Advisory Circular (AC) No. 300-019

Subject: Global Reporting Format ( GRF ) for Runway Surface Condition Reporting

Issuing Office: Civil Aviation, Standards
Document No.: AC  300-019
File No.: Z 5000-34
Issue No.: 01
RDIMS No.: 14249495-V6
Effective Date: 2019-07-31

Table of contents

1.0 Introduction

  • (1) This Advisory Circular ( AC ) is provided for information and guidance purposes. It describes an example of an acceptable means, but not the only means, of demonstrating compliance with regulations and standards. This AC on its own does not change, create, amend or permit deviations from regulatory requirements, nor does it establish minimum standards.

1.1 Purpose

  • (1) The purpose of this document is to introduce and explain the forthcoming Canadian implementation of the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) Global Reporting Format ( GRF ) for runway condition reporting. The Canadian implementation of GRF is based on the Take-off and Landing Performance Assessment ( TALPA ) methodology which was developed by the United States Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ).
  • (2) This document is also being made available to the aviation industry for the purpose of conveying flight safety information. All aerodrome personnel involved with runway condition assessment should be aware of the forthcoming implementation of the new GRF for runway condition reporting. These personnel are encouraged to utilize this AC to assist them in reviewing this topic and to determine the applicability to their specific operations.

1.2 Applicability

  • (1) This document is applicable to:
    • (a) Canadian airport operators holding an Airport Certificate issued pursuant to Part 3 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations ( CARs );
    • (b) Canadian aerodrome operators;
    • (c) Transport Canada Civil Aviation ( TCCA ) inspectors with certification and safety oversight responsibilities; and
    • (d) This document is also available to the aviation industry at large for information purposes. Its contents is of particular interest to:
      • (i) Canadian pilots, flight dispatchers, air operators and private operators as well as foreign air operators, and
      • (ii) Individuals and organizations that exercise privileges granted to them under an External Ministerial Delegation of Authority.

1.3 Description of changes

  • (1) Not applicable.

2.0 References and requirements

2.1 Reference documents

  • (1) It is intended that the following reference materials be used in conjunction with this document:
    • (a) Aeronautics Act (R.S., 1985, c. A-2);
    • (b) Part III, Subpart 01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations ( CARs ) — Aerodromes;
    • (c) Part III, Subpart 02 of the CARs — Airports;
    • (d) Transport Canada Publication, TP  312, 5th Edition — Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices;
    • (e) Advisory Circular ( AC ) 300-005 — Changes to Runway Surface Condition Reporting;
    • (f) AC 302-013 — Airport Winter Maintenance and Planning;
    • (g) AC 302-017 — Runway Friction Measurement;
    • (h) NAV CANADA - Canadian NOTAM Procedures Manual;
    • (i) Federal Aviation Administration AC  150/5200-28F, 2016-12-30 — Notices to Airmen ( NOTAMs ) for Airport Operators;
    • (j) FAA AC 150/5200-30D, 2018-03-08 — Airport Field Condition Assessments and Winter Operations Safety;
    • (k) International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) Annex 14 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation — International Standards and Recommend Practices: Aerodromes – Volume I Aerodrome Design and Operations (Eighth Edition, July 2018);
    • (l) ICAO Circular 355 AN /211 – Assessment, Measurement and Reporting of Runway Surface Conditions (Advance edition (unedited));
    • (m) ICAO Doc 9981 Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Aerodromes (Second Edition, 2016); and
    • (n) ICAO Amendment 2 to Doc 9981 Procedures for Air Navigation Services, 2018-11-08 — Aerodromes.

2.2 Cancelled documents

  • (1) Not applicable.
  • (2) By default, it is understood that the publication of a new issue of a document automatically renders any earlier issues of the same document null and void.

2.3 Definitions and abbreviations

  • (1) The following definitions are used in this document:
    • (a) Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Report: means a report that details the surface conditions of all movement areas at an airport, including runways and taxiways.
    • (b) Canadian Runway Friction Index: means the average of the friction measurements taken on runway surfaces on which freezing or frozen contaminants are present.
    • (c) Cleared width: means the narrowest portion of the runway width that has been cleared of loose contaminants. (See remaining width.)
    • (d) Compacted snow: means snow that has been compacted into a solid mass such that aeroplane tires, at operating pressures and loadings, will run on the surface without significant further compaction or rutting of the surface.
    • (e) Contaminant: means material that collects on a surface, including standing water, snow, slush, compacted snow, ice, frost, sand, and ice control chemicals.
    • (f) Contaminated runway: A runway is contaminated when a significant portion of the runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the length and width being used is covered by one or more of the following substances: compacted snow, dry snow, frost, ice, slush, standing water, wet ice or wet snow.

      Note: Sand and ice control chemicals are also contaminants but are not included in the definition of contaminated runway because their effect on runway surface friction characteristics and the runway condition code cannot be evaluated in a standardized manner.

    • (g) Dry: means a surface condition that is free of visible moisture, and has no observed contaminants.
    • (h) Dry snow: means snow that does not contain sufficient water to allow the crystals to stick together or bond to a surface. (Dry snow, when compressed, falls apart, and a snowball cannot readily be made from it.)
    • (i) Frost: means ice crystals formed from airborne moisture on a surface whose temperature is below freezing. Frost differs from ice in that the frost crystals grow independently and therefore have a more granular texture.

      Note 1: Below freezing refers to air temperature equal to or less than the freezing point of water (0°C).

      Note 2: Heavy frost that has noticeable depth may have friction qualities similar to ice and downgrading the runway condition code accordingly should be considered. If driving a vehicle over the frost does not result in tire tracks down to bare pavement, the frost may be of sufficient depth to consider a downgrade of the runway condition code.

    • (j) Ice: means water that has frozen on a surface and includes the condition commonly known as black ice and the condition in which compacted snow has turned into a polished ice surface.
    • (k) Ice control chemicals: means chemicals used to prevent ice formation, to prevent ice from bonding to a surface, or to break up or melt ice on a surface.
    • (l) Paved surface: means a surface of asphaltic concrete (flexible) or Portland cement concrete (rigid).
    • (m) Percent coverage of contaminant: means the estimated amount of contaminant present on the surface of the runway and reported as percentage of the assessed surface.
    • (n) Remaining width: means the un-cleared portion of the runway. (See cleared width.)
    • (o) Runway Condition Assessment Matrix: means a matrix allowing for the assessment of runway condition code, using associated procedures, from a set of observed runway surface condition(s).
    • (p) Runway Condition Code: means a number describing the runway surface condition.
    • (q) Runway Surface Condition: means the portion of the AMSCR which reports the surface condition of the runway.
    • (r) Sand: means small particles of crushed angular mineral aggregates or natural sand material used to improve runway surface friction levels.
    • (s) Significant change: means, with respect to runway surface condition includes, but is not limited to: changes in type of contaminant, such as from dry snow to wet snow, measurable changes in depth of contaminant, following the application or removal of sand or chemicals, following snow removal or sweeping; changes in conditions caused by rapid increases or decreases in temperature.
    • (t) Slippery (when) wet runway: means a wet runway where the surface friction characteristics of the runway have been determined to be degraded.

      Note: A runway or its portion is deemed as having degraded friction characteristics when friction measurements, as conducted in accordance with AC 302-017, are below the minimum friction levels specified in Section 9.1.2.2 of TP  312 5th Edition.

    • (u) Slush: means partially melted snow or ice, with a high water content, from which water readily flows. (Slush will spatter if stepped on forcefully, and water will drain from slush when a handful is picked up.)
    • (v) Snow bank: means a heap or mound of snow created mechanically that is higher than the surrounding snow cover, and is located next to or on the edge of a runway or taxiway.

      Note: Snow banks are assumed to be at the edge of a runway, taxiway or apron, or, when a plough/sweeper is used, at the edge of the cleared (ploughed/swept) area.

