BD500

Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA)

Operational Evaluation Report

Revision: 1

Date: 2019-04-15

CSeries Aircraft Limited Partnership (CSALP)

Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS)* TCDS Identifier Marketing Name/Master Series Pilot Type Rating
A-236 BD-500-1A10 CS100 BD500
A-236 BD-500-1A11 CS300 BD500

Approved:

Approved by David Turnbull,
Director, National Aircraft Certification Branch (AARD)
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation

 

Date:

 

 

Table of contents

Management co-ordination sheet

Office of Primary Interest (OPI):

Roman Marushko
Program Manager, Flight Technical and Operator Certification (FTOC);
Chairman BD500, TCCA Operational Evaluation Board
Transport Canada Civil Aviation
Commercial Flight Standards (AARTF)
330 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0N8
Tel: 613-698-5433
e-mail: roman.marushko@tc.gc.ca

Date

 
 
 

Deborah Martin
Chief, Commercial Flight Standards
Standards Branch (AARTF)
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation

Date

 
 
 

Robert Sincennes
Director, Standards Branch (AART)
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation

Date

 
 
 
 

1. Record of revisions

Revision Number Sections(s) Page(s) Affected Date
0 (Original) Original Original 2016-07-12
1 All All 2019-04-15

2. Introduction

The Transport Canada Flight Technical and Operator Certification (FTOC) section within the Civil Aviation Standards Branch is responsible for the TCCA Operational Evaluation (OE) program. FTOC’s objectives during the operational evaluation of a new or modified aircraft are to determine:

  1. The acceptability of a manufacturers training program for use by Canadian operators;
  2. Pilot qualification and type rating requirements including training, checking, and currency requirements, and;
  3. The operational suitability of an aircraft type.

This report lists those determinations for use by:

  1. TCCA Inspectors who approve training programs;
  2. TCCA inspectors and Approved Check Pilots (ACPs) who conduct Pilot Proficiency Checks (PPCs) and issue Type Ratings; and
  3. Aircraft operators and training providers, to assist them in developing their flight-crew member training, checking and currency programs.

Determinations made in this report are based on the evaluations of specific BD500 series made in accordance with current regulations, standards and guidance. Modifications and upgrades made to the series described herein, or introduction of new related aircraft, may require amendment of the findings in this report.

3. Highlights of change

This revision is a complete re-write of the Original issue of this report, Revision No. 0, dated July 12, 2016. This revision has been reformatted into a new standardized format. The major differences between Revision 1 and the Original Issue are:

  • Change in ownership of type certificate holder from Bombardier to CSALP;
  • Addition of the CS300;
  • Major changes to content and organization of report:
    • Main Body reformatted and reorganized;
    • Appendix 1 - Differences Legends replaces Acronyms. Acronyms moved to Section 5 of the main body;
    • Appendix 2 - now contains Master Differences Requirements (MDR) Table;
    • Appendix 3 - now contains Difference Tables;
    • Appendix 4 - Steep approach operations replaces Example Operator Difference Requirements (ODR) Tables;
    • Appendix 5 - Reduced and low visibility operations revised to incorporate CAT II/III Autoland capability;
    • Appendix 6 - Head Up Display (HUD) qualification program – revised with minor changes;
    • Appendix 7 - Sample BD500 Initial Type Training Footprint - removed.

4. General

4.1 Scope of report

This OE report applies to all series of the BD500. The contents of this report are harmonized with the FAA and EASA to the maximum extent possible.

Note: This report uses the term BD500 when referring to the CSeries in general and the terms CS100 and CS300 when referring to specific marketing name/master series of the BD500.

4.2 Guidance material

The TCCA OE evaluations were conducted in accordance with FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 120-53(B), Guidance for Conducting and Use of Flight Standardization Board (FSB) Evaluations, and the JAA/ FAA/ TCCA Common Procedures Document for Operational Evaluation Boards (CPD).

4.3 OE report effectiveness

Provisions of this report are effective until amended, superseded, or withdrawn by subsequent OE findings.

TCCA reserves the responsibility and authority to re-evaluate and modify sections of this report based on new or revised advisory material, amended CARs, aircraft operating experience, or the evaluation of new or modified aircraft under the provisions of the CPD or FAA AC 120-53B.

4.4 Application of OE report

All relevant parts of this report are applicable on the effective date of this report.

4.5 Alternate means of compliance

The OEB Chairman, the Program Manager of FTOC and/or the Program Manager Large Aircraft Standards should be consulted when alternate means of compliance, other than those specified in this report, are proposed. An applicant will be required to submit a proposed alternate means that provides an equivalent level of safety to the provisions of the CARs and this OE report. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, and/or other substantiation may be required.

In the event that alternate compliance is sought, training program credits, simulator approvals, and device approvals may be significantly limited and reporting requirements may be increased to ensure equivalent levels of training, checking, and currency are maintained. TCCA will generally not consider relief through alternate compliance means unless sufficient lead-time has been planned by an operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.

4.6 AQP/ OEB report relationship

Where an air operator has an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), differences between this report and an operator’s proposed training, checking, and currency requirements under an AQP should be substantiated and documented as part of the operator’s AQP approval process. Program approvals under AQP need to ensure the provisions and requirements of this report have been addressed, and where necessary, coordination with the OEB has been completed.

4.7 CS100

TCCA conducted an OE of the CS100 and the Bombardier Customer Training (BCT) program for the CSeries, with EASA and the FAA, in Montreal, Quebec in 2016.

The scope of the OE was an evaluation of the CS100 initial type rating course (19 day footprint), establishment of the BD500 Pilot Type Rating and an operational suitability evaluation of the aircraft. The FFS was equipped with a dual HUD installation, and the OE evaluated the use of the dual HUD that was integrated into the initial type rating course.

The BCT type rating course was found by TCCA to be acceptable for use as the basis of an air operator’s (CAR 705) and private operator’s training program (CAR 604). The BD500 type rating was established for the CS100 and the CS100 was found to be operationally suitable for Canadian operations.

4.8 CS300

TCCA, EASA and the FAA evaluated differences between the CS100 and CS300 in the fall of 2016 through a T1 process. The same BD500 Pilot type was established for the CS300 as the CS100. Level A/A training and checking differences were established by TCCA between the CS100 and CS300 (both directions).

4.9 BD500 steep approach

4.9.1 CS100 steep approach at EGLC

An OE of the CS100 Steep Approach Specialty training for London City, United Kingdom (U.K.) (EGLC) was conducted between the fall of 2016 and summer of 2017. Training, checking and operational suitability requirements are provided in Appendix 4 of this report, Steep Approach. Canadian operators intending to conduct similar steep approach operations at other airports must substantiate any differences to the content of Appendix 4, with their POI.

4.9.2 BD500 steeper approach

TCCA completed an OE by analysis of the BD500 capability to conduct approaches greater than 3.5 degrees up to 3.8 degrees on both the CS100 and CS300. These approaches must be conducted in accordance with Supplement 9; Approaches with glidepath angles greater than 3.5 degrees, up to 3.8 degrees in the CS100 and CS300 AFMs and FCOMs. No specific training is required.

4.10 Avionics upgrade (build) 8A functionality

In 2018, TCCA and the FAA evaluated additional avionics functional capabilities identified as Avionics Upgrade 8A. (Build 8A) The functional capabilities will be incorporated into the fleet through a modification process, and are identified through option codes and service bulletins. The Level B Computer Based Training (CBT) was found to be acceptable and will be integrated into the initial type rating course.

