Study and Reference Guide - Type Rating - Helicopter - TP 13733

 

Study and Reference Guide - Type Rating - Helicopter

(HATRA Exam)

First Edition, January 2002, Revised October 2004

Table of Contents

You may reproduce this guide as required and it can be found at
https://tc.canada.ca/en/aviation/civil-aviation

General

The conditions of issue of all flight crew licences are stated in the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

Examinations

Applicants for the Commercial Pilot Licence in the Helicopter Category shall demonstrate their knowledge by writing a Transport Canada multiple choice examination on subjects contained in this guide.

Examination Questions Time Limit Pass Mark
Air Regulations and Air Traffic Procedures, Helicopter Operations and Navigation General - Meteorology, Radio Aids to Navigation and Flight Planning - HATRA 50 3½ hours 70%

Knowledge Requirements

Applicants for a Type Rating - Helicopter are expected to have mastered the various subjects included in this guide in addition to material required to obtain a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter (see TP 2476E). All applicants must also be able to read the examination questions in either English or French without assistance.

Subjects marked with a bullet () are considered essential knowledge for the Type-Rating - Helicopter applicants.

Section 1: Air Law and Procedures

1.1-1.5 CARs

S&RG number Subject
  CARs
1.1   bullet Part I - General Provisions
1.1.1   bullet 101 - Interpretation
  .1   101.01 Interpretation
1.1.2 103 - Administration and Compliance
  .1   103.02 Inspection of Aircraft, Requests for Production of Documents and Prohibitions
  .2   103.03 Return of Canadian Aviation Documents
  .3   103.04 Record Keeping
1.2   bullet Part III - Aerodromes and Airports
1.2.1   bullet 300 - Interpretation
  .1   300.01 Interpretation
1.2.2   bullet 301 - Aerodromes
  .1   301.01 Application
  .2   301.04 Markers and Markings
  .3   301.06 Wind Direction Indicator
  .4   301.07 Lighting
  .5   301.08 Prohibitions
  .6   301.09 Fire Prevention
1.2.3 302 - Airports
  .1   302.10 Prohibitions
  .2   302.11 Fire Prevention
1.3 Part IV - Personnel licensing and training
1.3.1 400 - General
  .1   400.01 Interpretation
1.3.2 401 - Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings
  .1   401.03 Requirements to Hold a Flight Crew Permit, Licence or Rating
  .2   401.04 Flight Crew Members of Aircraft Registered in Contracting States other than Canada
  .3   401.05 Recency Requirements
  .4   401.08 Personal Logs
  .5   401.10 Crediting of Flight Time Acquired by a Co-pilot
  .6   401.35 ATPL Privileges - Helicopter
  .7   401.44 VFR Over-The-Top Rating
  .8   401.61 Flight Instructor Ratings
1.3.3 404 - Medical Requirements
  .1   404.03 Requirement to Hold a Medical Certificate (MC)
  .2   404.04 Issuance and Validity Period of MC
  .3   404.06 Prohibitions regarding Exercise of Privileges
  .4   404.10 MC Requirements for Personnel Licences
  .5   404.18 Permission to Continue to Exercise the Privileges of a Licence or Rating
1.4 Part VI - General Operating and Flight Rules
1.4.1     600 - Interpretation
  .1   600.01 Interpretation
1.4.2   bullet 601 - Airspace Structure, Classification and Use
  .1 bullet 601.01 Airspace Structure
  .2 bullet 601.02 Airspace Classification
  .3 bullet 601.03 Transponder Airspace
  .4 bullet 601.04 IFR or VFR Flight in Class F Special Use Restricted Airspace or Class F Special Use Advisory Airspace
  .5 bullet 601.06 VFR Flight in Class A Airspace
  .6 bullet 601.07 VFR Flight in Class B Airspace
  .7 bullet 601.08 VFR Flight in Class C Airspace
  .8 bullet 601.09 VFR Flight in Class D Airspace
  Forest Fire Flight Restrictions
  .9   601.14 Interpretation
  .10   601.15 Forest Fire Aircraft Operating Restrictions
  .11   601.16 Issuance of NOTAM for a Forest Fire Aircraft Operating Restrictions
  .12   601.17 Exceptions
1.4.3 602 - Operating and Flight Rules
  General
  .1   602.01 Reckless or Negligent Operation of Aircraft
  .2   602.02 Fitness of Flight Crew Members
  .3   602.03 Alcohol or Drugs - Crew Members
  .4   602.04 Alcohol or Drugs - Passengers
  .5   602.06 Smoking