    • (w) Snow drift: A heap or mound of snow created by action of the wind.
    • (x) Standing water: means water of depth greater than 1/8 inch (3 mm).
    • (y) Take-off and Landing Performance Assessment: means a method of reporting runway conditions (which relates to aeroplane performance), developed by the US FAA , which is intended to reduce the risk of runway excursions.
    • (z) Wet: means a surface condition where there is any visible dampness or water up to and including 1/8 inch (3 mm) deep.
    • (aa) Wet ice: means ice with water on top of it or ice that is melting.
    • (bb) Wet snow: means snow that will stick together when compressed but will not readily allow water to flow from it if squeezed. (Wet snow contains enough water to be able to make a well-compacted, solid snowball, but water will not squeeze out.)
    • (cc) Windrow: means a ridge of material, such as snow or gravel, created by airside maintenance equipment. (Windrows can exist within the cleared (ploughed/swept) portion of a runway.)
  • (2) The following abbreviations are used in this document:
    • (a) AC : Advisory Circular
    • (b) AMSCR : Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Report
    • (c) CARs : Canadian Aviation Regulations
    • (d) CL : Centreline
    • (e) CRFI : Canadian Runway Friction Index
    • (f) FAA : Federal Aviation Administration
    • (g) GRF : Global Reporting Format
    • (h) ICAO : International Civil Aviation Organization
    • (i) RCAM : Runway Condition Assessment Matrix
    • (j) RSC : Runway Surface Condition
    • (k) RWY : Runway
    • (l) RWYCC : Runway Condition Code
    • (m) TALPA : Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment
    • (n) TCCA : Transport Canada Civil Aviation
    • (o) TP : Transport Canada Publication
    • (p) TWY: Taxiway

3.0 Background

  • (1) The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) has developed a new globally harmonized methodology for runway condition assessment and reporting. The methodology is called the Global Reporting Format ( GRF ) and the implementation date required by ICAO is November 5th, 2020.
  • (2) The philosophy of the GRF is that the airport operator assesses the runway surface conditions whenever water, snow, slush, ice or frost are present on an operational runway. From this assessment, a runway condition code ( RWYCC ) and a description of the runway surface are reported which can be used by the flight crew for aeroplane performance calculations. This format, based on the type, depth and coverage of contaminants is the best assessment of the runway surface condition by the airport operator. All other pertinent information should also be taken into consideration. When changes in conditions occur, they should be reported without delay.
  • (3) The RWYCC reflects the expected braking capability as a function of the surface conditions. With this information, the flight crews can derive, from the performance information provided by the aeroplane manufacturer, the landing distance of an aeroplane under the existing conditions. When a RWYCC is not provided, pilots reference the reported runway surface conditions to determine expected landing performance.
  • (4) Flight crews utilize runway surface condition descriptors (type and depth of contamination) when determining their aeroplane’s expected take-off performance.
  • (5) In preparation for the November 5, 2020 target date for GRF implementation, Transport Canada Civil Aviation ( TCCA ) has developed the new runway condition reporting methods which are described in this AC .
  • (6) Canadian implementation will meet the intent and important safety elements of the GRF and will also provide some enhancements. One of the main differences from the ICAO format is the ability to report two contaminants per runway third. The option to report two contaminants will harmonize the reporting in North America. This approach provides more flexibility for airports or aerodromes, where RWYCCs will not be reported. It also gives pilots more detailed information for the purpose of making take-off performance calculations.
  • (7) NAV CANADA is updating its technology and software to meet these new TCCA requirements.
  • (8) A trial will be conducted at select airports during the winter of 2019/20 with concurrent reporting using the existing SNOWiz software and the new Canadian Global Reporting Format software.
  • (9) The full implementation is expected to take place during the winter of 2020/21. The current aircraft movement surface condition report ( AMSCR ) and NOTAMJ format will continue to be published until full implementation of the new format has been completed.

4.0 Implementation of the Global Reporting Format ( GRF ) in Canada

4.1 General

  • (1) The Global Reporting Format ( GRF ) is an internationally accepted concept which utilizes a consistent method to produce an aircraft movement surface condition report ( AMSCR ). The GRF consists of five fundamental elements:
    • (a) Aircraft movement surface condition report ( AMSCR );
    • (b) Runway condition assessment matrix ( RCAM );
    • (c) Runway condition code ( RWYCC );
    • (d) Runway surface conditions; and
    • (e) Runway surface descriptors.

4.2 Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Report ( AMSCR )

  • (1) This AMSCR has been specially designed to align with the aeroplane performance information (based on TALPA methods) which is used by pilots.

4.3 Runway Condition Assessment Matrix ( RCAM )

  • (1) The RCAM is a matrix used to determine a runway condition code, from a set of observed runway surface condition(s) and associated procedures.
  • (2) Details respecting the RCAM are provided in Section 6 of this AC .

4.4 Runway Condition Code ( RWYCC )

  • (1) The Assessment Criteria consist of Runway Surface Descriptions which are used to determine the Runway Condition Code ( RWYCC ).
  • (2) Flight crews use the RWYCC for determining the landing performance of their aeroplane. (The RWYCC is not utilized for determining aeroplane takeoff performance.)
  • (3) The process for determining the RWYCC is provided in Section 6 of this AC .

4.5 Runway surface conditions

  • (1) There are four defined runway surface conditions:
    • (a) Dry runway;
    • (b) Wet runway;
    • (c) Slippery (when) wet runway; and
    • (d) Contaminated runway

4.6 Runway surface condition descriptors

  • (1) There are eight contaminated runway surface condition descriptors:
    • (a) Compacted snow;
    • (b) Dry snow;
    • (c) Frost;
    • (d) Ice;
    • (e) Slush;
    • (f) Standing water;
    • (g) Wet ice; and
    • (h) Wet snow.
  • (2) These runway surface condition descriptors, together with contaminant depth and temperature, are used to determine the RWYCC .
  • (3) These runway surface condition descriptors are used singly or in combination (e.g. “dry snow on top of ice”) when describing the runway surface condition. Further details are provided in Section 5.4 of this AC .

5.0 Reporting criteria for Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Report ( AMSCR )

5.1 General

  • (1) The following sections describe the data fields for the runway condition information to be included in the new Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Report ( AMSCR ) format.
  • (2) To harmonize the data being entered into the software, each data field has a range of acceptable entries (parameters). This results in some constraints for some of the items reported by the individual inspecting the runway. For example, the reported percent coverage is limited to the increments given in Table 1.

5.2 Direction of report

  • (1) When runway condition information is reported for each third of the runway, as described in Section 5.4, the report should be based on the runway in use (active runway for landing and/or take-off), or the anticipated runway to be used (e.g. Runway 33).
  • (2) Reporting conditions in the direction of the runway in use provides a standard reference for pilots, which is oriented in the direction of flight.
  • (3) When reporting conditions in thirds, and the runway in use changes, the airport operator should confirm the runway surface conditions, make a new assessment if appropriate, and issue a new report (oriented with the runway in use).

    Note: The airport operator’s assessment of runway conditions can be conducted in any direction.

  • (4) When runway condition information is not reported for each third of the runway, the report is not based on a specific runway direction and is presented for both the runway in use and the reciprocal runway, as per the previous practice (e.g. Runway 07/25).

5.3 Reporting by runway thirds

  • (1) The runway condition information will normally be entered for each third of the runway. Reporting the runway condition information in thirds provides useful information for pilots. This format allows pilots to identify where contaminants are located on a runway and where the biggest impact on aeroplane performance may exist.
  • (2) In consideration of the types of aircraft operating at airports or aerodromes, the operator may choose not to report by runway thirds. All other input parameters will be the same. It is recommended that the decision whether or not to report by runway thirds should be made in consultation with the airport/aerodrome users. As much as possible, to minimize confusion, the reporting methodology should remain consistent within the season.
  • (3) When runway condition information is reported in thirds a RWYCC is to be reported. Conversely, if the runway condition information is not entered for each runway third, then the RWYCC will not be reported.
  • (4) Reporting by runway thirds is not applicable for unpaved runways (gravel, turf, etc.).

