Part I - General
- 1. Short Title
- 2. Scope
- 3. Definitions
- 4. Certification of Car Inspectors
- 5. Qualified Persons
- 6. Pre-Departure Requirements for Locomotives
- 7. Operating Requirements
- 8. Exceptions
- 9. Corrective Action Reporting
1. Short Title
1.1 For ease of reference, these rules may be referred to as the "Train Brake Rules".
2.1 These Rules prescribe the minimum safety standards for the safe operation of train brakes on all freight and passenger trains operated by a railway company subject to the jurisdiction of Transport Canada pursuant to the Railway Safety Act.
In these Rules:
3.1 “bad order” means railway equipment that has been identified with a defect.
3.2 “bad order card” means a railway company form that is affixed to railway equipment to indicate repair or maintenance requirements.
3.3 “bad order information system” means any method by which a railway company can monitor, control and protect the movement of railway equipment identified with defects.
3.4 “block of cars” means two (2) or more cars that have previously received a No.1 or No.1A brake test, as a solid coupled block, for which a record is available.
3.5 “block swap” means the addition to a train of a maximum of two (2) solid coupled block(s) of cars that have previously received a No.1 brake test.
3.6 “brakes” means pneumatic (air) or electronically controlled pneumatic (ECP) brake systems.
3.7 “brake indicator device” means any device used to indicate the application and release of the brakes when the piston is not visible.
3.8 “brake system defect” means a defective or inoperative brake component that prevents the brake system from functioning as intended.
3.9 “brake test” means a test performed for the purpose of establishing that the brake system functions as intended, as outlined in Part II of these Rules and railway company procedures/work instructions.
3.10 “cab control car” means a railway vehicle without propelling motors with one or more control stands.
3.11 “calibrated” means an indication on the airflow indicator at a position that corresponds to a flow of air into the brake pipe of sixty (60) cubic feet (one point seven (1.7) cubic metres) per minute.
3.12 “certified car inspector” means a person who is trained, qualified and certified to inspect and maintain car brake equipment.
3.13 “continuity” means the capability of transmitting a signal between the leading locomotive and the rear of the last piece of equipment of a train.
3.14 “conventional train” means a train with the brake pipe air supplied from the controlling locomotive only.
3.15 “Department” means the Department of Transport.
3.16 “dynamic brake” means a train braking system whereby the kinetic energy of a moving train is used to generate electric current at the locomotive traction motors, which is then dissipated through resistor grids or into the catenary or third rail.
3.17 “equipment” or “railway equipment” means railway locomotives, freight cars, passenger cars, cabooses or service equipment operating in a train or transfer.
3.18 “integrity” means having the unimpaired capability to supply air to the rear of the last piece of equipment of a train.
3.19 “interchange” means the transfer of railway equipment between railway companies.
3.20 “lift” means the addition to a train of a solid coupled block of cars that have previously received a No.1A brake test at that location.
3.21 “locomotive or engine” means a rail vehicle propelled by any energy form, intended for the propulsion and/or control of freight, passenger or service equipment.
3.22 “locomotive consist” means a combination of locomotives coupled together and operated from a single control.
3.23 “modified tilt test” means a test of the portable locomotive remote control device in which the operator control unit is tilted until an alarm is generated.
3.24 “operative” means a brake that applies and releases and is in a suitable condition to retard and/or stop equipment.
3.25 “person in charge” means a person certified in accordance with Section 4 of these Rules, appointed by a railway company to ensure the safe conduct of a railway operation.
3.26 “portable locomotive remote control device” means a device that is a component part of a system for remotely operating a locomotive(s).
3.27 “psi” means pressure in pounds per square inch (“kpa” means the equivalent to 1000 newtons per square metre).
3.28 “pull-by inspection” means a visual examination, by a stationary qualified person, of a train operating at a speed not exceeding five (5) miles per hour (mph) (eight (8) kilometres per hour (km/h)) to verify that all brakes have released.
3.29 “push-pull operation” means a train operation in which the control of the train can be from either end.
3.30 “qualified person” means in respect of a specified duty, a person who, because of knowledge, training and experience, is qualified to perform that duty safely and properly.
3.31 “railway company” means a railway or railway company subject to the Railway Safety Act.
3.32 “railway safety inspector” means a Department of Transport inspector designated pursuant to Section 27 of the Railway Safety Act.
3.33 “railway schedule” means an electronic or paper record that indicates the type of inspection, brake test and operational activity performed by a railway and the location where the activity is performed.
3.34 “running brake test” means a test of brakes performed on a moving train to ascertain that the brakes are operational and to confirm the operation of the dynamic brake prior to operating in territory set out in subsection 7.4 of these Rules.
3.35 “safety control” means a device(s) that will cause a brake application to be initiated automatically if the locomotive operator becomes incapacitated.