  .6   602.07 Aircraft Operating Limitations
  .7   602.08 Portable Electronic Devices
  .8 bullet 602.09 Fuelling with Engines Running
  .9 bullet 602.10 Starting and Ground Running of Aircraft Engines
  .10 bullet 602.11 Aircraft Icing
  .11 bullet 602.12 Overflight of Built-up Areas or Open-Air Assemblies of Persons during Take-offs, Approaches and Landings
  .12 bullet 602.13 Take-offs, Approaches and Landings within Built-up Areas of Cities and Towns
  .13 bullet 602.14 Minimum Altitudes and Distances
  .14 bullet 602.15 Permissible Low Altitude Flight
  .15 bullet 602.16 Flights over Open-Air Assemblies of Persons or Built-up Areas - Helicopters with External Loads
  .16 bullet 602.17 Carriage of Persons during Low Altitude Flight
  .17   602.19 Right-of-Way - General
  .18   602.20 Right-of-Way - Aircraft Manoeuvering on Water
  .19   602.21 Avoidance of Collision
  .20   602.23 Dropping of Objects
  .21   602.24 Formation Flight
  .22   602.25 Entering or Leaving an Aircraft in Flight
  .23   602.26 Parachute Descents
  .24   602.27 Aerobatic Manoeuvres - Prohibited Areas and Flight Conditions
  .25   602.28 Aerobatic Manoeuvres with Passengers
  .26   602.30 Fuel Dumping
  .27   602.31 Compliance with Air Traffic Control Instructions and Clearances
  .28   602.34 Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels
  .29 bullet 602.35 Altimeter Setting and Operating Procedures in the Altimeter-Setting Region
  .30 bullet 602.36 Altimeter Setting and Operating Procedures in the Standard Pressure Region
  .31 bullet 602.37 Altimeter Setting and Operating Procedures in Transition Between Regions
  .32   602.38 Flight over the High Seas
  .33   602.39 Transoceanic Flight
  .34   602.40 Landing at or Take-off from an Aerodrome at Night
  Operational and Emergency Equipment Requirements
  .35 bullet 602.57 Application
  .36 bullet 602.58 Prohibition
  .37 bullet 602.59 Equipment Standards
  .38 bullet 602.60 Requirements for Power-driven Aircraft
  .39 bullet 602.61 Survival Equipment - Flights over Land
  .40 bullet 602.62 Life Preservers and Personal Flotation Devices
  .41 bullet 602.63 Life Rafts and Survival Equipment - Flights over Water
  Flight Preparation, Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries
  .42 bullet 602.70 Interpretation
  .43 bullet 602.71 Pre-flight Information
  .44 bullet 602.72 Weather Information
  .45 bullet 602.73 Requirements to file a Flight Plan or a Flight Itinerary
  .46 bullet 602.74 Contents of a Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
  .47 bullet 602.75 Filing of a Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
  .48 bullet 602.76 Changes in the Flight Plan
  .49 bullet 602.77 Requirement to File an Arrival Report
  .50 bullet 602.78 Contents of an Arrival Report
  .51 bullet 602.79 Overdue Aircraft Reports
  Pre-Flight and Fuel Requirements
  .52   602.86 Carry-on Baggage, Equipment and Cargo
  .53   602.87 Crew Member Instructions
  .54   602.88 Fuel Requirements
  .55   602.89 Passenger Briefings
  Operations at or in the Vicinity of an Aerodrome
  .56   602.96 General
  .57   602.97 VFR and IFR Aircraft Operations at Uncontrolled Aerodromes within an MF Area
  .58   602.98 General MF Reporting Requirements
  .59   602.99 MF Reporting Procedures before Entering Manoeuvring Area
  .60   602.100 MF Reporting Procedures on Departure
  .61   602.101 MF Reporting Procedures on Arrival
  .62   602.102 MF Reporting Procedures when Flying Continuous Circuits
  .63   602.103 Reporting Procedures when Flying through an MF Area
  .64   602.105 Noise Operating Criteria
  Visual Flight Rules
  .65   602.114 Minimum Visual Meteorological Conditions for VFR Flight in Controlled Airspace
  .66   602.115 Minimum Visual Meteorological Conditions for VFR Flight in Uncontrolled Airspace
  .67   602.116 VFR Over-The-Top
  .68   602.117 Special VFR Flight
  Radiocommunications
  .69   602.136 Continuous Listening Watch
  .70   602.138 Two-way Radiocommunication Failure in VFR Flight
  Emergency Communications and Security
  .71 bullet 602.143 Emergency Radio Frequency Capability
  .72 bullet 602.144 Interception Signals, Interception of Aircraft and Instructions to Land