5.4 Surface condition descriptions

  • (1) The following terms will be used to describe the runway surface condition for each runway third or for the entire runway, when thirds are not reported:
    • (a) COMPACTED SNOW
    • (b) DRY
    • (c) DRY SNOW
    • (d) DRY SNOW ON TOP OF COMPACTED SNOW
    • (e) DRY SNOW ON TOP OF ICE
    • (f) FROST
    • (g) ICE
    • (h) SLIPPERY (WHEN) WET
    • (i) SLUSH
    • (j) SLUSH ON TOP OF ICE
    • (k) STANDING WATER
    • (l) WATER ON TOP OF COMPACTED SNOW
    • (m) WET
    • (n) WET ICE
    • (o) WET SNOW
    • (p) WET SNOW ON TOP OF COMPACTED SNOW
    • (q) WET SNOW ON TOP OF ICE

5.5 Percent coverage of surface condition descriptors

  • (1) The data input process will limit the reporting of percent coverage of surface condition descriptors to the increments given in Table 1. If the assessed percent coverage is between increments, it should be rounded up as indicated in Table 1.

    Table 1 – Percent Coverage Increments

    A table depicting assessed runway contamination reported at the next highest increment of 10 percent, with exceptions at 25 and 75 percent.
    Assessed Percent Coverage Reported Percent Coverage
    1 - 10 10
    11 – 20 20
    21 – 25 25
    26 – 30 30
    31 – 40 40
    41 – 50 50
    51 – 60 60
    61 – 70 70
    71 – 75 75
    76 – 80 80
    81 – 90 90
    91- 100 100
  • (2) Where some sections of the runway, or sections of a runway third, are not contaminated, the reported runway contaminants are not required to add up to 100%.
  • (3) For example:
    • (a) If 50% of the runway third is covered with ½ inch DRY SNOW and the other 50% is DRY, it will be reported as “50 PCT 1/2 IN DRY SNOW”.
    • (b) If 50% of the runway third is covered with ½ inch DRY SNOW and 25% is covered with ICE, it will be reported as “50 PCT 1/2 IN DRY SNOW AND 25 PCT ICE”.

5.6 Depth assessments

  • (1) Contaminant depths will continue to be reported in inches and fractions of inches, as illustrated in Table 2, below.

    Table 2 – Contaminant Depth Increments

    A table which depicts valid contaminant depths for reporting.
    Assessed Depth Reported Depth
    1/8 inch or less 1/8 IN
    > 1/8 inch to and including 1/4 inch 1/4 IN
    > 1/4 inch to and including 1/2 inch 1/2 IN
    > 1/2 inch to and including 3/4 inch 3/4 IN
    > 3/4 inch to and including 1 inch 1 IN
    > 1 inch to and including 1 ½ inch 1 ½ IN
    > 1 ½ inch to and including 2 inches 2 IN
    • (a) When 2 inches is reached, values are reported in multiples of 1 inch; and
    • (b) Any depth 2 inches or greater that include a fraction (e.g. 2 ½ inches) should be rounded to the next highest reportable depth (e.g. 3 inches).
  • (2) When the depth of contaminant(s) is variable:
    • (a) the maximum depth should be entered, since only one value may be entered in this field, and the maximum depth is the most important information for pilots; and
    • (b) the remarks section may be used to report a range of values for depth.
  • (3) Contaminant depths will be reported for:
    • (a) STANDING WATER;
    • (b) SLUSH;
    • (c) DRY SNOW;
    • (d) WET SNOW; and
    • (e) Combinations of the above contaminants on top of another contaminant (e.g. WET SNOW ON TOP OF ICE, DRY SNOW ON TOP OF COMPACTED SNOW, etc.)
  • (4) For STANDING WATER, 1/4 inch is the minimum depth which can be reported. (When the water depth is 1/8 inch or less, the runway is reported to be WET).

5.7 Number of conditions that may be reported

  • (1) The number of contaminant types that may be reported for each runway third is limited to two. Similarly, when the runway condition is not reported by thirds, the number of contaminant types reported for the entire runway is also limited to two. This is a significant change, since observers had previously reported every type of contaminant that was observed on a runway.

    Note: For a given runway third, the “DRY” condition is not reported unless there are contaminants in other runway third(s) and the runway third is 100% DRY.

  • (2) If more than two contaminants are present in a runway third, only the two most prevalent in that third are reported. Other factors that may be taken into consideration in determining which two contaminants to report, include:
    • (a) the location of the contaminant on the runway; and
    • (b) the slipperiness of the contaminant, which is reflected in the associated RWYCC .

5.8 Wet runways

  • (1) As per the previous practice, airport and aerodrome operators are to report “WET” conditions associated with other winter contaminants, and the associated Runway Condition Code ( RWYCC ), if applicable. (Section 6.4 provides information on RWYCCs ).
  • (2) Additionally, when a runway has been treated with chemicals to mitigate a specific contaminant and the resulting surface is now “WET”, this condition should also be reported with the associated RWYCC , if applicable.
  • (3) Due to the dynamic nature of rainfall conditions, the timely and accurate reporting of conditions when water or moisture is present on the runway, is recognized to be challenging. For example, during an active thunderstorm a runway may rapidly transition from dry, to wet (water 1/8 inch or less) to contaminated with standing water (water greater than 1/8 of an inch), in a very short period of time. In addition, variations in the drainage capabilities of a runway and/or portions of a runway further complicate accurate reporting. Therefore, airport or aerodrome operators may not be able to report these conditions.
  • (4) Where practicable, the reporting of wet runway conditions (which are not associated with winter contaminants and/or chemical treatments) is encouraged.
  • (5) When an airport or aerodrome operator reports water or moisture on a runway, the following should be considered:
    • (a) A surface condition where there is any visible dampness or water up to and including 1/8 inch (3 mm) is reported as “WET” with an associated RWYCC of 5 (if more than 25% of the surface is affected by this condition);

      Note: A damp runway that meets this definition is considered wet, regardless of whether or not the surface appears reflective. This is a change from past practices, where a distinction was made for runways which were not dry, but were not reflective.

    • (b) A surface condition where there is water of depth greater than 1/8 inch (3 mm) is reported as “STANDING WATER” with an associated RWYCC of 2 (if more than 25% of the surface is covered).
  • (6) The reporting of “SLIPPERY (WHEN) WET” is described in Section 5.9, below.
  • (7) The reporting of standing water patches (localized standing water conditions – such as puddles or pools of water) is described in Section 8.3, below.

5.9 Slippery (when) wet runways

  • (1) A runway or any portion of a runway is deemed as having low friction (e.g. due to rubber accumulation, surface texture degradation, etc.) when the friction measurements (as measured by a continuous friction measuring device in accordance with AC 302-017) are below the minimum friction level specified in Section 9.1.2.2 of TP  312 5th Edition.
  • (2) In accordance with TP  312 and AC 302-017, a conventional NOTAM (as opposed to an AMSCR ) which states that a runway may be “slippery when wet” is issued whenever the surface friction characteristics of a runway have been determined to be degraded, as described above.

    Note: The designation “slippery when wet” – when applied to a conventional NOTAM – is a function of the friction characteristics of the pavement.

  • (3) The airport or aerodrome operator may cancel this conventional “slippery when wet” NOTAM only when the runway friction level meets or exceeds the minimum standard.
  • (4) For winter contaminant conditions, the following applies to airports and aerodromes that report RWYCCs :
    • (a) When there is a “slippery when wet” conventional NOTAM in effect and there is 1/8 inch or less water present on the runway surface, an AMSCR is issued with a runway condition of "SLIPPERY (WHEN) WET.” (i.e. The runway condition “SLIPPERY (WHEN) WET” with a RWYCC 3 is used, as opposed to “WET” with a RWYCC 5).

      Note: In this situation, any amount of water coverage will be reported as SLIPPERY (WHEN) WET. (The more than 25% rule no longer applies.)