3.36 “safety inspection location” means a location designated by a railway company where certified car inspectors perform an inspection and testing of train brakes.
3.37 “supplemental source of air” means a supply of air to the brake pipe from a location other than the controlling locomotive.
3.38 “train information breaking system” (TIBS) means a system with rear and front of train radio communication components capable of:
- monitoring and displaying brake pipe pressure on the rear piece of equipment; and
- calculating and displaying distance measurement; and
- initiating an emergency brake application at the rear of the train from the head end.
3.39 “train” means an engine that is intended to operate at speeds greater than fifteen (15) mph (twenty-five (25) km/h):
- without cars; or
- with cars and equipped with TIBS or a supplemental source of air with TIBS capability at the rear; or
- with cars including a caboose occupied by a crew member; or
- with cars in passenger service.
3.40 “train brake status system” means any method by which a railway company maintains information on the status of train brake inspections.
3.41 “Transfer” means an engine with cars operating on main track at speeds not exceeding fifteen (15) mph (twenty-five 25 km/h) and need not be TIBS equipped.
3.42 “train brake test device” means equipment, either fixed or mobile, used to control the supply of compressed air to operate the brakes on railway equipment.
4. Certification of Car Inspectors
4.1 A railway company shall ensure that its certified car inspectors are trained and qualified to perform brake tests on freight and/or passenger cars and trains and perform associated repairs in compliance with these Rules and in accordance with company procedures/work instructions, and all amendments, as filed with the Department. Certified car inspectors shall be conversant with these Rules and be able to demonstrate to a railway company, by means of oral or written examinations and on-the-job performance, a knowledge and ability concerning the performance of brake tests and associated repairs.
4.2 A railway company shall file with the Department a full description of the training program, criteria and all amendments used for certifying car inspectors.
4.3 A railway company shall maintain a record of all certified car inspectors. This record shall be made available to a railway safety inspector upon request.
4.4 Certified car inspectors shall be re-certified if they have not been performing the duties prescribed in these Rules within the past three (3) years.
5. Qualified Persons
5.1 A railway company shall ensure that its qualified persons are trained and qualified to perform the inspection and testing of brakes, associated control devices and safety controls in compliance with these Rules and in accordance with company procedures/work instructions, and all amendments, as filed with the Department.
5.2 A railway company shall file with the Department a full description of the training program, criteria and all amendments used for qualifying those employees performing brake tests in accordance with these Rules.
5.3 A railway company shall maintain a record of all qualified persons. This record shall be made available to a railway safety inspector upon request.
6. Pre-Departure Requirement for Locomotives
6.1 When taking charge of a locomotive(s), except when changing off with another crew, the locomotive engineer or qualified person shall determine that all brakes are functional.
6.2 When the brake test is done by other than the locomotive engineer, the results of the test shall be made available to the locomotive engineer and be retained on record for ninety-two (92) days.
7. Operating Requirements
7.1 A freight train shall operate with no less than eighty-five (85) percent of the train brakes operative, except as provided in Subsection 8.4 of these Rules.
7. 2 A railway company shall instruct its operating employees of the territory in which pressure-retaining valves and/or dynamic brakes shall be used.
7.3 A passenger train shall be operated with no less than eight-five (85) percent of the train brakes operative, including the locomotive(s), unless a reduction in train speed is made, as determined by the locomotive engineer, in accordance with company procedures/work instructions, and all amendments, as filed with the Department.
7.4 A running brake test of passenger train brakes shall be performed after leaving any location where the crew is changed in accordance with company procedures/work instructions.
7.5 When a train experiences a brake system or a safety control failure or malfunction en route which cannot be readily corrected, the conductor, or in his/her absence, the locomotive engineer, shall report the location, date, time, description of the failure or malfunction and the appropriate action taken by the engineer, in accordance with company procedures/work instructions.
7.6 When the safety control on the controlling locomotive becomes inoperative while a train is en route, it may be cut out, and as soon as possible, corrective action shall be taken to either repair the safety control or change the locomotive.
7.7 The locomotive engineer and the conductor shall be provided with the initial brake test results and en route updates of the status of the train brakes
7.8 A freight train having received a No.1 or 1A brake test or a continuity test may only depart a terminal if:
- the train line brake pipe pressure on the tail end of the train is within fifteen (15) psi (one hundred (100) kpa) of the locomotive brake pipe pressure, and,
- air flow to the brake pipe does not exceed sixty (60) cubic feet (one point seven (1.7) cubic metres) per minute, as indicated by the flow indicator or brake pipe leakage does not exceed five (5) psi (thirty-five (35) kpa) in sixty (60) seconds.
7.9 While enroute, if the brake pipe air flow exceeds sixty (60) cubic feet per minute (CFM), when the automatic brake handle is in the release position, other than during intended brake application and/or release activity, corrective action must be taken if the flow does not return to sixty (60) CFM or below within a reasonable period of time, as determined by the locomotive engineer.
