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- Complex Aeroplane
To teach the student to:
- maintain safe flight control following an engine failure during a takeoff or overshoot
- perform the correct emergency procedures
- attain the appropriate airspeeds and, if the aeroplane is capable, continue to climb
The takeoff and overshoot are two of the most critical phases of flight. Failure of an engine at these times requires prompt, correct responses by the pilot to maintain safe control of the aeroplane.
Essential Background Knowledge
Review Essential Background Knowledge from Exercise #6, Engine Failure (Cruise Flight), as required.
- Because this scenario, in real life, would happen close to the ground, there is a greater urgency and less room for error than for “Engine Failure in Flight”.
- A prompt and correct sequence of actions is required to prevent misidentification of the failed engine.
- Impress upon the student that the sequence of actions must be in accordance with the “Engine Failure on Takeoff/Liftoff” checklist.
Review one-engine inoperative performance charts.
Explain that the loss of an engine can result in a loss of 80% or more of the aeroplane's climb performance.
Explain the further decrease in performance caused by
- landing gear
- windmilling propeller
- cowl flaps
- less than 3 to 5 degrees bank
Explain the recommended procedure from the POH/AFM to follow in the event of an engine failure. In the absence of a procedure in the POH/AFM, see the procedure on the next page.
Advice to Instructors
Compare the power-to-weight ratio of a single-engine aeroplane the student has flown to the power-to-weight ratio for the multi-engine aeroplane to be used in training. The ratio when one engine is inoperative will illustrate interesting differences.
Practice of this exercise should be done only at an operationally safe altitude and in accordance with the POH/AFM. Consideration should be given to density altitude when practising in warm temperatures or at high altitudes. Prior to simulating an engine failure during an overshoot students must be competent doing overshoots with both engines operating. It is not recommended to simulate engine failures below 500 feet AGL. Practise this exercise on actual approaches to landing only when the student is competent at handling the emergency at altitude.
The initial demonstration and subsequent student practice should be at a pace that allows for completion of all items successfully. Once habit patterns have been developed, the pace can be increased.
Emphasize that following an engine failure during an overshoot one should normally complete a circuit and land. Determining the cause of the engine failure is best dealt with on the ground. Cause checks should be done only if the pilot must proceed to an alternate airport.
The student must complete the "memory items" immediately following the engine failure while maintaining control of the aeroplane. Ensure that the student maintains airspeed and directional control. After attaining a safe altitude, a review of the correct emergency checklist should be undertaken and followed up with the “Single-Engine Approach and Landing” checklist or the “Clean-up/Shutdown” checklist, depending on the closeness to the nearest appropriate airport.
Instruction and Student Practice
Engine Failure During an Overshoot
In the absence of a procedure in the POH, these steps should be taken. Note that BOLDFACE denotes memory items.
Cause and clean-up checks would be completed if proceeding to another airport.
In an area away from the airport, and at an operationally safe altitude have the student complete the pre-landing checklist and establish the aircraft in a descent, at the full flap final approach airspeed, in the landing configuration.
Assume control of the aeroplane. Commence an overshoot at a pre-determined altitude. Retract the landing gear and flaps in accordance with the POH. While maintaining the recommended climb speed, note the indicated rate of climb, then simulate an engine failure by reducing the power on one engine to idle. Complete the memory items from the emergency checklist. Just prior to simulating propeller feathering, point out the decrease in rate of climb. Then simulate feathering by setting zero thrust. Again point out the rate of climb, which should have increased slightly.
Using the engine restart in-flight checklist, restore the engine and allow the student to practise as demonstrated.
Next, demonstrate by failing the engine prior to retracting the landing gear and flap. Allow for student practice.