    • (b) In the case described in (a), a RWYCC no higher than 3 will be assigned for the entire runway (e.g. 3/3/3).
    • (c) If the airport or aerodrome operator deems that a downgrade is necessary, the downgrade will apply to all three runway thirds. (e.g. 2/2/2; or 1/1/1)
    • (d) When there is a “slippery when wet” conventional NOTAM in effect and there is any depth of dry snow or wet snow or 1/8 inch or less of slush on the runway, a RWYCC no higher than 3 will be assigned for the entire runway. (e.g. 3/3/3) (e.g. “20 PCT 1/8 IN SLUSH” will be reported with a RWYCC 3/3/3)
    • (e) When there is a “slippery when wet” conventional NOTAM in effect and the runway is covered with other contaminants which are associated with a lower RWYCC , then this lower RWYCC is to be reported for the entire runway. (e.g. “20 PCT 1/2 IN SLUSH” will be reported with a RWYCC 2/2/2).
  • (5) For wet conditions (not associated with winter contaminants), the following applies to airports and aerodromes that report these wet conditions and also report RWYCCs :
    • (a) When there is a “slippery when wet” conventional NOTAM in effect and there is 1/8 inch or less water present on the runway surface, an AMSCR is issued with a runway condition of "SLIPPERY (WHEN) WET.” (i.e. The runway condition “SLIPPERY (WHEN) WET” with a RWYCC 3 is used, as opposed to “WET” with a RWYCC 5).
    • (b) In the case described in (a), a RWYCC no higher than 3 should be assigned for the entire runway (e.g. 3/3/3).
    • (c) When the runway is contaminated with standing water (greater than 1/8 inch), a RWYCC no higher than 2 is to be reported.
    • (d) If the airport or aerodrome operator deems a downgrade is necessary, the downgrade must be made such that all three runway thirds match (e.g. 2/2/2; or 1/1/1).

5.10 Standing water

  • (1) Water on a runway at a depth greater than 1/8 of an inch (3 mm) is reported as “STANDING WATER.”
  • (2) As discussed in Section 5.8, due to the dynamic nature of rainfall conditions, the timely and accurate reporting of conditions when water or moisture is present on the runway, is recognized to be challenging.
  • (3) Where practicable, the reporting of standing water is encouraged.
  • (4) To facilitate the accurate reporting of standing water, airport and aerodrome operators should also be aware of the conditions which would lead to the accumulation of standing water including:
    • (a) the drainage characteristics of their runways, and
    • (b) the rate and amount of precipitation.

5.11 Unpaved and partially paved runways

  • (1) For condition reporting of unpaved runways (gravel, turf, etc.) and partially paved runways, the same list of runway surface condition descriptions will be used (as given in section 5.4) plus the following condition: COMPACTED SNOW/GRAVEL MIX.
  • (2) RWYCCs will not be provided for unpaved or partially paved runways.
  • (3) The following additional information can be reported for unpaved and partially paved runways:
    • (a) Graded (levelling of the runway surface);
    • (b) Packed (compaction of the runway surface);
    • (c) Scarified (cutting of longitudinal grooves in the ice or compacted snow surface to improve directional control).

5.12 Cleared width

  • (1) If the cleared width is less than the published width, the width for which the runway conditions and RWYCCs apply is reported in feet.

    Example: CAAA RSC 32 … 160 FT WIDTH

    Figure 1 – Cleared Width and Remaining Width (courtesy of NAV CANADA)
    Text version - Figure 1

    Various cleared width and remaining width runway contamination scenarios are depicted.

  • (2) If the cleared width is not centred, the offset should be included in the RSC . The offset describes where the cleared portion of the runway is located in relation to the runway centreline. The number of feet is indicated on one side of the centreline, and then on the other side. Example a) is added for comparison only.
    Figure 2 – Cleared Width Offset (courtesy of NAV CANADA)
    Text version - Figure 2

    Various cleared width offset scenarios are depicted.

  • (3) Examples of reports associated with the illustrations in Figure 2:
    • (a) CAAA RSC 07… 100 FT WIDTH;
    • (b) CAAA RSC 07… 120 FT WIDTH FM 80 FT N OF CL TO 40 FT S OF CL ;
    • (c) CAAA RSC 07 …130 FT WIDTH FM 30 FT N OF CL TO 100 FT S OF CL ;
    • (d) CAAA RSC 07 …100 FT WIDTH FM 100 FT N OF CL TO 0 FT S OF CL .

5.13 Conditions on remaining width of runway

  • (1) The conditions on the un-cleared (remaining width) of the runway will continue to be reported as previously for the entire length of the runway (i.e. not by runway thirds).
  • (2) Only one type of surface condition and corresponding depth if applicable, should be reported for the un-cleared width of the runway.

    Example: CAAA RSC 07… REMAINING WIDTH COMPACTED SN

6.0 Runway Condition Assesment Matrix Components ( RCAM )

6.1 General

  • (1) The Runway Condition Assessment Matrix ( RCAM ) (Table 3) is the method by which the airport or aerodrome operator determines a Runway Condition Code ( RWYCC ) for each runway third, whenever water, snow, slush, ice or frost is present on the runway surface.
  • (2) The RCAM applies only to paved (asphalt and concrete) runway surfaces, and does not apply to unpaved or partially paved surfaces.
  • (3) When runway condition information is reported in thirds a RWYCC is to be reported. Conversely, if the runway condition information is not entered for each runway third, then the RWYCC will not be reported.

6.2 Assessment criteria

  • (1) This section of the RCAM consists of a Runway Surface Description and a Runway Condition Code. The Runway Surface Descriptions in each category are linked to the corresponding Runway Condition Code based on their effect on aeroplane braking performance.

6.3 Runway condition description

  • (1) The Runway Surface Description column of the RCAM lists contaminants that are directly correlated to aeroplane landing performance. The description sections, ranging in terms of slipperiness, are categorized based on type and depth of contaminant and outside air temperature. When available, the runway surface temperature should be used.

6.4 Runway Condition Code ( RWYCC )

  • (1) Runway Condition Codes (Format: X/X/X) represent the runway condition description based on defined terms and increments. Use of these codes harmonizes with ICAO Annex 14, providing a standardized “shorthand” format for reporting runway condition, which can be used by pilots to determine landing performance parameters.
  • (2) A RWYCC is determined using the RCAM based on type and depth of contaminant and outside air temperature. When available, the runway surface temperature should be used.
  • (3) In the event the full width of the runway is not cleared, the runway condition code will be determined based on the contaminants present in the cleared portion of the runway (typically centre 100 feet). However, the airport or aerodrome operator should keep in mind that the entire width of the runway is still usable and available to the aircraft and must be safely maintained. This means that while contaminant depths may vary from the centre cleared portion to the remaining portions or edges of the runway, the condition of the outlying portions must not present an operational hazard.
    Table 3 – Runway Condition Assessment Matrix ( RCAM )
    Text version - Table 3

    The Runway Condition Assessment Matrix is shown, whose components are discussed in section 6.0.

    Notes (1-3):

    • 1) Refer to Section 6.5CRFI Information Presented in the RCAM , for an explanation of the relationship between CRFI and RWYCCs .
    • 2) CAUTION: At temperatures near and above freezing (e.g., at -3°C and warmer), the runway surface condition may be more slippery than indicated by the RWYCC assigned by the RCAM assessment criteria. At these temperatures, airport and aerodrome operators should exercise vigilance and should downgrade the runway condition code if appropriate.
    • 3) CAUTION: Heavy frost that has noticeable depth may have friction qualities similar to ice and downgrading the runway condition code accordingly should be considered. If driving a vehicle over the frost does not result in tire tracks down to bare pavement, the frost should be considered to have sufficient depth to consider a downgrade of the runway condition code.
  • (4) The following process may be used to determine the RWYCC :
    • (a) When the runway third contains a single contaminant, the RWYCC for that third is based directly on that contaminant in the RCAM (Table 3) as follows:
      • (i) If the percent coverage of contaminant for the runway third is less than or equal to 25%, a RWYCC of 6 is reported for that third;
        Figure 3 – Single contaminant, less than or equal to 25% coverage per runway third
        Text version - Figure 3

        RWYCC by third illustrated for a single contaminant with 25 percent or less coverage.

      • (ii) If the percent coverage of contaminant for the runway third is greater than 25%, the RWYCC for that third is based on the code for that contaminant that is specified in the RCAM .
        Figure 4 – Single contaminant, greater than 25% coverage per runway third
        Text version - Figure 4

        RWYCC by third illustrated for a single contaminant with great than 25 percent coverage.