Significant Build 8A functionality includes:

  • SATCOM;
  • PFD and MFD Display Capabilities and Reversion;
  • Vertical Situation Display (VSD);
  • Removal of FMS limitations;
  • Incorporation of FMS Noise Abatement functions;
  • AFCS altitude capture performance improvement.

4.11 Category (CAT) II/III autoland

In 2018, TCCA and the FAA evaluated specialty training for the incorporation of Fail Operational and Fail Passive autoland capabilities to conduct CAT II and CAT III approaches with and without the use of the HUD. This training also includes the HUD Low Visibility Take Off (LVTO) function to conduct low visibility take-offs using the HUD.

The CAT II/III Autoland (including HUD LVTO) training includes CBT, Instructor Led Training (ILT), and Flight Training in a suitably qualified full flight simulator (Level C or higher with the capability for training in low visibility operations.) This specialty training is organized into four courses as follows:

  • CAT II Autoland;
  • CAT II Autoland with HUD;
  • CAT III Autoland;
  • CAT III Autoland with HUD.

Training, checking and operational suitability requirements are provided in Appendix 5 of this report; Reduced and low visibility operations.

4.12 FANS/ CPDLC

In late 2018, TCCA and the FAA evaluated specialty training for the incorporation of FANS/ CPDLC training. The Level B Computer Based Training (CBT) was found to be acceptable for use by Canadian operators. This training may be delivered as stand-alone training or integrated into an operators training program.

5. Acronyms

The following acronyms are used or relevant to this report:

AARD
(TCCA) National Aircraft Certification Branch
AART
(TCCA) Standards Branch
AARTF
(TCCA) Commercial Flight Standards
AC
Advisory Circular
ACP
Approved Check Pilot
ADS
Automatic Dependent Surveillance
AEO
All Engines Operating
AFCS
Automatic Flight Control System
AFM
Aircraft Flight Manual
AP
Autopilot
AQP
Advanced Qualification Program
AT
Auto-Throttle
BCT
Bombardier Customer Training
CAA
Civil Aviation Authority
CAP
Canada Air Pilot
CAR
Canadian Aviation Regulations
CASS
Commercial Air Service Standard
CAT I/II/III
Category I/II/III ILS Instrument Approach
CBT
Computer Based Training
CFS
Canada Flight Supplement
CNS
Communication, Navigation and Surveillance
COM
Company Operating Manual
CPD
JAA/ FAA/ TC Common Procedures Document for Operational Evaluation Boards
CPDLC
Controller Pilot Data Link Communication
CSALP
CSeries Aircraft Limited Partnership
CTP
Control Tuning Panel
DU
Display Unit
EASA
European Aviation Safety Agency
ECL
Electronic Checklist
EFB
Electronic Flight Bag
EFIS
Electronic Flight Instrument System
EGLC
London City Airport (UK)
EGPWS
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
EICAS
Engine Indication and Crew Awareness System
ETOPS
Extended Range Operations with Two-Engine Airplanes
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FANS
Future Air Navigation System
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulation
FBW
Fly By Wire
FCOM
Flight Crew Operating Manual
FD
Flight Director
FFS
Full Flight Simulator
FMA
Flight Mode Annunciator
FMS
Flight Management System
FPV
Flight Path Vector
FSB
Flight Standardization Board (FAA)
FSTD
Flight Simulation Training Device
FTD
Flight Training Device
FTV
Flight Test Vehicle
FTOC
Flight Technical & Operator Certification
HDD
Head Down Display
HUD
Head Up Display
IFIS
Integrated Flight Information System
ILS
Instrument Landing System
ILT
Instructor Led Training
IMC
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
IOE
Initial Operating Experience
JAA
Joint Aviation Authorities
JOEB
Joint Operational Evaluation Board
LDP
Landing Decision Point
LFL
Landing Field Length
LOA
Letter of Authorization/Letter of Acceptance
LOE
Line Operation Evaluation
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance
LVTO
Low Visibility Take-Off
MDR
Master Differences Requirements
MEL
Minimum Equipment List
MFF
Mixed Fleet Flying
MFW
Multi-Function Window
MMEL
Master Minimum Equipment List
NSEP
National Simulator Evaluation Program
ODR
Operator Differences Requirements
OE
Operational Evaluation
OE
Operating Experience
OEB
Operational Evaluation Board
OEI
One Engine Inoperative
OPI
Office of Primary Interest
PBN
Performance Based Navigation
PF
Pilot Flying
PFCC
Primary Flight Control Computer
PFD
Primary Flight Display
PIC
Pilot In Command
PL
Policy Letter
PM
Pilot Monitoring
POI
Principal Operations Inspector
PPC
Pilot Proficiency Check
PRM
Pilot Reference Manual
QRH
Quick Reference Handbook
RDIMS
Records, Documents and Information Management System
RNAV
Area Navigation
RNP
Required Navigation Performance
RTO
Rejected Take Off
RVR
Runway Visual Range
SATCOM
Satellite Communication
SI
Systems Integration
SIC
Second In Command
SID
Standard Instrument Departure
SOP
Standard Operating Procedure
SA
Special Authorization
STAR
Standard Terminal Arrival Routing
STR
Same Type Rating
TASE
Training Area of Special Emphasis
TAWS
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
TCAS
Traffic Collision Avoidance System
TCCA
Transport Canada Civil Aviation
TCDS
Type Certificate Data Sheet
UK
United Kingdom
V1
Take-off decision speed
VMC
Visual Meteorological Conditions
VNAV
Vertical Navigation
Vref
Landing Reference Speed
VSD
Vertical Situation Display

6. Definitions

These definitions are for the purposes of this report only.

  • 6.1 Autoland – Automatic landing
  • 6.2 Base Aircraft - An aircraft identified for use as a reference to compare differences with another aircraft.
  • 6.3 Current – A crewmember meets all requirements to operate the aircraft under the applicable CAR or CASS.
  • 6.4 Differences Tables – Describe the differences between a pair of related aircraft, and the minimum levels operators must use to conduct differences training and checking of flight crewmembers. Difference levels range from A to E.
  • 6.5 Master Differences Requirements (MDR) – Specifies the highest training and checking difference levels between a pair of related aircraft derived from the Differences Tables.
  • 6.6 Mixed Fleet Flying (MFF) – The operation of a base aircraft and one or more related aircraft for which credit may be taken for training, checking, and currency events.
  • 6.7 Operational Evaluation (OE) – A TCCA evaluation of the pilot qualifications requirements of an aircraft type (pilot type rating, minimum flight crewmember training, checking and currency requirements, and unique or special pilot qualification requirements (e.g., specific flight characteristics, no-flap landing)), operational suitability of an aircraft type and the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) training program.
  • 6.8 Operational Suitability – A determination during an operational evaluation that an aircraft or system may be used in the Canadian airspace system and meets the applicable operational regulations (e.g., CAR subparts 604, 605, 701, 702, 703, 704 and 705 as applicable).
  • 6.9 Qualified – A flight crewmember holds the appropriate licenses and ratings as required by the applicable operating regulations.
  • 6.10 Related Aircraft – Any two or more aircraft of the same make with either the same or different type certificates that have been demonstrated and determined by TCCA to have commonality.
  • 6.11 Same Type Rating - Term used to indicate that the flight crew member type rating applies to one or more related aircraft. Differences training and checking may be required between related aircraft.
  • 6.12 Seat Dependent Tasks – Maneuvers or procedures using controls that are accessible or operable from only one flight crewmember seat.
  • 6.13 Specialty Training – Training on specific functionalities and capabilities that is outside the scope of initial, recurrent or differences type rating training.
  • 6.14 Specific Flight Characteristics – A maneuver or procedure with unique handling or performance characteristics that TCCA has determined must be checked.
  • 6.15 Training Area of Special Emphasis – A training requirement unique to the aircraft, based on a system, procedure, or maneuver, which requires additional highlighting during training. It may also require additional training time, specialized training devices or training equipment.

