Exercise 20 - Navigation


  1. Maps/Charts - symbols, scales, etc.
  2. Computer
  3. Departure and arrival procedures
  4. Track selection - drift lines, increments
  6. Weather reports and forecasts
  7. Lost procedures
  8. Radio procedures
  9. Publications - VFR Supplement
  10. Aircraft documents
  11. Flight Plans/Notifications



For the student to learn how to carry out safe and effective cross-country flights.


The ability to navigate effectively is a necessary basic skill for all pilots.

Teaching Points

    1. Assign a cross-country for the student to plan, that will take approximately 45-60 minutes to fly, consisting of 3 or more legs.
    2. Review and discuss the student's plan.
    3. Review the practical aspects of the different departure procedures and select the appropriate one for the first air lesson.
    4. Describe the visual cues that the student can expect to see and how to use them for track correction.
    5. Discuss in-flight calculation of ground speed and estimated time of arrival.
    6. Point out the advantages of flying as high as the weather and common sense will allow.
    7. Review the radio calls that it will be necessary to make during the air lesson.
    8. Review lost procedures including:
      1. returning to the last known position;
      2. reading "ground to map"; and
      3. use of radio aids.
    9. Review the practical aspects of carrying out diversions due to weather, emergencies or task requirements.




Fly the cross-country exercise as prepared in Teaching Points (1) as follows:

    1. First leg:
      1. demonstrate the departure;
      2. demonstrate enroute procedures including maintaining track/returning to track, calculating ground speed and ETA; and
      3. student concentrates on procedures and following the map.
    2. Second leg:
      1. student flies, instructor assists with navigation.
    3. Third and subsequent legs:
      1. student flies and navigates.

Student plans, flies and navigates a dual cross-country of approximately 1 hour duration. Where possible, this lesson should include landing at an unfamiliar airport.

    1. Student plans.
    2. Demonstrate lost procedures.
    3. Student practice.
    4. Demonstrate low level navigation.
    5. Student practice.
    6. Demonstrate diversion techniques and procedures.
    7. Student practice.
    1. Student plans local cross-country.
    2. Demonstrate techniques for flying and navigating in actual minimum safe meteorological conditions.
    3. Student practice.


    1. Show the student the use of hiliters and marking the prominent checkpoints to ease scanning the map for this information.
    2. If the student becomes uncertain of his position, allow a sufficient period of time for reorientation. If completely lost after using appropriate `lost procedures', pinpoint your position for the student and continue. This is especially important in the earlier dual lessons as some students could suffer a loss of confidence.
    3. Dual instruction should relate to any previous experience the student may have. It should be remembered however, that the need to keep the right hand on the cyclic at all times, will impose difficulties that even an experienced fixed-wing pilot will find trying. It is important to demonstrate correct organisation of the cockpit to minimize these difficulties.
    4. The solo cross-country exercise involves the application of all skills and experience accumulated by the students throughout the training course. Before authorizing solo flights, assure yourself and the students that they are competent to complete this exercise successfully. Ensure that they have carried out adequate pre-flight planning and preparation unassisted, and check the results carefully.
    5. Extreme care should be taken to ensure the weather is suitable, the helicopter is serviceable, with sufficient fuel for the intended flight, and that the student has been thoroughly briefed on the correct procedure to be followed for any probable event which may occur during the flight.
    6. During the low flying stress the changes in visual cues, and if using a large scale map, the speed which the helicopter moves over the map.
    7. If possible expose the student to different scales of map, particularly 50,000 and 250,000.
    8. Students should have had some exposure to Ex. 24 Sloping Ground and Ex. 25 Confined Areas before being sent on the first solo cross country. This is to ensure they are capable of landing at a suitable site, in the event of any unusual circumstance, when flying over inhospitable terrain.