    • (b) When two contaminants are present in a runway third and the percent coverage for each individual contaminant is less than or equal to 25%, the RWYCC is determined as follows:
      • (i) If the total of the percent coverage of contaminant for the runway third is less than or equal to 25%, a RWYCC of 6 is reported for that third;
        Figure 5 – Two contaminants, less than or equal to 25% total coverage per runway third
        Text version - Figure 5

        RWYCC by third illustrated for a two contaminants with 25 percent or less total coverage.

      • (ii) If the total of the percent coverage of contaminant for the runway third is greater than 25%, and the percent coverage of both contaminants is not equal, the RWYCC for that third is based on the contaminant with the higher percentage of coverage in that third.
        Figure 6 – Two contaminants, greater than 25% total coverage (but unequal between contaminants) per runway third
        Text version - Figure 6

        RWYCC by third illustrated for a two contaminants with greater than 25 percent total coverage, but unequal coverage between contaminants.

      • (iii) If the total of the percent coverage of contaminant for the runway third is greater than 25%, and the percent coverage of both contaminants is equal, the RWYCC is based on the contaminant with the lower RWYCC in the RCAM .
        Figure 7 – Two contaminants, greater than 25% total coverage (equal between contaminants) per runway third
        Text version - Figure 7

        RWYCC by third illustrated for a two contaminants with greater than 25 percent total coverage, and equal coverage between contaminants.

      • (iv) When two contaminants are present in a runway third and the percent coverage of only one of the contaminants is greater than 25%, the RWYCC for that third is based on the contaminant with the higher percent coverage for that third.
        Figure 8 – Two contaminants, greater than 25% total coverage (unequal between contaminants) per runway third
        Text version - Figure 8

        RWYCC by third illustrated for a two contaminants with greater than 25 percent total coverage, but unequal coverage between contaminants.

    • (c) When two contaminants are present in a runway third and the percent coverage of both of the contaminants is greater than 25%, the RWYCC for that third will be based on the contaminant with the lower RWYCC in the RCAM .
      Figure 9 – Two contaminants, both greater than 25% coverage (and equal) per runway third
      Text version - Figure 9

      RWYCC by third illustrated for a two contaminants with greater than 25 percent coverage, and equal coverage between contaminants.

    Note: The process described in Section 6.4 (4) is summarized in a flowchart in Appendix A for a single contaminant and in Appendix B for two contaminants.

6.5 CRFI information presented in the RCAM

  • (1) CRFI is a valuable tool which provides an objective measure of the runway friction that will allow the airport or aerodrome operator to:
    • (a) validate the RWYCCs determined through the use of the RCAM ,
    • (b) downgrade the RWYCC , when appropriate, and
    • (c) upgrade the RWYCC , when appropriate.
  • (2) An approximate range of CRFI values correspond to various RWYCCs . These CRFI ranges are used to downgrade of a RWYCC , as described in Section 6.6.
  • (3) In contrast, a specific minimum CRFI value – as opposed to a range of CRFI values – is required to upgrade a RWYCC . The associated criteria and limitations for upgrading a RWYCC are provided in Section 6.8.

6.6 Downgrade assessment criteria

  • (1) As described in Section 6.4, the RWYCC is initially determined through use of the RCAM Assessment Criteria (type and depth of contamination and temperature).
  • (2) The airport or aerodrome operator should consider downgrading a RWYCC when CRFI measurements (if available), pilot reports or other observations reveal that the runway surface is more slippery than the RWYCC that was initially determined.
  • (3) The airport or aerodrome operator should exercise vigilance and downgrade the RWYCC when appropriate – so that flight crews are provided with a RWYCC that best reflects the actual slipperiness of the runway.
  • (4) The shaded area of the RCAM provides Downgrade Assessment Criteria, as detailed below:
    • (a) Subject to the limitations for the use of a decelerometer to measure CRFI (as provided in AC 302-013, Section 4.8), the airport or aerodrome operator should utilize CRFI readings, when available, to assess slipperiness of the runway.
    • (b) Pilot reports may also provide useful information. These reports may be limited to the specific sections of the runway in which wheel braking was applied, and should be used accordingly.
  • (5) CAUTION: At temperatures near and above freezing (e.g., at -3°C and warmer), the runway surface condition may be more slippery than indicated by the RWYCC assigned by the RCAM assessment criteria. At these temperatures, airport or aerodrome operators should exercise vigilance and should downgrade the runway condition code if appropriate.

6.7 Pilot reported braking action

  • (1) This is a report of braking action on the runway by a pilot which provides other pilots with a degree/quality of expected braking. The braking action experienced is dependent on the type of aircraft, aircraft weight, touchdown point, and other factors.
  • (2) Where available, pilot reports of braking action should be taken into consideration as part of the ongoing monitoring process, using the following principles:
    • (a) A pilot report of braking action should be taken into consideration for downgrading purposes; and
    • (b) A pilot report of runway braking action can only be used for upgrading purposes if it is used in combination with other information (including CRFI ) qualifying for upgrading.
  • (3) When previous pilot braking action reports have indicated GOOD or MEDIUM braking action, two consecutive pilot braking action reports of POOR indicates that surface conditions may be deteriorating. In this situation, the airport or aerodrome operator should conduct a runway assessment prior to the next operation.
  • (4) When one pilot report of runway braking action of LESS THAN POOR (or NIL) is received, the information should be disseminated, a new assessment should be made and the suspension of operations on that runway should be considered.

    Note: If considered appropriate, maintenance activities may be performed simultaneously or before a new assessment is made.

6.8 Upgrade assessment criteria

  • (1) Given the variability of certain contaminants, there are circumstances when a RWYCC of 0 or 1 may not be as slippery as the RWYCC generated by the RCAM .
  • (2) An assigned RWYCC of 5, 4, 3, or 2 cannot be upgraded.
  • (3) The airport or aerodrome operator may upgrade a RWYCC of 0 or 1 up to but no higher than a RWYCC of 3, when all the following requirements are met:
    • (a) Subject to limitations for the use of a decelerometer to measure CRFI (as specified in AC 302-013, Section 4.8) CRFI values of 0.35 or greater are obtained for the affected third(s) of the runway using a properly operated and calibrated decelerometer for measuring CRFI ;
    • (b) The ability to raise the reported RWYCC to no higher than a 3 is applied only to those conditions listed under Code 0 and 1 in the RCAM .
    • (c) All other observations support a higher RWYCC as judged by a trained person; and
    • (d) When a RWYCC of 0 or 1 is upgraded, the runway surface must be assessed frequently during the period the higher RWYCC is in effect to ensure the runway surface condition does not deteriorate below the assigned code.
  • (4) Variables that may be considered in the assessment that may affect the runway surface condition include, but are not limited to;
    • (a) Any precipitation conditions;
    • (b) Changing temperatures;
    • (c) Effects of wind;
    • (d) Frequency of runway in use; and
    • (e) Type of aircraft using the runway.
  • (5) If sand or other runway treatments are used to support the upgrading, the runway surface must be assessed frequently to ensure the continued effectiveness of the treatment.

7.0 Process to determine the RWYCC

  • (1) To use the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix ( RCAM ), the airport or aerodrome operator will use similar runway condition assessment practices as they have used in the past. The airport or aerodrome operator will assess surfaces, and report contaminants present on each runway. Based on the reported information, the RWYCCs will be determined using the RCAM in accordance with the process described in Section 6.4. The airport or aerodrome operator will then be prompted to confirm whether the generated RWYCCs are appropriate in consideration of other available information including CRFI measurements, pilot braking action reports, etc.

    Note: The process described in Sections 7.1 to 7.3 is summarized in a flowchart in Appendix C.

7.1 Determine RCAM applicability

  • (1) If the runway condition information is not reported by runway thirds or if the runway surface is not paved (e.g. gravel, turf, etc.) then the RCAM does not apply. The runway condition information is reported for the entire runway surface without including RWYCCs .