  .73 bullet 602.145 ADIZ
  .74 bullet 602.146 SCATANA Plan
1.4.4 604 - Private Operator Passenger Transportation
  General
  .1   604.01 Application
  Flight Operations
  .2   604.10 Checklist
  .3   604.11 Operational Flight Data Sheet
  .4   604.16 Flight Attendant Requirement
  .5   604.17 Cabin Safety Procedures
  .6   604.18 Briefing of Passengers
  Flight Time and Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Periods
  .7   604.26 Flight Time Limitations
  .8   604.27 Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Periods
  .9   604.28 Split Flight Duty Time
  .10   604.29 Extension of Flight Duty Time
  .11   604.30 Unforeseen Operational Circumstances
  .12   604.31 Delayed Reporting Time
  .13   604.32 Requirements for Time Free from Flight Duty
  .14   604.33 Flight Crew Positioning
  Emergency Equipment
  .15   604.38 Survival Equipment
  .16   604.39 First Aid Kits
  .17   604.41 Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers
  Personnel Requirements
  .18   604.65 Designation of Pilot-in-command and Second-in-command
  .19   604.66 Crew Member Qualifications
  .20   604.68 Validity Period
  .21   604.73 Training Program
  Manuals
  .22   604.80 Requirements relating to Operations Manual
  .23   604.81 Contents of Operational Manual
  .24   604.82 Distribution of Operations Manual
  .25   604.83 Aircraft Operating Manual
  .26   604.84 Standard Operating Procedures
1.4.5 605 - Aircraft Requirements
  General
  .1   605.03 Flight Authority
  .2   605.04 Availability of Aircraft Flight Manual
  .3   605.05 Markings and Placards
  .4   605.06 Aircraft Equipment Standards and Serviceability
  .5   605.07 Minimum Equipment Lists
  .6   605.08 Unserviceable and Removed Equipment - General
  .7   605.09 Unserviceable and Removed Equipment - Aircraft with a Minimum Equipment List
  .8   605.10 Unserviceable and Removed Equipment - Aircraft without a Minimum Equipment List
  Aircraft Equipment Requirements
  .9   605.14 Power-driven Aircraft - Day VFR
  .10   605.15 Power-driven Aircraft - VFR OTT
  .11   605.16 Power-driven Aircraft - Night VFR
  .12   605.17 Use of Position and Anti-collision Lights
  .13   605.22 Seat and Safety-Belt Requirements
  .14   605.23 Restraint System Requirements
  .15   605.24 Shoulder Harness Requirements
  .16   605.25 General Use of Safety Belts and Restraint Systems
  .17   605.26 Use of Passenger Safety Belts and Restraint Systems
  .18   605.27 Use of Crew Member Safety Belts
  .19   605.28 Child Restraint System
  .20   605.29 Flight Control Locks
  .21   605.30 De-icing or Anti-icing Equipment
  .22 bullet 605.31 Oxygen Equipment and Supply
  .23 bullet 605.32 Use of Oxygen
  .24 bullet 605.33 Flight Data Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders
  .25 bullet 605.34 Use of Flight Data Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders
  .26 bullet 605.35 Transponder and Automatic Pressure Altitude Reporting Equipment
  .27 bullet 605.38 ELT
  .28 bullet 605.39 Use of ELT
  .29 bullet 605.40 ELT Activation
  .30   605.41 Standby Attitude Indicator
  Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
  .31   605.84 Aircraft Maintenance - General
  .32   605.85 Maintenance Release and Elementary Work
  .33   605.86 Maintenance Schedule
  .34   605.87 Transfer of Aeronautical Products between Maintenance Schedules
  .35   605.88 Inspection after Abnormal Occurrences
  Technical Records
  .36   605.93 Technical Records - General
  .37   605.94 Journey Log Requirements
  .38   605.95 Journey Log - Carrying on Board
  .39   605.96 Requirements for Technical Records other than the Journey Log
  .40   605.97 Transfer of Records
1.4.6 606 - Miscellaneous
  .1   606.01 Munitions of War
  .2   606.03 Synthetic Flight Trainer
1.5 Part VII - Commercial Air Services
1.5.1 700 - Commercial Air Services
  General
  .1   700.01 Definitions
  Flight Time and Duty Time Limitations and Rest Periods
  .2   700.15 Flight Time Limitations
  .3   700.16 Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Periods
  .4   700.17 Unforeseen Operational Circumstances
  .5   700.18 Delayed Reporting Time
  .6   700.19 Requirements for Time Free from Duty
  .7   700.20 Flight Crew Positioning