7.10 When the leading locomotive ceases to control a train en route, a continuity test shall be made from the controlling locomotive, and as soon as possible, the controlling locomotive will be placed in the lead position.
Trains with Supplemental Source(s) of Air
7.11 A train having received a No. 1 or 1A brake test or a continuity test may only depart a terminal if the combined air flow to the brake pipe does not exceed ninety (90) CFM with no individual source of air having a flow greater than sixty (60) CFM, as indicated by the flow indicator.
7.12 While en route, if the combined brake pipe air flow exceeds ninety (90) CFM, or if any individual source of air has a flow greater than sixty (60) CFM when the automatic brake handle is in the release position, other than during intended brake application and/or release activity, corrective action must be taken if the flow does not return to a combined ninety (90) CFM or sixty (60) CFM at an individual supply of air or below within a reasonable period of time, as determined by the locomotive engineer.
7.13 When one or more supplemental sources of air are placed in a train or the controlling locomotive and/or supplemental source(s) are changed, communications between the controlling locomotive and supplemental sources of air shall be verified to ensure the equipment is operating as designed.
7.14 A railway company shall have operating instructions or procedures that address the following:
- maximum distance between multiple source(s) of air;
- communications loss between multiple sources of air; and
- allow the locomotive engineer to determine air flow, brake pipe pressure and status of brake valve from each supplemental source(s) of air.
7.15 When the leading locomotive ceases to control a train en route, a continuity test and a communications test of the supplemental source(s) of air shall be made from the controlling locomotive, and as soon as possible, the controlling locomotive will be placed in the lead position.
7.16 A supplemental source of air being used as the Train Information Braking System, at the rear of the train shall comply with Section 14 of these Rules.
8.1 A car found to have bad order brakes at a safety inspection location or while en route in a train, may remain in the train, provided all the following requirements are observed:
- where appropriate, the brakes of the car or the affected truck shall be cut out;
- there are no more than two (2) consecutive inoperative control valves;
- except as provided in Subsections 8.6, 8.8 and 8.9 of these Rules, there shall be a minimum of three (3) cars with operative brakes at the rear of a freight train;
- on cars of articulated or permanently coupled multi-platform design, at least fifty (50) per cent of the control valves must be operational for car to be considered as having operational brakes
- passenger trains shall have the brakes operational on at least one (1) truck on the last car in the train and no less than eight-five (85) percent of the brakes shall be operative; and
- passenger trains having cars with bolted couplers design may depart from other than a safety inspection location, with the brakes cut out on the last car, when:
- appropriate action is taken by the locomotive engineer, in accordance with company procedures/work instructions, and
- the defective car is repaired, set off, or relocated in the consist of the train at the first safety inspection location in the direction of travel, and
- the Department is advised of each occurence.
8.2 A railway company shall control and protect the movement of a car with inoperative brakes with a train brake status system in accordance with company procedures/work instructions. This may include the use of a bad order card.
8.3 The conductor, or in his or her absence, the locomotive engineer, shall be notified of cars with inoperative brakes in the train, and in turn, is responsible to ensure the train brake status system is updated in accordance with company procedures/work instructions.
8.4 Cars or locomotives with inoperative brakes due to damage may be moved in a train when authorized by a person in charge. In accordance with company procedures/work instructions, the person in charge will ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to move such equipment safely and identify the destination in the direction of travel where the equipment will be repaired.
8.5 On trains of eighteen (18) cars or less, when it is not possible to comply with Subsection 11.6 of these Rules, a train may proceed with equipment that has inoperative brakes provided that:
- the conductor and locomotive engineer are advised of the placement of such equipment in the train;
- the appropriate action, such as the reduction of train speed, is taken so as to ensure safe operation, in accordance with company procedures/work instructions;
- the requirements of Subsection 7.1 of these Rules are not exceeded.
8.6 Scale test cars without brakes may be moved in a freight train provided they are placed ahead of the rear car of the train and they are coupled to cars with operative brakes.
8.7 Other railway equipment without brakes, because of design, may operate in a freight train provided the equipment is identified to the Department.
8.8 A test car with inoperative brakes may be moved at the rear of a freight train in test mode provided it is coupled and secured to a car with operative brakes.
8.9 In accordance with company procedures/work instructions, the person in charge may move cars or locomotives with inoperative brakes, due to damage en route, at the rear of the train when no other option exists.
9. Corrective Action Reporting
9.1 A railway company shall reply in writing or by acceptable electronic means, within fourteen (14) days, to the Department’s regional office concerned, on the corrective action taken to correct a non-compliance(s) reported by a railway safety inspector. On defective equipment, the reply, from a railway officer, shall also include the equipment initials and number and the date and location of the corrective action taken.