7.2 Step 2 – Apply assessment criteria

  • (1) Based on the contaminants observed, the associated RWYCC from the RCAM for each third of the runway will be assigned. To reduce the potential for human error, NAV CANADA has developed software which will generate the RWYCC for each third of the runway as applicable, based on the reported runway condition information. It is to be noted that the NAV CANADA software program to generate the RWYCC will be developed in accordance with TCCA business rules ( RCAM and Section 6.4) and will be provided only to assist the airport or aerodrome operator in their determination of the initial RWYCC , where applicable. This conveys no responsibility on NAV CANADA and the RWYCC remains solely the responsibility of the airport or aerodrome operator.
  • (2) For runway condition information submitted using the paper AMSCR form, the NAV CANADA software will not produce a RWYCC based on the reported information, as the RWYCCs have to be accepted by the airport or aerodrome operator. However, the airport or aerodrome operator may include RWYCCs on the AMSCR if applicable.

    Note: If the airport or aerodrome operator is not reporting RWYCCs , the runway condition information should not be reported by runway thirds.

7.3 Step 3 – Validating RWYCCs

  • (1) With the contaminant assessment and the RWYCC assignment completed, the airport or aerodrome operator should determine that the RWYCCs accurately reflect the runway condition. If so, the airport or aerodrome operator will accept the generated RWYCCs and the RWYCCs may be disseminated.
  • (2) However, if it is determined – through CRFI , pilot report(s), and/or other information – that the runway is more slippery than indicated by the RWYCC (determined through the RCAM Assessment Criteria), the RWYCC should be downgraded. Guidance for the downgrade process is provided in Section 6.6 of this AC .
  • (3) Alternatively, given the variability of certain contaminants, there are circumstances when a RWYCC of “0” or “1” may not be as slippery as the RWYCC determined from the RCAM . The airport may upgrade the RWYCC up to but no higher than a RWYCC of “3”, in accordance with the upgrade criteria given in Section 6.8 of this AC .

    Note: When a RWYCC has been upgraded or downgraded, the airport or aerodrome operator should maintain records which include the reason for the upgrade/downgrade. These records should be retained for a minimum of 12 months. This information will not be included in the published AMSCR .

8.0 Other reported runway condition information

8.1 Treatments applied to the runway surface

  • (1) Treatments applied to the runway surface are reported using up to two of the following terms as applicable:
    • a) CHEMICALLY TREATED
    • b) LOOSE SAND
  • (2) Examples:
    • a) CAAA RSC 02 … CHEMICALLY TREATED
    • b) CAAA RSC 02 … LOOSE SAND

8.2 Snow drifts, windrows or snow banks on the runway

  • (1) This information is reported using the term “SN DRIFTS,” “WINDROWS” or “SNOWBANKS” as applicable.
  • (2) The maximum snow drift, windrow or snow bank height is to be reported in inches, or feet and inches, as applicable.
  • (3) The location of a windrow or snow bank should be reported:
    • (a) as a distance from the nearest threshold (in 100 foot increments);
    • (b) by indicating the distance from: the runway edge lights, the runway edges, the edge of the cleared width or the runway centerline; and/or
    • (c) with reference to an intersecting runway.
  • (4) Reporting the location of a snow drift is optional (since there may be numerous snow drifts), and may be reported:
    • (a) as a distance from the nearest threshold (in 100 foot increments);
    • (b) by indicating the distance from: the runway edge lights, the runway edges, the edge of the cleared width or the runway centerline; and/or
    • (c) with reference to an intersecting runway.
  • (5) When describing a snow drift, windrow or snow bank that is to one side of the centreline or the runway edge, the four points of the compass (North, South, East or West) should be used instead of “left” or “right”. This is illustrated in Table 4, below.

    Table 4 – Directional Reference with Respect to RWY Designators

    Cardinal direction right and left of runway centreline illustrated for each runway designator.
    RWY Designators Cardinal direction right of runway centreline Cardinal direction left of runway centreline
    01 02 E W
    03 04 05 06 SE NW
    07 08 09 10 11 S N
    12 13 14 15 SW NE
    16 17 18 19 20 W E
    21 22 23 24 NW SE
    25 26 27 28 29 N S
    30 31 32 33 NE SW
    34 35 36 E W
  • (6) Examples:
    • (a) CAAA RSC 06 … 3 IN SN DRIFTS 5 FT ALONG INSIDE SE RWY EDGE
    • (b) CAAA RSC 02 … 10 IN WINDROWS 50 FT E AND W FM CL
    • (c) CAAA RSC 14 … 2 FT SNOWBANKS ALONG INSIDE NE RWY EDGE

8.3 Other localized conditions

  • (1) Localized conditions that reduce the friction locally should be reported by indicating the distance in feet from the nearest threshold (in 100 foot increments).
  • (2) These localized conditions, are separate and distinct from the runway surface descriptors that serve as assessment criteria in the RCAM ; they include:
    • (a) ice patches,
    • (b) compacted snow patches, and
    • (c) standing water patches.
  • (3) Example: CAAA RSC 04 … ICE PATCHES 1600 FT FROM THR 22

8.4 Snow banks adjacent to the runway

  • (1) The presence of a runway snow bank, its height (in feet, inches, or feet and inches) and its distance (in feet or inches) from outside the runway edge should be reported if snow banks are penetrating the height profile specified in AC 302-013 – Airport Winter Maintenance and Planning.
  • (2) When the height of snow banks vary, the highest value should be reported.
  • (3) When the distances from the outer edges vary, the least distance from the runway edge should be reported.
  • (4) Examples:
    • (a) CAAA RSC 06 … 3 FT SNOWBANKS 5 FT OUTSIDE SE RWY EDGE
    • (b) CAAA RSC 22 … 4 FT 6 IN SNOWBANKS 10 IN OUTSIDE NW AND SE RWY EDGE
    • (c) CAAA RSC 14 … 5 FT SNOWBANKS ON SW RWY EDGE
      Figure 10 – (Courtesy of NAV CANADA)
      Text version - Figure 10

      Figure illustrating snowbank location on and near runway edges.

9.0 Additional NON- GRF / TALPA information

9.1 Canadian Runway Friction Index ( CRFI ) measurements

  • (1) CRFI readings are taken and reported in accordance with AC 302-013 – Airport Winter Maintenance and Planning. CRFI measurements may be reported by runway thirds for runways greater than or equal to 6000 ft (1829 m) in length. If the runway condition information is not being reported by runway thirds, the runway average CRFI is reported. The air temperature in degrees Celsius and time of measurement is reported with the CRFI reading.
  • (2) Examples:
    • a) Reporting in runway thirds:

      ADDN NON- GRF / TALPA INFO:
      CAAA CRFI RWY 09 -3C .40/.32/.28 OBS AT 1909131504

    • b) Reporting runway average:

      ADDN NON- GRF / TALPA INFO:
      CAAA CRFI RWY 07 -3C .25 OBS AT 1902141408

10.0 Taxiway and apron information

  • (1) Information on the conditions of taxiways and aprons is optional and is included in the AMSCR only if provided by the airport or aerodrome operator.
  • (2) Due to the lower speed at which aircraft move on taxiways and aprons, the originator should take care to only include the information that has an impact on safety and normal operations, such as the risk of becoming stuck, losing control on a slippery surface, or damaging the aircraft.
  • (3) Only one type of surface condition and corresponding depth, if applicable, should be reported for taxiways and aprons. The percentage of contaminants is not to be reported.
  • (4) It is important to provide pertinent and concise information. Where possible, the use of approved abbreviations is recommended.

    Note: Airport and aerodrome operators are cautioned against providing excessive and overly detailed information regarding the condition of taxiways and aprons. This can be a needless distraction and is a disservice to flight crews as it adds significantly to pilot workload and may contribute to flight crews missing other critical information.