7. Pilot type rating

In accordance with Personnel Licensing and Training Standard 421.40, the pilot type rating for the CS100 (BD-500-1A10) and for the CS300 (BD-500-1A11) is BD500.

8. Related aircraft

8.1 Related aircraft on same TCDS

The BD-500-1A10 (CS100) and BD-500-1A11 (CS300) are related aircraft on TCCA TCDS A-236.

8.2 Related aircraft on different TCDS

Not Applicable

9. Pilot training

9.1 Previous experience

The provisions of this section apply to all BD500 training programs for pilots who have experience in CAR 705 airline, CAR 604 private operator or equivalent operations in multi-engine transport turbojet aeroplanes.

Pilots receiving BD500 training should have previous operational experience in multi-engine transport category turbojet aircraft, highly integrated avionics, high altitude operations, HUD (for HUD equipped BD500), ECL, EFB, FBW and FMS. Pilots without this experience may require additional training.

The BD500 may be equipped with an optional single or dual HUD. Appendix 6 provides specific pilot qualification requirements for the HUD.

9.2 BCT course content

TCCA retains BD500 initial type rating training, difference training and specialty training course content on file. The OEB Chairman, or the Program Manager of FTOC should be consulted for inquiries related to course content.

9.3 Training Areas of Special Emphasis

Pilots must receive special emphasis training in the following areas:

9.3.1 Ground training

9.3.1.1 Initial ground training
  • Principles of Vertical Navigation, including the proper interpretation of VNAV Flight Mode Annunciations during climb, descent, and approach.
9.3.1.2 Initial and recurrent ground training
  • FBW System. Normal and Direct modes and associated envelope protections or degradations.
  • Electronic Checklist Usage during normal, abnormal, and emergency operations.
  • Procedures to resolve an FMS reset and Dual FMS failure.

9.3.2 Flight training

Note: Special Emphasis flight training requires corresponding special emphasis ground training.

9.3.2.1 Initial and recurrent flight training
  • PFCC Direct Mode – Stall Prevention, Steep Turns, and either visual or instrument approaches ending with a landing in PFCC Direct Mode. (This training can only be accomplished in a FFS.)
  • Manual flight of the aircraft with the minimal use of automation during takeoff and landings and FBW demonstrations. Appropriate use of speed selection modes and intervention (manual vs. FMS speed);
  • Alternate methods of checklist usage (normal, abnormal, and emergency) including deferral of the ECL by the MEL.
  • Recommended flap retraction/extension in accordance with Flap Reference (F) speeds displayed on the PFD/ HUD.
  • Appropriate use of the aircraft symbol vs. the Flight Path Vector (FPV) during stall and airplane upset recoveries.

9.4 Specific flight characteristics

There are no specific flight characteristics.

9.5 Seat dependent tasks

Pilots must receive training in these seat dependent tasks during initial and recurrent training:

  • a) HUD (left seat) if installed;
  • b) HUD (right seat) if installed;
  • c) Tiller Usage (right seat).

Notes:

  1. HUD (single installation for the left seat or dual installation for both seats) is optional for the BD500. (See Appendix 6 for pilot training and checking requirements applicable to HUD equipped BD500 aircraft.)
  2. Dual Tiller installation in the BD500 is optional. Tiller training from the right seat must include taxi and ramp operations that would be representative of airports with complex taxiways and congested ramps. Training to proficiency is acceptable

9.6 Regulatory training requirements not applicable to the BD500

  • a) Buffet boundary onset; Demonstration of the aircraft’s overspeed protection capabilities is an acceptable substitute.
  • b) Flight control failures and abnormalities: Zero Flap/Zero Slat or Abnormal Flap or Abnormal Slat Approach. Due to system design:
    • (i) If the maneuver is conducted in an aircraft, a Slat/Flap Lever Position 1 approach to a missed approach will be used, circuit breakers must not be disabled and hydraulic systems must not be depressurized to create the failed condition;
    • (ii) If the maneuver is conducted in a full flight simulator (FFS), the approach must be continued to a landing.

9.7 Flight simulation training devices (FSTD)

  • a) Aircraft systems integration training must be conducted in a Level 6 flight training device (FTD) or higher.
  • b) CAT II/III approaches and LVTO must be trained in a Level C or higher FFS with the capability for training in low visibility operations. (See Appendix 5, Reduced and Low Visibility Operations.)
  • c) HUD (single or dual installations) must be trained in a Level C FFS with a daylight visual display, or Level D FFS in both day and night conditions. (See Appendix 6, Head-Up Display (HUD) Qualification Program.)

9.8 Training equipment

There are no specific systems or procedures that are unique to the BD500 that require specific training equipment.

9.9 Differences training between related aircraft

Pilots must receive training in the differences between the CS100 to the CS300 or from the CS300 to the CS100, if applicable. The level and content of training is specified in Appendix 3.

Level A Training differences have been established between the CS100 and CS300. Level A training may be administered in the form of self-instruction by means of a CS100/CS300 Pilot Differences Handout.

10. Pilot checking

10.1 Landing from a no flap or non standard flap approach

The probability of flap extension failure or slat/flap extension failure on the BD500 is extremely remote due to system design. A demonstration of a no flap approach, no slats approach, or no slats/flap approach and landing during a CASS 725 Schedule 1 PPC is therefore not required.

10.2 Checking areas of emphasis

10.2.1 Initial and recurrent flight checking

Special attention should be given during flight checking to address dispatch with systems operated in alternate/degraded modes. Checking should emphasize the crewmembers’ ability to cope with subsequent failure of the next most critical system failure.

10.3 Specific flight characteristics

There are no specific flight characteristics.

10.4 Seat Dependent Tasks – Initial and Recurrent PPC

Pilots must be checked in these seat dependent tasks:

  • a) HUD (left seat), if installed;
  • b) HUD (right seat), if installed.

Note: HUD (single installation for the left seat or dual installation for both seats) is optional for the BD500. (See Appendix 6 for pilot training and checking requirements applicable to HUD equipped BD500 aircraft.)

10.5 Other Checking Items

Not Applicable

10.6 Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD)

HUD (single or dual installations) operations and maneuvers must be checked in a Level C FFS with a daylight visual display, or Level D FFS, in both day and night conditions. (See Appendix 6 for specific checking requirements.)

10.7 Equipment

There are no specific systems or procedures that are unique to the BD500 that require specific equipment.

10.8 Differences Checking Between Related Aircraft

No differences checking is required between the CS100 and the CS300.

10.9 Steep Turns and Approaches to Stalls

Steep Turns and approaches to stalls are not required to be checked if the specific criteria of Standard 725 Schedule I – Pilot Proficiency Check, Synthetic Training Device are met.

