Part II

This section is presented as a series of Exercises. These are specific skills that either singly or in a group form a convenient unit for the student to learn.

In most cases, when presenting a new exercise to a student, you should be able to follow the sequence shown. There will be occasions however, when the type of helicopter, the weather or some other local factor, will dictate that you vary the sequence of training. The student's rate of learning may, in some cases, allow you to combine two or more exercises into one air lesson.

Autorotation, being an extensive and involved subject, has been presented as three seperate exercises. This is because the sequence is vital to your student's progress and safety, as is its place in the training syllabus. Navigation and Confined Areas on the other hand, have been presented here under single exercise headings despite the fact that they will also entail more than one lesson.

There are certain exercises which have to be taught to a student before first solo, these are listed in the Pilot Training Record. It is recommended that Exercises 18 and 19 should be included, and that Exercises 23 and 24 deserve consideration depending on the area. The student should have done these four exercises, and Exercise 25 in certain geographic locations, before attempting the first solo cross country.

The aerodynamic stresses to which an airframe is exposed during Vortex Ring State are virtually unknown. Exercise 26 which deals with this condition of flight has been retained, but the emphasis should be placed on the early recognition and avoidance rather than practising a fully developed Vortex Ring State. Controlling the rate of descent should be stressed in situations where Vortex Ring is likely to develop.

Some types of helicopter are susceptible to lack of tail rotor effectiveness, it is recognised that simulating this effect in a training aircraft is almost impossible. Therefore, again, the emphasis is to be placed primarily on the recognition and avoidance, and then the recovery procedure. Classroom discussion is the normal technique used for this subject because of the difficulty in simulation.

Each exercise is presented in the following manner:

1.  Ground School

This is a list of subjects that the student should have learnt or be familiar with before the Preparatory Instruction is given. These points should not form part of the Prep. Instruction or the Pre-flight Briefing.

2.  Preparatory Instruction

This is the presentation given by the flight instructor when introducing a new exercise. Ideally you should give it within 24 hours prior to the related training flight.

Preparatory Instruction is presented as follows:


State the aim in terms of not so much what you the instructor are about to teach, but what your student is about to learn.


Review previously learned facts, this will generally help the student to understand and assimilate the new skills and knowledge he is about to aquire. This is a good time to discuss any related problems he may have.


Give the student a good reason why he should learn this skill. Use specific terms to suit the individual student and training situation.


Airmanship points will vary with the type of training helicopter and local conditions. Always stress the safety aspects of any training.

Teaching Points

These are self-explanatory. They are sometimes listed in broad terms, so as to cover all training aircraft and conditions. Occasionally you will need to amend them to your specific needs.


This is a reminder to you to ask the student appropriate questions to confirm that learning has taken place, and that the air lesson is likely to be effective. Give students ample opportunity to ask you questions so as to remove any doubts or problems they might have.

3.  Pre-flight Briefing

This is a seperate part of the ground presentation. It should precede all flights, whether there is a new exercise to be covered or not. It is also particularly important when sending a student solo.

Points to be covered include:

    1. local weather and meteorological conditions,
    2. the helicopter to be used, its fuel state and any other relevant information,
    3. where the exercises will be conducted,
    4. take-off time, duration of flight and estimated landing time back at base,
    5. the sequence of exercises to be covered during this flight, and
    6. a review of relevant airmanship points.

4.  Air Lesson

This is the recommended sequence of introducing an exercise to a student. The sequence of further demonstration, practice and fault analysis, will vary from one student to another.

5.  Post-flight Debriefing

This follows all flights, dual and solo. Points should include:

    1. the student's assessment of the flight and performance, weak points, and advice on how to correct any repeated errors,
    2. answering any student questions, and
    3. assigning study subjects where appropriate.

6.  Tips for Instructor

These are aimed to assist you in your role as an instructor. The points mentioned should not be included in your ground or air presentations.