  • (5) If the same conditions apply to several taxiways or aprons, the information should be grouped together. The term ALL TWY or ALL APN can be used to describe the conditions that apply to all taxiways and/or aprons.
  • (6) Taxiway and apron information can include but is not limited to:
    • (a) type of contaminant and depth,
    • (b) qualitative friction (e.g. “BRAKING ACTION POOR”),
    • (c) presence of snow drifts, windrows and snow banks, and
    • (d) presence of treatments.
  • (7) Examples:
    • (a) RMK: TWY E AND F: 8 IN WET SN
    • (b) RMK: TWY B BRAKING ACTION POOR
    • (c) RMK: TWY A 1 FT 6 IN SNOWBANKS
    • (d) RMK: APN II AND III ICE COVERED. CHEMICALLY TREATED
    • (e) RMK: ALL TWY 2 IN DRY SN

11.0 General remarks

  • (1) This section is used to record maintenance activities (plowing, sweeping, etc.) or any unusual contamination conditions such as a contaminant location that cannot otherwise be recorded.
  • (2) Examples include, but are not necessarily limited to:
    • (a) CONDITIONS CHANGING RAPIDLY, and
    • (b) CLEARING IN PROGRESS
  • (3) These remarks need to be kept brief and concise, to ensure that only important safety information is conveyed.

12.0 Order of reported runway condition information

  • (1) The following order of reporting applies to a complete AMSCR
    • (a) NOTAM header;
    • (b) RSC header including:
      • (i) Runway in use designator, when reporting in thirds (e.g. 33), or
      • (ii) Full runway designator, when not reporting in thirds (e.g. 07/25);
    • (c) Surface conditions for each runway, as applicable:
      • (i) Runway condition code for each runway third (if applicable);
      • (ii) Conditions within the cleared width: percent coverage, depth (if applicable), and type of contaminant, for each third of the runway (if applicable);
      • (iii) Cleared width (if applicable);
      • (iv) Conditions for remaining width (if applicable);
      • (v) Snow drifts, windrows and/or snow banks on the runway (if applicable);
      • (vi) Localized conditions (if applicable);
      • (vii) Treatments (if applicable);
      • (viii) Snow banks adjacent to runway (if applicable);
      • (ix) Runway remarks (optional);
      • (x) RSC observation time.
    • (d) CRFI Header: ADDN NON- GRF / TALPA INFO;
    • (e) CRFI readings for each runway as applicable;
    • (f) Taxiway conditions;
    • (g) Apron conditions;
    • (h) General remarks;
    • (i) Next scheduled time of observation.

13.0 Requirements to issue an AMSCR / significant change

  • (1) The requirements to conduct movement area inspections and report the surface conditions are described in AC 302-013 – Airport Winter Maintenance and Planning.
  • (2) When contaminants are present on a movement area, an AMSCR is to be made available during the published AMSCR hours as follows:
    • (a) at the commencement of the published AMSCR hours,
    • (b) a minimum of once every eight or twenty-four hours, as applicable, as described in Section 14 of this AC ;
    • (c) when a significant changes occurs, as described below in (4);
    • (d) following every accident or incident in which winter conditions may have been a factor; and
    • (e) whenever the cleared width of the runway falls below the full width of the runway.
  • (3) Reporting of the runway surface conditions should continue until the runway is no longer contaminated. When this occurs, the airport or aerodrome operator will issue an AMSCR that states the runway is wet or dry as appropriate.
  • (4) A new AMSCR is also issued when a significant change occurs. Significant changes include:
    • (a) Any change in the RWYCC (for airport or aerodrome operator not reporting RWYCC , a change in CRFI of 0.05 or more);
    • (b) Any change in the contaminant type;
    • (c) Any change of 20% or more in the reportable contaminant coverage;
    • (d) Any change in contaminant depth according to Table 5; and
    • (e) Any other information, which according to assessment techniques, is considered to be significant. For example, following the application or removal of sand or chemicals; following snow removal or sweeping; changes in conditions caused by rapid increases or decreases in temperature.

      Table 5 – Significant Change by Contaminant Type

      Minimum reporting depths are shown for various contaminants, and relevant minimum change in depth which constitutes a significant change.
      Contaminant Valid depth values to be reported (minimum depth/assessed value) Significant change
      STANDING WATER 1/4 inch, then assessed value 1/8 inch
      SLUSH 1/8 inch, then assessed value 1/8 inch
      WET SNOW 1/8 inch, then assessed value 1/4 inch
      DRY SNOW 1/8 inch, then assessed value 3/4 inch

      Note 1. For STANDING WATER, 1/4 inch is the minimum depth which can be reported. (When the water depth is 1/8 inch or less, the runway is reported to be WET).

      Note 2. For SLUSH, WET SNOW and DRY SNOW, 1/8 inch is the minimum depth which can be reported.

  • (5) An example illustrating significant change for contaminant depth is given in Appendix D.

14.0 Validity period

  • (1) The validity period of an AMSCR ( NOTAM ) should not exceed the published operating hours for an airport or aerodrome, unless the surface conditions are being monitored.
  • (2) For airports, the maximum validity period for an AMSCR is 8 hours.
  • (3) For aerodromes reporting RWYCCs , the maximum validity period for an AMSCR is 8 hours.
  • (4) For aerodromes not reporting RWYCCs , the maximum validity period for an AMSCR is 24 hours.
  • (5) To ensure that an AMSCR is available whenever conditions warrant, airport or aerodrome operators should ensure that a new report is made available prior to the expiry time of an existing RSC report.

15.0 Example runway condition report

  • (1) Following is an example of a runway condition and the corresponding runway condition report:
    Figure 11 – Example of a contaminated runway where operator reports by thirds
    Text version - Figure 11

    Example of a contaminated runway with a partially cleared width, where the operator reports by thirds.

    The first third has 25 percent compacted snow, and 50 percent one eighth inch dry snow. The middle third has 50 percent compacted snow, 50 percent one quarter inch dry snow. The final third has 25 percent compacted snow, 25 percent one quarter inch dry snow. The runway has a 160 foot cleared width, with compacted snow remaining width. RWYCC assigned is 5/3/3.

    CAAA RSC 07 5/3/3 50 PCT 1/8 IN DRY SN AND 25 PCT COMPACTED SN, 50 PCT COMPACTED SN AND 50 PCT 1/4 IN DRY SN, 25 PCT COMPACTED SN AND 25 PCT 1/4 IN DRY SN. 160FT WIDTH. REMAINING WIDTH COMPACTED SN. 6 IN SN DRIFTS. OBS AT 1911141457

    ADDN NON- GRF / TALPA INFO:
    CAAA CRFI RWY 07 -3C .40/.32/.30 OBS AT 1909141504

  • (2) Following is an example of a runway surface condition report with more than one runway:

    CAAA RSC 07 3/3/3 50 PCT COMPACTED SN, 50 PCT COMPACTED SN, 50 PCT COMPACTED SN. 160FT WIDTH. REMAINING WIDTH COMPACTED SN. LOOSE SAND. OBS AT 2001122316

    CAAA RSC 14 1/1/1 30 PCT ICE, 30 PCT ICE, 30 PCT ICE. CHEMICALLY TREATED. OBS AT 2001122426

    ADDN NON- GRF / TALPA INFO:
    CAAA CRFI RWY 07 -3C .40/.32/.30 OBS AT 2001122304
    CAAA CRFI RWY 14 -3C .20/.18/.22 OBS AT 2001122308

    RMK: TWY A ICE PATCHES, TWY B COMPACTED SN 2 FT SNOWBANKS, TWY C BRAKING ACTION POOR.

  • (3) Following is an example of a runway condition and the corresponding runway condition report, when the runway condition information is not reported by runway thirds:
    Figure 12 – Example of a contaminated runway where operator does not report by thirds
    Text version - Figure 12

    Example of a contaminated runway with a partially cleared width, where the operator does not report by thirds.

    The runway is 25 percent compacted snow, 50 percent one eighth inch dry snow. The runway has a 160 foot cleared width, with compacted snow remaining width.