10.10 Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) or Line Operation Evaluation (LOE)

Aircraft knowledge tests should be conducted prior to any proficiency checks. Any procedures and limitations that must be committed to memory should be evaluated by closed book examination for all initial, differences and recurrent training. Aircraft systems and operational knowledge should be evaluated by open book questions corrected to 100%.

The PPC should comply with Standard 725 Schedule I – Pilot Proficiency Check, Synthetic Training Device. The LOE should be conducted in accordance with an approved AQP program for the BD500.

10.11 HUD

Proficiency in the use of HUD (if a single or dual HUD is installed,) should be demonstrated during checking for phases of flight equivalent to those for non- HUD operations. Checking standards for HUD are equivalent to those for non- HUD operations. Required maneuvers should be demonstrated without use of HUD to assess non- HUD skills. (Refer to Appendix 6 for specific checking requirements for HUD).

11. Pilot currency

There are no additional currency requirements for the BD500 other than those already specified in CAR 604 or 705.

11.1 Differences Currency between Related Aircraft

Meeting the currency requirements for the CS100 satisfies all currency requirements for the CS300, and vice versa.

12. Operational suitability

12.1 General

The BD500 is operationally suitable for operations conducted in accordance with CARs 604 and 705. TCCA retains on file, compliance checklists with the applicable provisions of CARs 604, 605 and 705.

The BD500 is operationally suitable for operations in accordance with the AFM, including HUD operations (single or dual HUD installations, LVTO) , CAT II approaches with and without HUD, CAT II/III autoland approaches, and right seat taxi operations with optional tiller installed.

12.2 Reduced and Low Visibility Operations (Appendix 5)

The BD500 without the optional HUD is capable of take-off in visibilities as low as 600 feet (175 meters) RVR.

When equipped with the HUD LVTO function, the BD500 is capable of take-off in visibilities as low as 300 feet (75 meters) RVR.

Without an autoland system, the BD500 is capable of CAT II approach operations as follows:

  • a) AP coupled AFCS approaches to CAT II minima followed by a manual landing;
  • b) Manually flown approach and landing when using HUD Flight Director (FD) guidance.

When equipped with a fail passive autoland system, the BD500 is capable of CATII and CATIIIA approaches with automatic landing and roll-out.

When equipped with a fail operational autoland system, the BD500 is capable of CATII, CATIIIA and CAT IIIB approaches with automatic landing and roll-out.

13. Miscellaneous

13.1 Flight Deck Observer Seat

TCCA has determined that the forward observer’s seat and associated systems is suitable for use by TCCA inspectors. The TCCA determination is based on the findings of the FAA in the absence of any TCCA regulatory criteria regarding a flight deck observer seat. The observer’s seat has been evaluated by the FAA and determined to meet the requirements of FAR 121.581(a), FAR 125.317(b), FAR 135.75(b) and Advisory Circular (AC) 120-83.

13.2 Aircraft Approach Category and Circling Minima

  • (a) Both the CS100 and CS300 are considered Category C aircraft for the purposes of determining "straight-in landing weather minima”. This approach category is determined by the maximum certified landing weight approach speed in the Flap 4 or Flap 5 landing configuration.
  • (b) Circling approaches for the CS100 and CS300 are flown with the landing gear down, Flaps 4 or 5, and Vref +10 kts. The approach category and associated approach minima will be determined by the approach/circling speed flown and shall not be less than Category C on a circling approach.

13.3 Normal Final Approach Flap Setting

The normal Final Approach Flap Settings for the BD500 (CS100 and CS300) is Flap 4 or Flap 5.

13.4 ETOPS

Reserved

13.5 Engine Thrust Ratings

The CS100 can be equipped with the PW1500G series power plant in four different thrust ratings. The CS300 can be equipped with the PW1500G in three different thrust ratings.

13.6 HUD

The BD500 can be equipped with an optional single or dual HUD. The BCT type training program for the BD500 integrates HUD training through CBT, briefings and training in a Full Flight Simulator (FFS) equipped with dual HUD.

The HUD symbology, alerting, and Flight Mode Annunciations (FMAs) are consistent with the PFD. Training in the FFS integrates the use of the HUD with the primary flight displays (PFD) for all phases of flight. Training, checking and currency requirements specific to the HUD are provided in Appendix 6 of this report.

14. References

  1. FAA Flight Standardization Board (FSB) for the Bombardier BD-500-1A10/-1A11 at http://fsims.faa.gov/
  2. FAA Advisory Circular AC120-53B, Change 1, Guidance for Conduction and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations, dated October 24, 2016 or later revision;
  3. JOEB OPS/ FCL Common Procedures For Conducting Operational Evaluation Boards, dated June 10, 2004;
  4. Transport Canada Advisory Circular (AC) 700-035; Special Authorization for Take-off Operations below RVR 600 down to and including RVR 300; Issue No. 1; Effective Date 2016-02-12, or later issue;
  5. Transport Canada Policy Letter, PL 173. Flight Crew Member Qualification Credits for Transition Programs and Mixed Fleet Flying Programs, dated July 25, 2007
  6. Transport Canada Publication (TP) 1490, Manual of All Weather Operations (Categories II and III) Fourth Edition, 06/2011, or later edition of this manual
  7. Transport Canada Publication (TP) 6327, Safety Criteria for Approval of Extended Range Twin-Engine Operations (ETOPS) dated June 2007
  8. Transport Canada Type Certificate Data Sheet A-236, Issue No. 10, dated October 9, 2018 or later issue.

Appendix 1 – Difference legends

Training Differences Legend
Differences Level Type Training Method Examples Conditions
A Self-instruction
  • Operating manual revision (HO)
  • Flight crew operating bulletin (HO)
  • Crew has already demonstrated understanding on base aircraft (e.g. updated version of engine).
  • Minor or no procedural changes required.
  • No safety impact if information is not reviewed or is forgotten (e.g. different engine vibration damping mount).
  • Once called to attention of crew, the difference is self-evident.
B Aided instruction
  • Audiovisual presentation (AV)
  • Tutorial computer based instruction (TCBI)
  • Stand-up instruction (SU)
  • Systems are functionally similar.
  • Crew understanding required.
  • Issues need emphasis.
  • Standard methods of presentation required.
C Systems Devices
  • Interactive (full-task) computer based instruction (ICBI)
  • Cockpit procedures trainers (CPT)
  • Part task trainers (PTT)
  • Level 4 or 5 flight training device (FTD 4-5)
  • Training can only be accomplished through systems training devices.
  • Training objectives focus on mastering individual systems, procedures, or tasks versus highly integrated flight operations or “real-time” operations.
  • Training devices are required to assure attainment or retention of crew skills to accomplish more complex tasks usually related to aircraft systems.
D Maneuvers Devices
  • Level 6 or 7 flight training device (FTD 6-7)
  • Level A or B full flight simulator (FFS A-B)
  • Training can only be accomplished in flight maneuver devices in a real-time environment.
  • Training requires mastery of interrelated skills versus individual skills.
  • Motion, visual, control loading, and specific environmental conditions may be required.
E Level C/D FFS or Aircraft
  • Level C or D full flight simulator (FFS C-D)
  • Aircraft (ACFT)
  • Motion, visual, control loading, audio, and specific environmental conditions are required.
  • Significant full task differences that require a high fidelity environment.
  • Usually correlates with significant differences in handling qualities.
Checking Differences Legend
Differences Level Checking Method Examples Conditions
A None None
B
  • Oral or written exam
  • Tutorial computer based instruction self-test (TCBI)
  • Individual systems or related groups of systems.
C
  • Interactive (full-task) computer based instruction (ICBI)
  • Cockpit procedures trainers (CPT)
  • Part task trainers (PTT)
  • Level 4 or 5 flight training device (FTD 4-5)
  • Checking can only be accomplished using systems devices.
  • Checking objectives focus on mastering individual systems, procedures, or tasks.
D
  • Level 6 or 7 flight training device (FTD 6-7)
  • Level A or B full flight simulator (FFS A-B)
  • Checking can only be accomplished in flight maneuver devices in a real-time environment.
  • Checking requires mastery of interrelated skills versus individual skills.
  • Motion, visual, control loading, and specific environmental conditions may be required.
E
  • Level C or D full flight simulator (FFS C-D)
  • Aircraft (ACFT)
  • Significant full task differences that require a high fidelity environment.