  .8   700.21 Flight Crew Members on Reserve
1.5.2 702 - Aerial Work
  General
  .1   702.01 Application
  Flight Operations
  .2   702.13 Flight Authorization
  .3   702.14 Operational Flight Plan
  .4   702.16 Carriage of Persons
  .5   702.17 VFR Flight Minimum Flight Visibility - Uncontrolled Airspace
  .6   702.18 Night, VFR OTT and IFR Operations
  .7   702.19 Entering or Leaving a Helicopter in Flight
  .8   702.20 Aircraft Operating over Water
  .9   702.21 Helicopter Class D External Loads
  .10   702.22 Built-up Area and Aerial Work Zone
  .11   702.23 Briefing of Persons other than Flight Crew Members
  Aircraft Equipment Requirements
  .12   702.42 Night and IMC Flights
  .13   702.43 Additional Equipment for Single-pilot Operations
  .14   702.44 Shoulder Harness
  .15   702.45 External Load Equipment
  Personnel Requirements
  .16   702.64 Designation of Pilot-in-command and Second-in-command
  .17   702.65 Flight Crew Member Qualifications
  .18   702.67 Validity Period
  Manuals
  .19   702.83 Distribution of Company Operations Manuals
  .20   702.84 Standard Operating Procedures
1.5.3 703 - Air Taxi Operations
  General
  .1   703.01 Application
  Flight Operations
  .2   703.17 Flight Authorization
  .3   703.18 Operational Flight Plan - Subsection (2)
  .4   703.20 Fuel Requirements - Paragraph (b)
  .5   703.21 Admission to Pilot's Compartment
  .6   703.22 Transport of Passengers in Single-engined Aircraft
  .7   703.23 Aircraft Operating over Water
  .8   703.24 Number of Passengers in Single-engined Aircraft
  .9   703.25 Carriage of External Loads
  .10   703.26 Simulation of Emergency Situations
  .11   703.27 VFR Flight Obstacle Clearance Requirements
  .12   703.28 VFR Flight Minimum Flight Visibility - Uncontrolled Airspace
  .13   703.29 VFR Flight Weather Conditions
  .14   703.32 Enroute Limitations
  .15   703.33 VFR OTT Flight
  .16   703.34 Routes in Uncontrolled Airspace
  .17   703.36 Minimum Altitudes and Distances
  .18   703.37 Weight and Balance Control
  .19   703.38 Passenger and Cabin Safety Procedures
  .20   703.39 Briefing of Passengers
  Aircraft Equipment Requirements
  .21   703.64 General Requirements
  .22   703.69 Shoulder Harness
  Emergency Equipment
  .23   703.82 Equipment Standards and Inspection
  Personnel Requirements
  .24   703.86 Minimum Crew
  .25   703.87 Designation of Pilot-in-command and Second-in-command
  .26   703.88 Flight Crew Member Qualifications
  .27   703.91 Validity Period
  .28   703.98 Training Program
  Manuals
  .29   703.106 Distribution of Company Operations Manual
  .30   703.107 Aircraft Standard Operating Procedures
1.5.4 704 - Commuter Operations
  .1   704.01 Application
  Flight Operations
  .2   704.12 Operating Instructions
  .3   704.13 General Operational Information
  .4   704.16 Flight Authorization
  .5   704.17 Operational Flight Plan - Subsection (2)
  .6   704.19 Checklist
  .7   704.20 Fuel Requirements - Paragraph (b)
  .8   704.22 Simulation of Emergency Situations
  .9   704.23 VFR Flight Obstacle Clearance Requirements
  .10   704.24 VFR Flight Minimum Flight Visibility - Uncontrolled Airspace
  .11   704.25 VFR Flight Weather Conditions
  .12   704.28 VFR OTT Flight
  .13   704.29 Routes in Uncontrolled airspace
  .14   704.31 Minimum Altitudes and Distances
  .15   704.32 Weight and Balance Control
  .16   704.33 Apron and Cabin Safety Procedures
  .17   704.34 Briefing of Passengers
  Aircraft Performance Operation Limitations
  .18   704.46 Take-off Weight Limitations
  .19   704.48 Enroute Limitations with One Engine Inoperative
  Aircraft Equipment Requirements
  .20   704.62 General Requirements
  .21   704.63 Operation of Aircraft in Icing Conditions
  .22   704.68 Shoulder Harnesses
  Emergency Equipment
  .23   704.83 Hand-held Fire Extinguisher
  Personnel Requirements
  .24   704.107 Designation of Pilot-in-command and Second-in-command
  .25   704.108 Flight Crew Member Qualifications
  .26   704.111 Validity Period
  .27   704.115 Training Program
  Manuals
  .28   704.122 Distribution of Company Operations Manual
  .29   704.123 Aircraft Operating Manual
  .30   704.124 Standard Operating Procedures