    CAAA RSC 07/25 50 PCT 1/8 IN DRY SN AND 25 PCT COMPACTED SN. 160FT WIDTH. REMAINING WIDTH COMPACTED SN. OBS AT 2001120016

    ADDN NON- GRF / TALPA INFO:
    CAAA CRFI RWY 07/25 -3C .40 OBS AT 2001120008

  • (4) The following example is provided to illustrate the order of reporting for multiple runways, with various contaminants and remarks:

    CAAA RSC 04 5/3/3 50 PCT 1/8 IN DRY SN AND 20 PCT COMPACTED SN, 40 PCT 1/4 IN DRY SN, 25 PCT COMPACTED SN AND 25 PCT 1 IN DRY SN OVER COMPACTED SN. 150 FT WIDTH. REMAINING WIDTH COMPACTED SN. 3 IN SN DRIFTS 50 FT SE FM CL . ICE PATCHES 1200 FT FROM THR 22. LOOSE SAND. 3 FT SNOWBANKS 5 FT OUTSIDE SE AND NW RWY EDGE. OBS AT 2002141436

    CAAA RSC 12 3/2/2 50 PCT 1/2 IN WET SN, 40 PCT 1/2 IN SLUSH AND 30 PCT 1/2 IN WET SN, 50 PCT 1/2 IN SLUSH. 150 FT WIDTH FM 90 FT SW OF CL TO 60 FT NE OF CL . REMAINING WIDTH 3 IN WET SN. 8 IN WINDROWS ON RWY EDGE. CHEMICALLY TREATED. 2 FTSNOWBANKS 8 FT OUTSIDE SW AND NE RWY EDGE. OBS AT 2002141443

    ADDN NON- GRF / TALPA INFO:
    CAAA CRFI RWY 04 -3C .40/.32/.30 OBS AT 2002141437
    CAAA CRFI RWY 12 -3C .32/.22/.24 OBS AT 2002141456

    RMK: TWY A ICE PATCHES, CHEMICALLY TREATED, TWY B, C, D, E 100 PCT COMPACTED SN 2 FT SNOWBANKS, TWY F, G 2 IN WET SNOW. LOOSE SAND, TWY H BRAKING ACTION POOR.
    RMK: ALL APN ICE PATCHES. CHEMICALLY TREATED, APN I 1 IN WET SNOW
    RMK: CLEARING IN PROGRESS

16.0 Conclusion

  • (1) It is expected that NAV CANADA will phase in the use of the Global Reporting Format by the winter of 2020/21. NAV CANADA will advise airport or aerodrome operators as the new software becomes available for their use.
  • (2) When the Canadian GRF software is available for use, and the airport or aerodrome operator wishes to use a form to prepare inputs to the GRF software, TCCA recommends that airport or aerodrome operators use the newly developed Canadian GFR version of the AMSCR form.
  • (3) The new AMSCR form is designed to accommodate the GRF input process and may have to be adapted for specific airport circumstances, in consultation with NAV CANADA.
  • (4) Training information is provided in Appendix E.

17.0 Information management

  • (1) Not applicable.

18.0 Document history

  • (1) Not applicable.

19.0 Contact us

For more information, please contact:
http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/regions.htm

Suggestions for amendment to this document are invited, and should be submitted via:
TC.FlightStandards-Normsvol.TC@tc.gc.ca

Document approved by

Robert Sincennes
Director, Standards
Civil Aviation

Appendix A – Single contaminant decision process

Text version - Appendix A

A flowchart of the process described in section 6.4 (4) for a single contaminant.

Note: Refer to Appendix C for complete process to determine RWYCC (including downgrade/upgrade, as appropriate).

Appendix B – Multiple contaminant decision process

Text version - Appendix B

A flowchart of the process described in section 6.4 (4) for two contaminants.

Note: Refer to Appendix C for complete process to determine RWYCC (including downgrade/upgrade, as appropriate).

Appendix C – Process to determine the RWYCC

Text version - Appendix C

A flowchart of the process described in sections 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3.

Appendix D – Example illustrating significant change

  • (1) In the following example, a runway is assessed to be contaminated with 1/8 IN DRY SNOW. After the first assessment of runway condition, a first AMSCR is generated. The initial report is:

    5/5/5 100 PCT 1/8 IN DRY SNOW, 100 PCT 1/8 IN DRY SNOW, 100 PCT 1/8 IN DRY SNOW

    Note: The full information string is not used in this example.

  • (2) With continuing precipitation, a new runway condition report is required to be generated as subsequent assessment reveals a change in the runway condition code. A second AMSCR is therefore created as:

    3/3/3 100 PCT 1/4 IN DRY SNOW, 100 PCT 1/4 IN DRY SNOW, 100 PCT 1/4 IN DRY SNOW

  • (3) With even more precipitation, further assessment reveals the depth of precipitation has increased from 1/4 IN to 1/2 IN along the entire length of the runway. However, a new AMSCR is not required because the change in depth is less than the significant change threshold of 3/4 IN for DRY SNOW.
  • (4) A final assessment of the precipitation reveals that the depth has increased to 1 IN. A new runway condition report is required because the change in depth from the last runway condition report (second AMSCR ) i.e. from 1/4 IN to 1 IN meets or exceeds the change threshold of 3/4 IN for DRY SNOW. A third AMSCR is thus created as below:

    3/3/3 100 PCT 1 IN DRY SNOW, 100 PCT 1 IN DRY SNOW, 100 PCT 1 IN DRY SNOW

Appendix E – Training

E.1 Background

  • (1) Airport and aerodrome operators are responsible for ensuring that their personnel are adequately trained, so that they can perform their duties. This is reflected by Section 107.03(d) of the CARs – Safety Management System, which states, in part:

    “A safety management system shall include… a process for ensuring that personnel are trained and competent to perform their duties.”

  • (2) It is recommended that airport and aerodrome operators develop a training program for all personnel who will assess and report runway conditions. This training program should include:
    • (a) Initial Training; and
    • (b) Annual Recurrent training.

E.2 Initial Training

  • (1) For the purpose of Initial Training, airport and aerodrome operators should:
    • (a) Utilize the information in this AC to develop and conduct training which includes both:
      • (i) a review of the theoretical concepts; and
      • (ii) practical exercises

        Note: Scenario-based training, which allows airport and aerodrome personnel to practice reporting conditions under various conditions, is considered to be a particularly effective.

        Note: A written examination is recommended.

      • (b) Maintain records of completed training for the duration of the trainee’s employment.
  • (2) Initial training should include, but is not limited to, a review of the following topics:
    • (a) Background (Section 3.0 of this AC )

      Note: This section is intended to help trainees understand:

      • (i) the importance of accurate and timely reporting of runway surface conditions; and
      • (ii) how this information is utilized by flight crews
    • (b) Implementation of the Global Reporting Format ( GRF ) in Canada (Section 4 of this AC )
    • (c) Reporting Criteria for Aircraft Movement and Surface Condition Report ( AMSCR ) (Section 5 of this AC )
    • (d) Runway Condition Assessment Matrix Components ( RCAM ) (Section 6 of this AC )
    • (e) Process to Determine the RWYCC (Section 7 of this AC )
    • (f) Other Reported Runway Condition Information (Section 8 of this AC )
    • (g) Additional NON- GRF / TALPA INFORMATION (Section 9 of this AC )
    • (h) Taxiway and Apron Information (Section 10 of this AC )
    • (i) General Remarks (Section 11 of this AC )
    • (j) Order of Reporting Runway Condition Information (Section 12 of this AC )
    • (k) Requirements to Issue a New AMSCR /Significant Change (Section 13 of this AC )
    • (l) Validity Period (Section 14 of this AC )
    • (m) Example Runway Condition Report (Section 15 of this AC )

E.3 Annual Recurrent Training

  • (1) For the purpose of Annual Recurrent Training, airport and aerodrome operators should:
    • (a) Utilize the information in this AC to develop and conduct appropriate training for their personnel which:
      • (i) focuses primarily on the practical aspects of runway condition assessment and reporting; and
      • (ii) incorporates “lessons learned” from the previous year(s) operations.

        Note 1: A written examination is recommended.

        Note 2: Ideally, annual recurrent training should take place during the fall, so that personnel have completed their training in preparation for the coming winter season.

    • (b) Maintain records of completed training for the duration of the trainee’s employment.