SAR) Assistance

    Answer 39

    Alert the nearest joint rescue coordination centre (JRCC) or any air traffic service (ATS) unit, giving all known details.

  3. If an ELT signal is heard in-flight, notify the nearest ATS unit of:

    • a) 
    • b) 
    • c) 
    • d) 

    Reference: TC AIM SAR 3.4 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Operation Instructions (Normal Use)

    Answer 40
    • a) position, altitude, and time when signal was first heard;
    • b) ELT signal strength;
    • c) position, altitude, and time when contact was lost; and
    • d) whether the ELT signal ceased suddenly or faded.
  4. If an ELT becomes unserviceable, the aircraft may be operated according to the operator’s approved minimum equipment list (MEL). Where no MEL has been approved, the aircraft may be operated for up to 30 days, provided:

    • a) 
    • b) 
    • c) 

    Reference: TC AIM SAR 3.9 Schedule of Requirements

    Answer 41
    • a) the ELT is removed at the first aerodrome at which repairs or removal can be accomplished;
    • b) the ELT is promptly sent to a maintenance facility; and
    • c) a placard is displayed in the cockpit stating that the ELT has been removed and including the date of removal (see CAR 605.39).

MAP–Aeronautical Charts & Publications

  1. Where can NOTAMs be found?

    Reference: TC AIM MAP 3.5 NOTAM Distribution

    Answer 42

    NAV CANADA Web site


    NOTAM issued for the Gatineau Airport
    Text version – Question 43 - Image


    (K1115/20 NOTAM
    A) CYND B) 2004211244 C) 2004281200
    E) PAPI 27 U/S

    PAPI 27 U/S)

    In the above NOTAM, when does the PAPI lighting for runway 27 become unserviceable? When does it return to service?

    Reference: TC AIM MAP 3.0 NOTAM

    Answer 43

    Unserviceable at 1244 UTC on April 21, 2020

    Serviceable at 1200 UTC on April 28, 2020


    NOTAM issued for the Gatineau Airport
    Text version - Question 44 – Image


    (K0871/20 NOTAM
    A) CYND B) 2003241000 C) 2005011200EST
    E) HR OF SVC 1200-2200, OTHER TIMES PNR
    819-743-8883 WITH FEES

    FR: HR DE SVC 1200-2200, AUTRE TEMPS PNR
    819-743-8883 AVEC FRAIS)

    In the above NOTAM, what is meant by “EST” in line “C)”?

    Reference: TC AIM MAP 3.0 NOTAM

    Answer 44

    EST after the date and time should be used when the end time is not known with certainty. EST means estimated or approximate. When the end time is reached, if there is no human intervention, the NOTAM will remain intact. Therefore, the NOTAM must be revised (NOTAMR) or cancelled (NOTAMC) before the time is reached.

LRA–Licensing, Registration & Airworthiness

  1. A 39 year-old and a 40 year-old, who each hold a private pilot licence, both renewed their medical certificates on July 29, 2020. How long are their medical certificates valid for? By what date must they each renew?

    Reference: TC AIM LRA 1.9.1 Medical Validity Periods (Table 1.8), CAR 404.04

    Answer 45

    39 year-old: 60 months, August 1, 2025

    40 year-old: 24 months, August 1, 2022

  2. The Minister shall extend the validity period of a medical certificate for a period of not more than 60 days beginning on the day on which the certificate would otherwise expire, if:

    • a) 
    • b) 

    Reference: CAR 404.04(10)

    Answer 46
    • (a) the application for extension of the certificate is made while the certificate is still valid; and
    • (b) the applicant demonstrates that there has been no reasonable opportunity to undergo a medical examination within the 90 days before the day on which the certificate would otherwise expire.

Canada Flight Supplement (CFS)

  1. Where can you find the crosswind chart?

    Reference: CFS General

    Answer 47


  2. Where do you find the direction of the circuit pattern?

    Reference: CFS

    Answer 48

    In the PRO section of each aerodrome/airport

  3. What is the circuit direction at Grande Prairie (CYQU), Abbottsford (CYXX), and Chilliwack (CYCW)?

    Reference: CFS PRO

    Answer 49

    CYQU: left circuit; CYXX: left circuit, except for right circuit on RWY 07 & 01; CYCW: left circuit on 25 and right circuit on RWY 07

Aeroplane-specific questions

  1. A VFR approach is considered stabilized if, on the final approach flight path:

    • Briefings and are complete;
    • The aircraft is in the proper appropriate for the wind and runway conditions;
    • The appropriate power settings are applied;
    • Maximum sink rate of 1 000 ft per min;
    • Speed within of the reference speed;
    • Only small and changes required;
    • Stable by AGL.

    Reference: TP 13723 — Flight Test Guide—Private Pilot Licence—Aeroplane

    Answer 50

    checklists; landing configuration; +10/-5 kt; heading; pitch; 200 ft

  2. When on a VFR stable approach, what is the lowest minimum altitude recommended for you to conduct a go-around procedure?