1.6 NOTAM

1.7 A.I.P. Canada

.1 A.I.P. Canada
.2 Supplements
.3 Aeronautical Information Circulars
.4 Aviation Notices and AIRAC Canada

1.8 Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) - (A.I.P. GEN 3.0)

1.9 Air Traffic Services and Procedures

.1 Air Traffic and Advisory Services
.2 Flight Service Stations
.3 Communications Procedures
.4 Radar Service
.5 ATC Clearances and Instructions
.6 Wake Turbulence Separation
.7 Airport/Aerodrome Operations - Uncontrolled
.8 Airport/Aerodrome Operations - Controlled
.9 Mandatory and Aerodrome Traffic Frequencies
.10 VFR En Route Procedures
.11 VFR Holding Procedures
.12 Simultaneous Intersecting Runway Operations (SIRO)

1.10 Operations in Domestic Airspace

.1 Altimeter Setting Procedures
.2 Cruising Altitudes
.3 Profile Descent
.4 Leaving or Entering Uncontrolled Airspace
.5 Uncontrolled Airspace Procedures

Section 2: Airframes, Engines and Aircraft Systems

2.1 Airframes

.1 Flight Controls
.2 Types of Construction

2.2 Engines

.1 Principles of Reciprocating Engines
.2 Handling Procedures for Reciprocating Engines
.3 Principles of Turbine Engines
.4 Handling Procedures for Turbine Engines
.5 Engine Controls

2.3 Aircraft Systems

  .1 Fuel
  .2 Oil
bullet .3 Electrical
  .4 Hydraulic
  .5 Transmissions
  .6 Pneumatic
  .7 Warning (e.g. ice, fire, chip detectors)
  .8 Fire Protection
  .9 Heating
  .10 De-icing and Anti-icing
  .11 Particle Separators
  .12 Emergency Floatation
  .13 Oxygen
  .14 Undercarriage and Brakes
  .15 Autopilot/Stability Augmentation

Section 3: Meteorology

3.1 The Earth's Atmosphere

.1 Properties
.2 Vertical Structure
.3 ICAO Standard Atmosphere

3.2 Atmospheric Pressure

.1 Pressure Measurements
.2 Station Pressure
.3 Mean Sea Level Pressure
.4 Pressure Systems and their Variations
.5 Effects of Temperature
.6 Horizontal Pressure Differences

3.3 Meteorological Aspects of Altimetry

.1 Pressure Altitude
.2 Density Altitude
.3 True Altitude
.4 Altimeter Settings
.5 Effects of both Pressure and Temperature

3.4 Temperature

.1 Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere − Convection / Advection / Radiation
.2 Horizontal Differences
.3 Temperature Variations with Altitude
.4 Inversions
.5 Isothermal Layers

3.5 Moisture

.1 Relative Humidity / Dewpoint
.2 Sublimation and Condensation
.3 Cloud Formation
.4 Precipitation
.5 Saturated and Dry

3.6 Stability and Instability

.1 Lapse Rate and Stability
.2 Modification of Stability
.3 Characteristics of Stable and Unstable Air
.4 Surface Heating and Cooling
.5 Lifting Processes
.6 Subsidence / Convergence

3.7 Clouds

bullet .1 Classification
bullet .2 Formation
bullet .3 Types and Recognition
bullet .4 Associated Precipitation and Turbulence

3.8 Turbulence

  .1 Convection
  .2 Mechanical
  .3 Orographic
  .4 Clear Air Turbulence
bullet .5 VIRGA − Evaporation Cooling
  .6 Reporting Criteria
  .7 Mountain Waves

3.9 Wind

  .1 Pressure Gradient
bullet .2 Deflection caused by the Earth's Rotation
bullet .3 Low Level Winds − Variation in Surface Wind
  .4 Friction
  .5 Centrifugal Force
bullet .6 Veer and Back
bullet .7 Squalls and Gusts
  .8 Diurnal Effects
bullet .9 Land and Sea Breezes
  .10 Katabatic / Anabatic Effects
  .11 Topographical Effects
  .12 Wind Shear, Types and Causes