Appendix 2 – Master Difference Requirements (MDR) table

These are the minimum levels of training and checking required, derived from the highest level in the Differences Tables in Appendix 3. Differences levels are arranged as training/checking.

Pilot type rating BD500
  Base aircraft
CS100 CS300
Related aircraft CS100 Not applicable A/A
CS300 A/A Not applicable

Appendix 3 – Difference tables

Table From Base Aircraft To Related Aircraft Page
Difference Table CS100 CS300 27
Difference Table CS300 CS100 29
Maneuver Difference Table CS100 CS300 31
Maneuver Difference Table CS300 CS100 32

Difference table: CS100 to CS300

This Design Differences table from the CS100 to the CS300, was proposed by CSALP and validated by TCCA. It lists the minimum differences levels operators must use to conduct differences training and checking of flight crewmembers.

From base aircraft: CS100
To difference aircraft: CS300
Compliance method
Design Remarks FLT CHAR PROC CHNG Training Checking
Dimensions

Overall length increased 12 ft.3 in

Nose wheel to mainwheel length 50 ft

No No A A
Weights

Max Ramp Weight increased to 150,000 lbs.

Max Takeoff Weight increased to149,000 lbs.

Minimum flight weight 80,000 lbs.

No No A A
Cabin
  • Two overwing exit doors per side (optional)
  • Increased cabin capacity to 150
No No A A
Cargo Increased capacity No No A A
Engines

3 Engine thrust ratings vs. 4 on CS100

PW1521G-3, PW1524G-3,PW1525G-3 on CS300

No No A A
Limitations
  • Structural Weight Limits increased;
  • Center of Gravity Limits Changed;
  • Design Maneuvering Speed Changed;
  • Increased number of cabin occupants to 150
  • Reduced fuel capacity
  • Different engine type (thrust ratings)
  • AFM demonstrated runway width increased to 150 feet.
No No A A
ATA 9 Towing and taxiing

Fuselage length increase results in larger turning radius, no operational impact.

AFM demonstrated runway width increased to 150 feet.

No No A A
ATA 28 Fuel Decreased fuel capacity No No A A
ATA 52 Doors Two additional overwing emergency exit doors (optional) No No A A
ATA 71-80 Powerplant

3 Engine thrust ratings vs. 4 on CS100

PW1521G-3, PW1524G-3,PW1525G-3

(PW1519G-3 engine not available on CS 300)

No No A A

Difference Table: CS300 to CS100

This Design Differences table from the CS300 to the CS100 was proposed by CSALP and validated by TCCA. It lists the minimum differences levels operators must use to conduct differences training and checking of flight crewmembers.

From base aircraft: CS300
To difference aircraft: CS100
Compliance method
Design Remarks FLT CHAR PROC CHNG Training Checking
Dimensions

Overall Length decreased 12 ft.3 in

Nose wheel to mainwheel length decreased to 43 ft.

No No A A
Weights

Max Ramp Weight reduced to 135,000 lbs.

Max Takeoff Weight reduced to 134,000 lbs.

Minimum flight weight 77,000 lbs.

No No A A
Cabin Additional overwing exit doors not available. No No A A
Engines

4 Engine thrust ratings vs. 3 on CS300

PW 1519G ,PW1521G , PW1524G ,PW1525

No No A A
Limitations
  • Structural Weight Limits decreased;
  • Center of Gravity Limits Changed;
  • Design Maneuvering Speed Changed;
  • Decreased number of cabin occupants to 130
  • Increased fuel capacity
  • Different engine type (thrust ratings)
  • AFM demonstrated runway width decreased to 100 feet.
No No A A
ATA 9 Towing and taxiing Fuselage length reduced, results in decreased turning radius, no operational impact. No No A A
ATA 28 Fuel Increased fuel capacity No No A A
ATA 52 Doors Additional overwing emergency exit doors not available No No A A
ATA 71-80 Powerplant

PW1519G-3 engine available on the CS100

(Not available on CS300)

No No A A

Maneuver Difference Table: CS100 to CS300

This Maneuver Differences table from the CS100 to the CS300 was proposed by CSALP and modified by TCCA. It lists the minimum differences levels operators must use to conduct differences training and checking of flight crewmembers.

Maneuver Difference Table: CS300 to CS100

This Maneuver Differences table from the CS300 to the CS100 was proposed by CSALP and modified by TCCA. It lists the minimum differences levels operators must use to conduct differences training and checking of flight crewmembers.

Appendix 4 – Steep approach operations

1.0 Background

The CS100 is type certified for steep approaches to a glide path angle of 5.5 degrees at EGLC (only), per Supplement 10, Steep Approach of the CS100 AFM.

Note: The CS300 is not type certified for steep approach.

TCCA (lead authority) and EASA conducted a joint Operational Evaluation (OE) of the CS100 steep approach operations into the London City (EGLC) airport in the UK.

The OE team evaluated EGLC Steep Approach Specialty Training (ground and simulator flight training) at Bombardier Customer Training (BCT) in Montreal QC., Canada in April 2017. The steep approach training was evaluated during day and night environments, in nominal and adverse weather conditions and under normal and non-normal aircraft conditions. Steep approaches were also evaluated to a landing, balked landing and missed approach and were evaluated with All Engines Operative (AEO) and One Engine Inoperative (OEI).

In March 2017, prior to the OE at BCT, EASA conducted a flight evaluation of CS100 steep approach operations at EGLC, using a CS100 Flight Test Vehicle (FTV).

2.0 Operational suitability

In addition to an evaluation of the steep approach training, the OE included an evaluation of the AFM, FCOM, and QRH content applicable to the CS100 steep approach capability.

The CS100 has been determined to be operationally suitable for EGLC steep approach operations. Operators intending to conduct CS100 steep approach operations must obtain the required special authorizations from their responsible Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) prior to commencing steep approach operations at EGLC.

3.0 Pre-requisites for steep approach training

Prior to commencing steep approach training, flight crew members must be current and qualified on the CS100, and must have completed HUD training and the training requirements described in Appendix 6 of this report.

Steep approach landing training may be integrated in initial type rating training of the CS100 when including the HUD pilot qualification requirements described in Appendix 6 of this report.

Canadian license holders require Flight Crew Member Experience per CASS 421.40(3)(a)(ii) and must be qualified to flight crew member assignment in accordance with CARS Subpart VII and VI (604).

Note: Flight crew members must hold a Commercial or Air Transport Pilot License to satisfy EGLC Airport Authority requirements.