    Reference: TP 13723 — Flight Test Guide—Private Pilot Licence—Aeroplane

    Answer 51

    If stability is not established by 200 ft AGL, an overshoot will be executed.

  3. When should you do your after-landing checklist?

    Reference: FTM, Flight Instructor Guide—Aeroplane (TP 975) Exercise 18, aircraft flight manual (AFM) / pilot operating handbook (POH), checklist

    Answer 52

    after well clear of the runway

  4. On a VFR cross-country you become disoriented while in low visibility. You note a rapid increase in airspeed. What is the correct procedure to follow to ensure a safe recovery?

    Reference: FTM Exercise 24—Instrument Flying—Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries

    Answer 53
    1. Reduce power to prevent excessive airspeed and loss of altitude.
    2. Level the wings by applying co-ordinated aileron and rudder pressures to centre the turn needle and ball.
    3. Apply smooth back elevator pressure to return to level flight.
    4. When the airspeed stops increasing, you are at or near level flight; stop the back elevator pressure.
  5. With reference to the previous question, why is it crucial to level the wings prior to applying back elevator pressure?

    Reference: FTM Exercise 14—Spirals

    Answer 54

    An excessive load will be placed on the aircraft, which could lead to structural damage or a high-speed stall.

  6. Complete the following flight planning, human factors and navigation exercise based on the aircraft you fly for any flight or your next flight by responding to these questions:

    Plan and use appropriate and current aeronautical charts and publications including the POH/AFM and the CFS/CWAS to extract, record, and calculate pertinent information. Get a weather package from NAV CANADA Collaborative Flight Planning Services for your flight including GFAs clouds & weather, icing, TAFs, METARs, upper winds, NOTAMs, PIREPs, and significant meteorological information (SIGMETs). Individual answers will be unique to you, your aircraft, and your flight. Know your limits!

    • a) What are your routing, minimum visibility, and weather requirements for the flight?
    • b) What are your personal weather limits?
    • c) What are the predominant airspace and terrain features?
    • d) When is official night on the day of your flight?
    • e) Are services available at your destination?
    • f) What contingencies should you consider for your route, destination, runways, and weather?
    • g) What are your estimated headings, appropriate power settings, ground speed, fuel requirements, and time en route for your trip? (A navigation log or electronic flight bag [EFB], as appropriate)
    • h) Complete an ICAO VFR flight plan.
    • i) Complete weight and balance computations.
    • j) Answer the following:
      • i. Normal approach speed in landing configuration?
      • ii. What configuration/speed adjustment would you make in gusty conditions?
      • iii. What is the aircraft’s crosswind limitation?
      • iv. What is your personal crosswind limitation?
    • k) Using the POH (aircraft flight manual), calculate the:
      • i. take-off distance required to clear a 50-ft obstacle on departure
      • ii. landing distance required to clear a 50-ft obstacle on arrival
      • iii. Describe your aircraft configuration while conducting both of the above.
    • l) Describe the engine failure procedure for your aircraft?
      • 1. 
      • 2. 
      • 3. 
    • m) Describe the engine fire procedure for your aircraft?
      • 1. 
      • 2. 
      • 3. 
    Answer 55


Ultra-light-specific questions

  1. What shall every applicant for, and every holder of, a pilot permit—ultra-light maintain?

    Reference: CAR 401.08 (1)

    Answer 56

    a personal log

  2. The holder of a student pilot permit—ultra-light may act as a PIC of an ultra-light if the flight is conducted under the and of a person qualified to provide training toward the permit.

    Reference: CAR 401.19(1)(d)

    Answer 57

    direction; supervision

  3. If the ultra-light aeroplane has no restrictions against carrying another person, what does the holder of a pilot permit—ultra-light have to be endorsed with to carry one other person on board an ultra-light aeroplane?

    Reference: CAR 401.56

    Answer 58

    A passenger-carrying rating

  4. What are the three situations in which a second person may be carried on board ultra-light aeroplane?

    • (i) ,
    • (ii) , or
    • (iii) .

    Reference: CAR 602.29(4)(b)

    Answer 59
    • (i) the flight is conducted for the purpose of providing dual flight instruction;
    • (ii) the pilot is a holder of a pilot permit—ultra-light aeroplane endorsed with a passenger-carrying rating and the aeroplane has no restrictions against carrying another person; or
    • (iii) the other person is a holder of a pilot licence or permit, other than a student pilot permit, that allows them to act as pilot-in-command of an ultra-light aeroplane.
  5. The holder of a flight instructor rating—ultra-light aeroplane may operate an ultra-light aeroplane with one other person on board if the holder has not less than hr of ultra-light time as a pilot of an ultralight aeroplane with the same control configuration and the flight is conducted for the purpose of providing instruction.

    Reference: CAR 401.88 (a)

    Answer 60

    10; dual

  6. What is the validity period of a medical certificate for a pilot permit—ultra-light if the pilot is: a) under 40 years of age? b) 40 years of age or older?

    Reference: CAR 404.04(6)

    Answer 61

    a) 60 months; b) 60 months

  7. What category of medical certificate is required for the student pilot permit or the pilot permit—ultra-light aeroplane?