3.10 Air Masses

.1 Definition and Characteristics
.2 Formation
.3 Classification
.4 Modification
.5 Factors that Determine Weather
.6 Seasonal and Geographic Effects
.7 Air Masses

3.11 Fronts

bullet .1 Structure
bullet .2 Types
bullet .3 Formation
  .4 Cross-sections
  .5 Discontinuities Across Fronts
  .6 Frontal Waves and Occlusions
  .7 Frontogenesis and Frontolysis

3.12 Frontal Weather

.1 Warm Front
.2 Cold Front
.3 Stationary Front
.4 TROWAL and Upper Fronts

3.13 Aircraft Icing

bullet .1 Formation
bullet .2 Types of Ice
bullet .3 Reporting Criteria
bullet .4 Cloud Types and Icing
bullet .5 Freezing Rain and Drizzle
bullet .6 Icing in Clear Air (Hoar Frost)
bullet .7 Collection Efficiency
bullet .8 Aerodynamic Heating

3.14 Thunderstorms

.1 Requirements for Development
.2 Life Cycle
.3 Classification − Air mass, Frontal, Squall Line, Convective, Orographic and Nocturnal
.4 Tornadoes and Hurricanes
.5 Hazards − Turbulence, Hail, Rain, Icing, Altimetry, Lightning, Gust Fronts, Downbursts and Micro-bursts

3.15 Surface Based Layers

.1 Fog Formation
.2 Fog Types (including mist)
.3 Haze and Smoke
.4 Blowing Obstructions to Vision

3.16 Meteorological Services Available to Pilots

.1 Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)
.2 Aviation Weather Information Service (AWIS)
.3 Flight Service Stations (FSS)
.4 Weather Broadcasts by FSS
.5 Atmospheric Environment Service Weather Briefing
.6 Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWB)
.7 DUATS − Commercial Weather Service
.8 Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
.9 VOLMET (HF) Broadcast
.10 Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)

3.17 Aviation Weather Report

bullet .1 Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)
  .2 SPECI
bullet .3 Decoding
  .4 AWOS
  .5 Pilot Reports (PIREP/AIREP)

3.18 Aviation Forecasts

bullet .1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
bullet .2 Decoding
bullet .3 Graphical Area Forecasts (GFA) and AIRMET
bullet .4 Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
bullet .5 Upper Level Winds and Temperature Forecasts (FD)
bullet .6 Significant In-flight Weather Warning Messages (SIGMET)

3.19 Weather Maps and Prognostic Charts

.1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
.2 Symbols and Decoding
.3 Surface Weather Map
.4 Prognostic Surface Chart
.5 Upper Level Chart − ANAL (850 − 700 mb)
.6 Significant Weather Prognostic Chart FL100

Section 4: Instruments

4.1 Flight Instruments - Principles and Operational Use

bullet .1 Pitot Static System
bullet .2 Airspeed Indicator
bullet .3 Altimeter and Encoding Altimeter
bullet .4 Radio / Radar Altimeter
bullet .5 Outside Air Temperature
bullet .6 Turn-and-bank Indicator / Turn Co-ordinator
bullet .7 Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
bullet .8 Heading Indicator
bullet .9 Attitude Indicator (AI)
bullet .10 Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)
bullet .11 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
  .12 Flight Director

4.2 Flight Management Instruments

.1 Flight Management System (FMS)
.2 Electronic Flight

4.3 Engine and Transmission Instruments - Principles and Use

.1 N1 / N2 / Rotor Tachometer
.2 Torquemeter or Degrees of Pitch
.3 Transmission
.4 Oil Temperatures and Pressures
.5 Turbine Temperature
.6 Fuel Pressure
.7 Fuel Flow

4.4 Aircraft Compass Systems

.1 Construction
.2 Use
.3 Limitations and Faults
.4 Gyromagnetic Remote Indicating Compass

Section 5: Navigation - General

5.1 Navigation Terms

.1 Air Position
.2 Great Circle
.3 Rhumb Line
.4 Greenwich Hour Angle

5.2 Maps and Charts

.1 Lambert Conformal
.2 Transverse Mercator
.3 Enroute Low Altitude Charts

5.3 Time and Longitude

.1 Time Zones and Relation to Longitude

5.4 Flight Planning Calculations

bullet .1 Heading and True Airspeed
bullet .2 Wind and Wind Speed
bullet .3 IAS − CAS − EAS − TAS
bullet .4 Track and Groundspeed
bullet .5 Time
bullet .6 Weight and Balance
  .7 Fuel Load / Zero Fuel Weight
  .8 Pay Load / Weight Shift
bullet .9 Critical Point (CP)
bullet .10 Point of No Return (PNR) / Radius of Action