4.0 Steep approach training requirements

4.1 Initial Ground Training

Technical ground training must include the following content as applicable to each flight crew member position:

  • 4.1.1 Descriptions of all aircraft systems, displays, flight guidance, indications, and alerting systems required for steep approach functionality, and steep approach system states;
  • 4.1.2 CS100 AFM Supplement 10, content to include limitations, operational requirements, system limitations, performance information, normal and non-normal procedures;
  • 4.1.3 MMEL (MEL) relief provisions applicable to steep approach operations;
  • 4.1.4 Steep approach flight profiles and Standard Operating Procedures including AEO and OEI approaches, flap configurations, approach speeds, Landing Decision Point (LDP), HUD flare indications and symbology, flare techniques, missed approach and balked landing procedures and use of automated calls;
  • 4.1.5 Stabilized approach criteria specific to steep approaches at EGLC;
  • 4.1.6 Speed management during steep approach including the criteria for Vref applicable to steep approach, use of speed adders for wind and turbulence, compliance with applicable AFM operating speed limitations, and effects of speed deviations on landing distance;
  • 4.1.7 EGLC aerodrome to include operational limits and restrictions, taxiway layout, parking areas, ground procedures, instrument procedures, lighting systems, day and night scenes, airspace characteristics, hours of operation, bird threats and weather phenomena;
  • 4.1.8 Visual illusions specific to steep approach, including comparison of sight picture with a nominal 3.0 degree approach, illusions of ground rush, effects of runway dimensions and crosswind on the perception of height and lateral position, and illusions associated with “black hole” night approaches;
  • 4.1.9 Application of AFM and operational performance information for normal, non-normal, and MEL dispatch cases, including use of FMS to ensure all Landing Distance, Landing Field Length (LFL) and brake cooling requirements are met;
  • 4.1.10 EGLC departure and approach noise abatement procedures;
  • 4.1.11 Procedures for Pilot Incapacitation during steep approach operations; and
  • 4.1.12 All applicable conditions and EGLC aerodrome operator requirements associated with special authorizations to conduct steep approaches at EGLC.

4.2 Initial Flight Training

A CS100 Full Flight Simulator (FFS) qualified to Level C or D with an approved visual scene for EGLC is required.

Flight training must include a briefing prior to the training sessions, to include system descriptions, AFM Supplement 10 content (including limitations, normal and non-normal procedures, performance information), EGLC characteristics, training areas of special emphasis and FFS training events.

Flight training shall include a minimum of 4 hours of FFS training and should be divided evenly between time as the Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Monitoring (PM).

The flight training shall include a minimum of 12 approaches to EGLC runways 09 and 27. The flight training and 12 approaches must include the following events and conditions:

  • 4.2.1 Instrument (ILS) and visual approaches and a STAR arrival;
  • 4.2.2 A normal approach and a full stop landing;
  • 4.2.3 A normal approach with a missed approach;
  • 4.2.4 A normal approach with an engine failure above the LDP and missed approach;
  • 4.2.5 An approach with engine failure below the LDP;
  • 4.2.6 An approach in gusty turbulent crosswind wind conditions, with appropriate speed adder;
  • 4.2.7 An approach flown intentionally at an excessive speed and a missed approach to comply with stabilized approach criteria;
  • 4.2.8 A balked landing (low energy go around);
  • 4.2.9 Various meteorological conditions including weather at published minimums and dry and wet runways and crosswinds;
  • 4.2.10 Day and night operations; and
  • 4.2.11 Noise abatement departure procedure and SID departure.

4.3 Recurrent Training

Recurrent ground training shall require a review of the content of the initial ground training.

Recurrent flight training require a minimum, three approaches to include:

  • 4.3.1 One normal approach in IMC conditions to a full stop landing;
  • 4.3.2 One approach with a missed approach; and
  • 4.3.3 Two approaches with a non-normal condition, with one of the approaches ending in a missed approach.

4.4 Training Areas of Special Emphasis

The following training areas must receive special emphasis during initial and recurrent ground and flight training:

  • 4.4.1 Speed management during steep approach under various conditions and appropriate use of speed adders and effects on landing distance;
  • 4.4.2 Stabilized approach criteria specific to EGLC steep approach landing;
  • 4.4.3 Visual illusions including night and crosswind conditions;
  • 4.4.4 Required action during steep approach in response to an engine and/or significant system failure prior to and after the LDP;
  • 4.4.5 Adherence to HUD flare guidance and flare techniques;
  • 4.4.6 Go-around and balked landing considerations;
  • 4.4.7 Short runway landing considerations, techniques and landing distance requirements.

5.0 Checking

There is no specific requirement for checking following CS100 steep approach training. An attestation of completion steep approach training should be made in the flight crew member’s training records.

6.0 Currency

Flight training to maintain currency shall require a CS100 FFS qualified to Level C or D with an approved visual scene for EGLC.

For Canadian license holders, the frequency of recurrent training shall follow and be recorded in accordance with CAR Subpart VII and VI (604) requirements.

Where flight crew member’s training has expired for a period of 24 months or more that crew member shall be required to successfully complete the operator’s initial training including the initial and special emphasis training outlined above. If currency is lost within 24 months or less of initial training, currency may be regained by completing the recurrent and special emphasis training outlined above.

7.0 Flight under supervision

Note: The UK CAA may require a Flight Crew Member to conduct of minimum number of steep approach landings under supervision with a qualified instructor to EGLC before being permitted to do so without supervision. Furthermore the initial flight may be only conducted under Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) with specific minimum visibilities and ceiling.

Appendix 5 – Reduced and low visibility operations

1. Reduced and low visibility operational capabilities

The BD500 is capable of conducting reduced visibility and low visibility operations per the visibility criteria provided in the Canada Air Pilot (CAP) and Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) publications.

The BD500 is type certified to the following capabilities:

  • Low visibility take-off to RVR 300 (75m) RVR using the HUD Low Visibility Take-off (LVTO) system;
  • AP coupled CAT II automatic approaches with manual landing;
  • Manually flown CAT II approaches with manual landing using HUD FD guidance;
  • Fail Passive Autoland approaches, landing and roll-out to CAT IIIA minima;
  • Fail Operational Autoland approaches, landing and roll-out to CAT IIIB minima.

2. Required special authorizations

Canadian air operators require issuance of the following Special Authorizations to conduct low visibility approaches, landings and roll-out applicable:

  • Category II – Instrument approaches for AP coupled and manually flown CAT II approaches using HUD FD guidance;
  • Category III – Instrument approaches for Fail Passive or Fail Operational autoland CAT III approaches, landing and roll-out.

Canadian private operators must be authorized in accordance with CAR 604.51 to conduct CAT II or CAT III precision approaches.

Canadian operators require a SA in accordance with AC 700-035, to conduct Take-off Operations below RVR 600 down to and including RVR 300. These operations must be conducted with the use of the HUD LVTO system.

Notes:

  1. Manually flown CAT II approaches with manual landing using HUD FD guidance are flown with the HUD on the PF side. The aircraft must have a dual HUD installation and both HUDs must be operational if the SIC is the PF;
  2. The BD500 HUD is not eligible for the SA, Category I - II - III Approach Operations Using a Head Up Display (HUD).

3. BCT specialty training

3.1 BCT courses

BCT provides Specialty Training courses applicable to reduced and low visibility operations as follows.

