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- Complex Aeroplane
To teach the student to:
- fly a circuit and approach with one engine inoperative
- land in a predetermined touchdown zone
Should an engine fail, a pilot must be able to fly an arrival procedure and plan a precise approach to a successful landing. Failure to do so could result in an overshoot on one engine. Under certain loading, weather, terrain and aeroplane conditions, an overshoot with one engine inoperative may be difficult or impossible.
Essential Background Knowledge
- one engine inoperative procedures
- aeroplane performance
- circuit and approach procedures
- use and effect of power, flaps and landing gear on the approach
- one engine inoperative overshoot
- declaring an emergency
Advice to Instructors
Ensure that the student is proficient in normal landings and one engine inoperative procedures before introducing this exercise.
One engine inoperative procedures should be simulated using zero-thrust power settings so that, should you have to initiate an overshoot, both engines will be available.
DO NOT practise ACTUAL one engine inoperative circuits, approaches and landings. Do not simulate the failure of an engine on the approach at less than 500 feet AGL, or at an airspeed less than the one engine inoperative best rate-of-climb airspeed (VYSE).
Emphasize planning and anticipation, considering the following:
- effect of wind on the circuit
- emergency landing gear extension
- the point at which a one engine overshoot is not possible
If an engine failure occurs while an aeroplane is in the circuit, emphasize that the pilot should not attempt to restart the engine in the traffic pattern. Feather the propeller and prepare for a one-engine-inoperative landing.
Landing gear should not be extended until you are in a position to commence the final descent for landing. Full flaps should not be extended until landing is assured.
The one-engine-inoperative final approach should be as close as possible to a normal approach. A high-speed/low-power approach (diving) should be avoided. It could result in a long touchdown or porpoising. An approach with low airspeed, high drag and high power (dragging in) must also be avoided. Such an approach may place the aeroplane in a marginal control situation from which you may not be able to recover.
The initial demonstration of the one-engine-inoperative landing is best done on return from the training area. This allows you to configure the aeroplane before entering the circuit, gives you the time to conduct a more effective demonstration and also better simulates a real one-engine situation.
When an engine actually fails during the final descent segment of a normal landing, the standard engine failure procedure will be modified somewhat. If you are able to maintain the descent profile to the runway, gear and/or flaps may be left down. Once the failed engine has been verified, the propeller should be feathered - a cause check should not normally be completed. If it is necessary to retract the landing gear, caution your student of the possibility of forgetting to extend the landing gear again.
Instruction and Student Practice
Well clear of the traffic pattern, simulate one engine inoperative flight by setting zero thrust.
Advise Air Traffic Control, or traffic in the area, that you are practising a simulated one-engine-inoperative landing.
Join the circuit pattern. Once established on the downwind leg, the instructor should assume control of the aeroplane.
Fly the approach in accordance with the procedures outlined in the POH. Maintain the recommended airspeed until the landing is assured. If the POH does not recommend an airspeed, VYSE is the minimum speed that should be maintained on the approach. Point out to the student that the approach path is the same or only slightly higher than a normal approach. After touchdown, it is far better to stop on the runway or taxi back to the threshold to complete preparations for takeoff.
Allow for student practice on the return from future training flights.