5.5 Flight Plan Forms

.1 Flight Plan
.2 Flight Itinerary

5.6 Enroute Navigation

.1 Use of Aeronautical Charts
.2 Calculation of Heading and Groundspeed
.3 Use of Radio Aids to Determine Position and Transferring Position Lines
.4 Gyro Steering Techniques in Areas of Compass Unreliability
.5 Maintaining a Flight Log (Air Position)
.6 Determination of Wind Velocity
.7 Use of Canada Flight Supplement (CFS)

Section 6: Radio Communications and Aids to Navigation - Basic principles and Use

6.1 Radio

bullet .1 Elementary Theory
bullet .2 Wave Length and Frequency
  .3 Frequency Bands Used in Communication and Navigation
bullet .4 Characteristics of Low, High and Very High Frequency Radio Waves
bullet .5 Ground Waves and Sky Waves
  .6 Skip Distance
  .7 Reflection and Refraction
  .8 Night Effect

6.2 Aircraft Radio Transceivers

.1 VHF
.2 HF
.3 FM
.4 DATALINK

6.3 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)

bullet .1 Requirements
bullet .2 Testing
bullet .3 Flight Planning
bullet .4 Accidental Transmissions
bullet .5 Pilot Response to Signals
bullet .6 Downed Aircraft Procedures

6.4 Radar

.1 Elementary Theory
.2 Primary Returns
.3 Secondary Returns
.4 Weather Radar

6.5 Navigation Systems

  .1 Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)
bullet .2 VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR)
bullet .3 Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
  .4 Co-located VOR and TACAN (VORTAC)
  .5 Long Range Area Navigation (LORAN C)
  .6 Very Low Frequency (VLF) Navigation System
  .7 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS-GPS)
  .8 Very High Frequency Direction Finding (VHF-DF)
  .9 Area Navigation System (RNAV)
  .10 Inertial Navigation System (INS)

6.6 Approach Aids

.1 Instrument Landing System (ILS)
.2 Global Navigation Landing System (GNSS-GPS)
.3 Surveillance Radar (ASR & AASR)
.4 Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
.5 Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)
.6 Weather / Mapping Radar
.7 VASI / PAPI

6.7 Transponders

Section 7: Flight Operations

7.1 Atmospheric Effects on Flight

bullet .1 ICAO Standard Atmosphere
bullet .2 Temperature and Pressure / Air Density
bullet .3 Humidity / Rain

7.2 Performance

  .1 Power Available and Power Required
  .2 Hovering In Ground Effect and Out of Ground Effect (IGE / OGE)
  .3 Critical Wind Envelope
  .4 Best Rate of Climb
bullet .5 Cruising for Range / Endurance
  .6 Effect of Changes in Weight / Temperature
bullet .7 Flight Performance "V" Speeds / Definition and Use
  .8 Wind Shear

7.3 Specialty Operations

.1 External Loads
.2 Heliport / Helideck

7.4 Charts and Graphs

bullet .1 Weight and Balance
  .2 Take-off (including Cat A and B)
  .3 Climb
  .4 Cruise
  .5 Descent
  .6 Landing

7.5 Critical Surface Contamination

.1 Clean Aircraft Concept − Practices and Techniques
.2 Frozen Contaminants Including Cold-Soaking Phenomenon
.3 De-icing and Anti-icing Fluids
.4 De-icing and Anti-icing Procedures
.5 Variables that Can Influence Holdover Time
.6 Critical Surface Inspections
.7 Pre-take off Inspection
.8 Health Affects
.9 Application Guideline Tables

7.6 Wake Turbulence

.1 Causes and Effects
.2 Avoidance Procedures
.3 Separation Criteria and Waiver

7.7 Flight Manual

.1 Approved Information
.2 Unapproved Information

Section 8: Theory of Flight

8.1 Forces Acting on an Helicopter

.1 Load Factor
.2 Stability
.3 Lift / Weight / Thrust / Drag

8.2 Rotor Design

.1 Number / Speed of Blades
.2 Rotor Blade Vortices
.3 Limitations to Forward Speed and Vibrations
.4 Autorotations
.5 Tail Rotor
.6 Ground Resonance