  • C Series low visibility operation CAT II;
  • C Series low visibility operation CAT II autoland;
  • C Series low visibility operation CAT III autoland;
  • C Series low visibility operation CAT II autoland with HUD;
  • C Series low visibility operation CAT III autoland with HUD.

Note: The term C SERIES in the above course titles is applicable to the BD500.

These training courses include ground and flight training for low and reduced visibility operations for all phases of flight. The courses are tailored to specific customer requirements and optional equipment (Fail-operational or fail-passive autoland system and equipage with HUD.) The HUD LVTO training is integrated into these courses for HUD equipped aircraft.

Each course is comprised of three courses for TCCA, the FAA and EASA which are very similar in content except having differences to satisfy specific TCCA, the FAA and EASA regulatory requirements.

These specialty training courses are outside of the scope of the initial type training for the BD500 series aircraft. Level D/D training/checking differences have been assigned for this specialty training for BD500 qualified pilots. Canadian operators may integrate this specialty training into their initial and recurrent flight crew member training programs.

Canadian operators operating may use these training courses in support of the applicable SAs. All applicable TCCA regulatory requirements and conditions must be met for issuance of these SAs.

The CSeries CAT II approach course was evaluated as Specialty Training in 2016 during the original BD500 OE. The Low Visibility Autoland (with and without HUD) courses were evaluated as Specialty Training by TCCA, the FAA and EASA in 2018.

3.2 BCT Ground and Flight Training Content

The ground training includes CBT and Instructor Led Training (ILT). The flight training includes training in a Level C or higher qualification Full Flight Simulator (FFS) capable of low visibility operations.

The scope of the training included the following main elements:

  • Low visibility operations including taxi, take-off, approach and landing;
    • LVTO for HUD equipped BD500;
    • CAT II autopilot coupled approaches and manually flown HUD FD approaches and landings
    • CAT II and CAT III fail operational and fail passive autoland approaches, landings and roll-out.

3.3 Training Areas of Special Emphasis

Training Areas of Special Emphasis (TASE) are required for the following:

  • Rudder Fail procedure during CAT II or CAT III autoland approach (Initial and recurrent ground training);
  • Noise abatement procedures during LVTO take-off.

Note: Special Emphasis flight training requires corresponding special emphasis ground training.

Appendix 6 – Head Up Display (HUD) qualification program

1.0 General

The BD500 may be equipped with an optional single or dual HUD installation. This appendix provides the training, checking and currency requirements for the operational use by operators of a single or dual HUD in all phases of flight.

The use of the HUD LVTO function and the use of the HUD during CAT II manually flown approaches and landings requires additional training and checking as provided in Appendix 5.

2.0 HUD training - general

The HUD qualification requirements of this appendix are necessary to meet the requirements of CAR 705 or CAR 604, for the initial type training of Canadian pilots to operate the BD500 using a single or dual HUD.

HUD training and checking may be provided as a standalone course or integrated into an operator’s type training program.

2.1 General requirements

  • 2.1.1 The operator should develop procedures in its Company Operating Manual (COM) for the guidance of its personnel; including:
    1. Normal, non-normal and emergency procedures for all phases of flight for which the HUD is intended to be used;
    2. Procedures for use of the HUD should include crew Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), duties and responsibilities that are specific to each crew position.
  • 2.1.2 Ground and Flight Training should be provided in the operation of the aeroplane using the HUD in all phases of flight and weather conditions for which the operator is authorized and the HUD system is certified in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM);

2.2 Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD)

  • 2.2.1 Flight training and checking of HUD maneuvers conducted in a flight training device should require the use of a TCCA approved level C or higher BD500 full flight simulator (FFS) equipped with the operator’s HUD configuration (single or dual installations) with day and night visual displays.
  • 2.2.2 HUD training other than the training specified in 2.2.1 should be conducted in a TCCA approved level C or higher BD500 FFS or a Level 4 or higher Flight Training Device (FTD), equipped with the operator’s HUD configuration with day and night visual displays.

3.0 HUD initial ground training

3.1 General requirements

Training for air operators should be conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of CAR 705.124. Training for private operators should be conducted with the applicable training requirements for CAR 604.

The initial ground training program should include the following elements:

  • 3.1.1 Classroom or CBT instruction covering HUD operational concepts, crew duties and responsibilities and operational procedures including preflight, normal and non-normal operations, and associated indications.
  • 3.1.2 Classroom or CBT instruction on the HUD symbology set and it’s inter-relationship with airplane aerodynamics, inertial factors, and environmental conditions and non-normal maneuvers; including comparison to the HDD.
  • 3.1.3 Flight Crew duties and responsibilities specific to each pilot position including a clear delineation of Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Monitoring (PM) duties, responsibilities, procedural call-outs and responses during all phases of flight for which HUD operations are anticipated;
  • 3.1.4 SOPs including, all normal, non-normal and emergency operations applicable to the use of the HUD
  • 3.1.5 AFM, FCOM, PRM or equivalent training material which explains the limitations, all modes of operation, the use of various HUD controls, and a clear description of HUD symbology, including limit conditions and failures.
  • 3.1.6 Function and operational use of HUD controls;
  • 3.1.7 Characteristics of HUD unique symbology and indications of limit conditions and failures;
  • 3.1.8 HUD indications and alerts for low airspeed and high angle of attack, excessive airspeed, windshear, TCAS, EGPWS/ TAWS and other indications and alerts;
  • 3.1.9 Aircraft system and navigation failures and Minimum Equipment List (MEL) items affecting HUD operation.

4.0 HUD initial flight training

The following flight training program is generic in nature and should not be construed to dictate or limit what the scope or content of the course of instruction. Each operator has their own unique requirements, route structure, fleet composition and operations policies to consider in developing their training program. Therefore, what follows is to be considered a guide to operators who are tailoring a HUD training program to fit their own needs.

4.1 Ground operations

Flight training for ground operations using HUD should include:

  • 4.1.1 HUD deployment, set up and stowage;
  • 4.1.2 Proper pilot eye reference position;
  • 4.1.3 HUD Pre-flight checks including selection of HUD Take-off Guidance;
  • 4.1.4 Setting of appropriate HUD brightness levels using manual and automatic controls;
  • 4.1.5 Appropriate and effective use of HUD during ground operations and maneuvers;
  • 4.1.6 Taxi using HUD under day, night, reduced and low visibility conditions.

4.2 Airborne training

Flight Training for in-flight use of HUD should include:

  • 4.2.1 Incorporation of HUD into instrument scan and integration of conventional displays into scan;
  • 4.2.2 Demonstration and explanation of unique HUD symbology and commonality with head down displays;
  • 4.2.3 Demonstration of effects of cross-wind including indications of drift and non-conformal displays;
  • 4.2.4 Manual control of the aircraft including climbs, descents, turns, steep turns, accelerations and decelerations;
  • 4.2.5 Recognition and recovery from an excessive angle of attack including stall warning and low airspeed;
  • 4.2.6 Recognition and recovery from flight at excessive airspeed;
  • 4.2.7 Recognition and recovery from an aeroplane upset/unusual attitude;
  • 4.2.8 Use of HUD with an approved sunvisor or sunscreen under various daytime lighting conditions

4.3 Visual take-offs, circuits, approaches and landings

Sufficient maneuvers should be flown in visual conditions to demonstrate HUD symbology and use in relation to glide path, centerline control and crosswind conditions. All visual approaches should be flown from no closer than approximately 1,000 feet AGL (3 - 4 NM) to the runway threshold. Flight Training for Visual Take-offs, Circuits, Approaches and Landings using HUD should include:

  • 4.3.1 Take-off, Circuit, Approach and landing in headwind and maximum authorized crosswind conditions;
  • 4.3.2 Take-off, circuit, approach and landing on a moonless or overcast night, over water or over dark featureless terrain where the only visual stimuli are lights on and/or near the airport (black hole effect);
  • 4.3.3 Appropriate use of HUD symbology to establish desired descent angle;
  • 4.3.3 Rejected landing and/or Low Energy Go-around

4.4 Instrument procedures and approaches

Sufficient precision and non-precision instrument approaches, missed approaches and landings with appropriate weather minimums should be flown to gain proficiency in these maneuvers. All required approaches should be flown from no closer than the final approach fix (FAF). Use of the HUD for circling approaches should be trained (for those operators conducting circling approaches.)