    Reference: CAR 404.10(4)

    Answer 62

    1, 3, or 4

  8. What do you need to carry for each person on board if you are conducting a takeoff or landing on water in an ultra-light aeroplane or operating an ultra-light aeroplane over water beyond a point where the ultra-light could reach shore in the event of an engine failure?

    Reference: CAR 602.62 (1)

    Answer 63

    life preserver, individual flotation device, or personal flotation device

  9. No person shall operate an ultra-light aircraft in VFR flight within uncontrolled airspace unless the aircraft is operated with .

    Reference: CAR 602.115(a)

    Answer 64

    visual reference to the surface

  10. Every owner of an ultra-light aircraft who transfers title of an aircraft airframe, engine, propeller, or appliance to another person shall, at the time of transfer, also deliver to that person that relate to that aeronautical product.

    Reference: CAR 605.97

    Answer 65

    all of the technical records

Helicopter-specific questions

  1. TSB investigation report A19O0026 states the following concerning night visual flight rules: “Night flying over featureless terrain, such as bodies of water or remote wooded terrain, is particularly difficult. These conditions are commonly described in the aviation community as a , which refers to not having visual reference to the ground due to the . Under these conditions, it can be difficult or impossible for a pilot to discern a horizon visually, potentially leading to spatial disorientation and .”

    Reference: Air Transportation Safety Investigation A19O0026 (night visual flight rules)

    Answer 66

    black hole; absence of lighting; loss of control

  2. TSB investigation report A18Q0016 states the following: “Humans have the ability to discern the orientation of their body (lying down, standing, leaning, etc.) when they are in physical contact with the ground. Humans are not accustomed to the environment of flight, and may arise between the senses and illusions that make it difficult or impossible to maintain spatial orientation. Spatial disorientation is defined as the of a pilot to correctly interpret aircraft attitude, altitude, or airspeed in relation to the Earth or other points of reference.”

    Reference: Air Transportation Safety Investigation A18Q0016, Spatial Disorientation

    Answer 67

    3-dimensional; conflicts; inability

Balloon-specific questions

  1. What are the four qualifications and currency requirements for a balloon pilot to carry fare-paying passengers (tethered or not)?

    • a) ;
    • b) ;
    • c) ; and
    • d) .

    Reference: CAR standard 623.21

    Answer 68
    • a) be at least eighteen years of age;
    • b) hold a balloon pilot licence issued by the Minister;
    • c) hold a medical certificate, category 1 or 3; and
    • d) have accumulated a minimum of 50 hr of flight time in untethered balloons or be the holder of a Canadian balloon licence with a valid flight instructor rating—balloon category.
  2. When may a person conduct a landing in a balloon within a built-up area of a city or a town at a place that is not located in an airport, heliport, or military aerodrome?

    Reference: CAR 602.13(4)(a)

    Answer 69

    The landing is necessary to avoid endangering the safety of the persons on board.

Glider-specific questions

  1. Where would you find information on the sport of soaring?

    Reference: The Soaring Association of Canada (SAC) website

    Answer 70

    The Soaring Association of Canada (SAC)

  2. Where would you find safety information on soaring?

    Reference: SAC Safety and Training website

    Answer 71

    SAC Safety and Training Web site

  3. In order to carry a passenger in a glider, CAR 401.24 requires the PIC have his or her personal log endorsed by a who must specify the method of and have completed at least previous solo flights.

    Reference: CAR 401.24

    Answer 72

    glider flight instructor; launch; three

  4. On takeoff, you are taking up slack and you notice a knot in the rope. What should you do?

    Reference: Soar and Learn to Fly Gliders

    Answer 73

    Pull the release and stop on remaining runway.

  5. When on tow you see the tow aircraft waggles the wings steadily in a rolling motion. What must you do?

    aircraft waggling wings in a rolling motion

    Reference: Soar and Learn to Fly Gliders—Emergency Aerotow procedures

    Answer 74

    The glider pilot should release immediately.

  6. What does the acronym SOAR for pilot decision making mean?

    Reference: Soar and Learn to Fly Gliders—Pilot decision making

    Answer 75

    Situation, Options, Act, Repeat.

  7. At what speed should you fly the approach to a landing?

    Reference: Soar and Learn to Fly Gliders—Final Approach and Wind Gradients

    Answer 76

    The speed specified in the flight manual. If it is not specified, the speed should be 1.3Vs + wind velocity.

Gyroplane-specific questions

  1. If Pilot Induced Oscillation (PIO) in flight is encountered, power and place the cyclic in the position for a .

    Reference: Rotorcraft Flying Handbook—For Gyroplane Use Only (FAA-H-8083-21), page 20-12 and 20-13

    Answer 77

    reduce, normal climb

  2. What is the recovery manoeuvre if a high rate of descent occurs due to not having kept the flight speed above the minimum?

    Reference: Rotorcraft Flying Handbook—For Gyroplane Use Only (FAA-H-8083-21), page 21-2

    Answer 78

    Slightly lower the nose of the gyroplane, to trade altitude for airspeed.


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