Section 9: Human Factors

9.1 Aviation Physiology

  .1 Hypoxia / Hyperventilation
  .2 Gas Expansion Effects
  .3 Decompression (including SCUBA diving)
bullet .4 Vision / Visual Scanning Techniques
  .5 Hearing
bullet .6 Orientation / Disorientation (including visual and vestibular illusions)
  .7 Positive and Negative "G"
  .8 Circadian Rhythms / Jet Lag
  .9 Sleep / Fatigue

9.2 The Pilot and the Operating Environment

bullet .1 Personal Health / Exercise / Fitness
  .2 Obesity / Diet / Nutrition
  .3 Medications (prescribed and over-the-counter)
bullet .4 Substance Abuse (alcohol and drugs)
  .5 Pregnancy
  .6 Heat / Cold
  .7 Noise / Vibrations
  .8 Effects of Smoking
  .9 Toxic Hazards (including carbon monoxide)

9.3 Aviation Psychology

bullet .1 The Decision-Making Process
  .2 Factors that Influence Decision-Making
  .3 Situation Awareness
  .4 Stress
bullet .5 Managing Risk
  .6 Attitudes
  .7 Workload (attention and information processing)

9.4 Pilot - Equipment/Materials Relationship

.1 Controls and Displays
  • - Errors in Interpretation and Control
  • - Information Selection − eg. "glass" cockpits
.2 Alerting and Warning Systems
  • - Appropriate Selection and Set up
  • - False Indications
  • - Distractions and Responses
.3 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
.4 Correct Use of Charts, Checklists and Manuals

9.5 Interpersonal Relations

  .1 Communication with
  • - Flight Crew and Cabin Crew
  • - Passengers
  • - Company Management
  • - Flight Operations
  • - Maintenance Personnel
  • - Air Traffic Services
bullet .2 Crew Problem Solving and Decision-Making
  .3 Crew Management / Small Group Dynamics
  .4 Operating Pressures
  • - Family
  • - Peer Group
  • - Employer

Examination Results - Decoding

Candidates who write an examination will be informed of the Question topics they answered incorrectly by a series of numbers related to the sections and topics contained in this Guide. Questions relating to more than one topic are shown by a slash (/) separating the series of numbers (example 3). The method of decoding these numbers is explained by the examples below.

How to Decode

Example (1) 1.4.2.3
Section 1.       Air Law and Procedures
Sub-section   4.     CARs Part VI − General Operating and Flight Rules
Subpart     2.   Airspace
Topic       3 Transponder Airspace
Example (2) 3.5.1
Section 3.     Meteorology
Sub-section   5.   Moisture
Topic     1 Relative Humidity / Dewpoint
Example (3) 3.9.12/7.2.8
Section 3.           Meteorology
Sub-section   9.         Wind
Topic     12       Wind Shear, Types and Causes
 
Section       7.     Flight Operations
Sub-section         2.   Performance
Topic           8 Wind Shear − Effects and Avoidance

Tables and Charts

The following section contains examples of different tables and charts which may be used on ATPL-H examinations.

**  Available on hard copy only!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recommended Study Material

List of Civil Aviation Publications (TP 3680E) - Contains titles, reference numbers, source and cost.

  • When in Doubt... Small and Large Aircraft - Aircraft Critical Surface Contamination Training (TP 10643E).
  • Air Command Weather Manual (TP 9352E)
  • Air Command Weather Manual (Supplement) (TP 9353E)
  • Human Factors for Aviation - Advanced Handbook (TP 12864E)
  • Heliport and Helideck Standards and Recommended Practices (TP 2586E)
  • AWARE (Aviation Weather... Playing by the Rules) Aeronautical Information Publication (A.I.P. Canada) (TP 2300E)
  • Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
  • Radiotelephone Operator's Restricted Certificate Guide (Aeronautical)
  • The Pilot's Guide to Medical Human Factors
  • Canada Flight Supplement (CFS)
  • Charts: - VFR Navigation (VNC)/VFR Terminal Area (VTA)/Enroute Low Altitude

Information on text books and other publications produced by commercial publishers can be obtained through local flying training organizations, bookstores and similar sources.

Publications used in pilot training in the United States are available through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 (http://www.access.gpo.gov/index.html).

Enquiries

Information concerning the location of pilot training organizations and matters pertaining to flight crew licensing may be obtained by contacting the appropriate Regional Offices. A complete listing may be found at: https://tc.canada.ca/en/aviation/civil-aviation-contacts-offices#headquarters_and_regional.