Flight Training for instrument procedures incorporating the use of HUD should include:

  • 4.4.1 Take-off with and without crosswind at the lowest authorized minima;
  • 4.4.2 Holding procedures;
  • 4.4.3 Transition from en-route to instrument approach;
  • 4.4.4 Straight-in, Precision and circling approaches
  • 4.4.5 Setting of appropriate HUD brightness for different approach lighting systems.
  • 4.4.6 Landings from Straight-in, Precision and circling approaches to lowest authorized IFR landing minimums with and without crosswind;
  • 4.4.7 Missed approaches from IFR minimums in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) flown using published Missed Approach;

4.5 Non-normal/emergency operations

Flight Training for Non-Normal and Emergency Conditions using HUD should include:

  • 4.5.1 Recognition and recovery from an aeroplane upset/unusual attitude;
  • 4.5.2 Recognition and recovery from Windshear alerts and indications;
  • 4.5.3 Recognition and recovery from EGPWS/ TAWS Warning alert,
  • 4.5.4 Recognition and recovery from TCAS Resolution Advisory (RA)
  • 4.5.5 One Engine Inoperative Take-off with engine failure at or above V1 at the lowest authorized take-off visibility
  • 4.5.6 Rejected Take-off with an engine failure prior to V1 at the lowest authorized take-off visibility
  • 4.5.7 One Engine Inoperative Instrument approach and missed approach
  • 4.5.8 Aircraft system and navigation failures affecting HUD operation;
  • 4.5.9 Loss or degradation of approach capability or automatic landing capability during final approach and appropriate use of HUD;
  • 4.5.10 Failure of HUD used by Pilot Flying during take-off roll at the lowest authorized minimums;
  • 4.5.11 Failure of HUD used by Pilot Flying during visual approach and landing.

4.6 HUD Training Areas of Special Emphasis

  • 4.6.1 The differences between PFD and HUD displays and functionalities (e.g. HUD pitch scales, the size of the HUD Flight Path Vector (FPV) compared to the HDD PFD);
  • 4.6.2 Similarity in characteristics of FPV and Guidance Cue in shape and colour, and the possibility of confusion between the two symbols;
  • 4.6.3 Use of HUD during unusual attitudes, crosswind landing (non-conformal displays) and night visual landings with minimal ambient lighting (black hole approach);
  • 4.6.4 Appropriate use of the aircraft symbol vs. the FPV during stall and aeroplane unusual attitude/upset recoveries.

Note: Special Emphasis flight training requires corresponding special emphasis ground training.

5.0 HUD initial pilot proficiency check

5.1 Minimum checking manoeuvres

The HUD should be used to the maximum extent possible during the initial Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC). Proficiency in the use of HUD should be demonstrated for phases of flight equivalent to those for non- HUD operations. Checking standards for HUD are equivalent to those for non- HUD operations.

The following manoeuvres using the HUD should be specifically evaluated during the PPC:

  • 5.1.1 Engine failure on take-off (V1 cut);
  • 5.1.2 Instrument approach and missed approach with One Engine Inoperative (OEI); and
  • 5.1.3 Failure of HUD during instrument approach.

6.0 HUD initial line training

6.1 General

HUD initial line training should be under the supervision of a line qualified training or ACP.

HUD line training should include the Pilot Flying using the HUD to complete:

  • 6.1.1 Three HUD assisted takeoffs;
  • 6.1.2 One visual approach; and
  • 6.1.3 Two instrument approaches in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC).

7.0 HUD consolidation period

7.1 Requirements

Air operator’s pilots require line training and consolidation after initial qualification on the HUD. A consolidation period should apply prior to utilizing the HUD for instrument approach operations in IMC. Upon completion of the consolidation requirements, the pilot should be qualified to conduct HUD takeoffs and approaches to the approach minima authorized for the air operator.

During consolidation training, the HUD should be used by the Pilot Flying to complete:

  • 7.1.1 Five takeoffs;
  • 7.1.2 Five manually flown approaches and landings. (The approaches may be flown in VMC.)

8.0 HUD recurrent training and checking requirements

Recurrent training and operations should take into account operation with and without the use of HUD on a regular basis, to maintain proficiency for flight without HUD. Required maneuvers should be demonstrated without use of HUD to assess non- HUD skills.

8.1 Recurrent ground training

Recurrent HUD ground training should be completed as part of recurrent training or as part of the continuing qualification curriculum, as applicable. Selected HUD related ground training subjects should be reviewed on a recurrent basis.

8.2 Recurrent flight training

Recurrent flight training should be completed as part of recurrent training or as part of the continuing qualification curriculum, as applicable. Recurrent flight training should be in accordance with the procedures established in the operator company operations manual and should include:

  • 8.2.1 Review of HUD system and normal operation;
  • 8.2.2 Review of HUD operating limitations;
  • 8.2.3 Review of selected non-normal and emergency procedures;
  • 8.2.4 One Take-off with crosswind at the lowest authorized take-off minima using HUD Take-off guidance;
  • 8.2.5 Engine Inoperative Take-off with engine failure at V1;
  • 8.2.6 Rejected take-off;
  • 8.2.7 Straight-in, Precision and Non Precision approach and landing with crosswind to the lowest authorized landing minimums;
  • 8.2.8 Approach and Missed Approach with crosswind at the lowest authorized landing minimums in IMC;
  • 8.2.9 One Engine Inoperative Approach and Landing;
  • 8.2.10 Selected non-normal and emergency procedures;
  • 8.2.11 Failure of HUD used by Pilot Flying during visual approach and landing.

8.3 HUD recurrent PPC

The HUD should be used to the maximum extent possible during the recurrent PPC. The required manoeuvres on recurrent PPCs should include a sample of operations requiring the use of the HUD.

Recurrent PPCs should include an evaluation of PM duties related to the use of the HUD in accordance with SOPs, and in consideration of whether the aircraft is equipped with a single or dual HUD.

The following manoeuvres using the HUD should be specifically evaluated during the recurrent PPC:

  • 8.3.1 Engine failure on take-off (V1 cut); and
  • 8.3.2 Instrument approach and missed approach with OEI.

9.0 HUD currency requirements

An air operator’s 90-day takeoff, approach and landing currency requirements apply to each pilot position occupied.

A PF should have completed at least three takeoffs, approaches and landings using the HUD, in a BD500 aeroplane or a TCCA approved level C (or higher) BD500 full flight simulator with day and night visual displays, within the previous 90 days before acting as PF using the HUD.

10. HUD reduced and low visibility taxi, take-off and CAT II approach

Refer to Appendix 5.