4.4 Evacuations

Training Objective:

The crew member will be able to identify the types of evacuations, crew responsibilities and procedures relating to the different types of evacuation situations.


Crew Member Responsibilities
External Factors
Brace Position
Exit Procedures
Evacuation Responsibilities
Preparation for Evacuation
Evacuation Procedures
Rapid Deplanement

4.4A General

4.4A.1 Identify the types of occurrences that may require evacuation or rapid deplanement, who is responsible for making this decision and the factors to be considered when making this decision.

4.4A.2 Describe the types of persons a crew member would choose for an Able-Bodied-Person (ABP), the assistance they could provide, and the special briefing instructions.

4.4B Crew Member Responsibilities

4.4B.1 Identify when crew members have the authority and the responsibility to initiate an evacuation. Include who is responsible for activating evacuation signals.

4.4B.2 Describe the different types of passenger behaviour (e.g. passive, aggressive and hysteric) and identify effective ways of managing passenger behaviour in evacuations.

4.4B.3 Identify crew member responsibility to provide leadership in an evacuation and list ways this may be achieved.

4.4C External Factors

4.4C.1 Identify how crew members can manage evacuations in adverse conditions (e.g. heavy smoke, darkness).

4.4C.2 Describe the flotation characteristics of each aircraft type and identify the factors which could adversely affect aircraft flotation in water landings (e.g. structural damage, weight, center of gravity, outside conditions).

4.4C.3 Describe the different aircraft attitudes possible as a result of accidents/incidents (e.g. gear collapse, off-runway, shift in center of gravity). Include any effect on exit usability.

4.4C.4 Describe the effect of environmental conditions on evacuations (e.g. strong winds, terrain, snow/ice).

4.4C.5 Identify the importance of time management in prepared and unprepared evacuations and how time affects survivability in different accident situations.

4.4D Communication

4.4D.1 Describe the importance of crew communication in an evacuation, and the established communication signals for evacuations.

4.4D.2 Identify the briefings required between flight deck, and cabin crew in an emergency situation, which may require an evacuation. Include the following information in the description:

  1. Who is responsible to conduct briefing;
  2. When and where to conduct the briefing;
  3. What information is required; and
  4. How to conduct the briefing including time management.

4.4D.3 Identify the briefings required to prepare passengers in an emergency situation that may require an evacuation. Include the following information in the description:

  1. Who is responsible to conduct briefing;
  2. When and where to conduct the briefing;
  3. What information is required; and
  4. How to conduct the briefing including time management.

4.4E Brace Position

4.4E.1 Describe the effect of seat pitch on preferred brace positions.

4.4E.2 Identify the brace positions for crew members in forward or aft-facing seats, passengers (seat orientation as appropriate), including pregnant passengers, passengers with a disability, children and infants. Describe the effectiveness of each brace position and the importance of assuming the preferred brace position to minimize injury.

4.4E.3 Identify the signal for assuming the brace position in different evacuation situations, when it is given, who is responsible for giving it and the crew responsibilities when the brace signal has been given.

4.4E.4 Identify when crew members should assume the brace position if no signal has been given.

4.4F Exit Procedures

4.4F.1 Identify crew member responsibility to assess conditions prior to opening any exit.

4.4F.2 Identify the evacuation procedures for each type of exit (e.g. doors, windows, hatches, ventral exits, tailcones, opening in fuselage).

4.4F.3 Describe the procedures to operate and use any evacuation aids (e.g. slides, ramps, ropes) that are provided on the aircraft. Include instructions on operation and use of these evacuation aids to passengers.

4.4F.4 Identify the inflation times for the different evacuation aids (e.g. slides, ramps, slide/rafts). Describe how to recognize if an evacuation device is fully inflated.

4.4F.5 Describe alternate procedures if initial inflation fails and if the inflation fails during the course of the evacuation.

4.4F.6 Describe the preferred techniques for special attention passengers using evacuation slides (e.g. person with a disability, person with a service animal).

4.4G Evacuation Responsibilities

4.4G.1 Identify the shouted commands for each type of evacuation and describe the rationale behind each of the commands. Describe ways to increase the effectiveness of commands (e.g. assertive, loud, positive, short, body language, phraseology, commands in unison, etc.).

4.4G.2 Identify the crew member responsibility to assist passengers and fellow crew members in an evacuation, and any limitation to this responsibility. Outline the conditions when crew members should evacuate themselves.

4.4G.3 Describe ways to assist incapacitated passengers and fellow crew members in evacuations.

4.4G.4 Identify the importance of checking the cabin, flight deck and lavatories, after all passengers have been evacuated and describe how and under what conditions this should be accomplished.

4.4G.5 Identify the crew responsibilities for removal of equipment when they evacuate the aircraft and under what conditions this should be accomplished.

4.4H Preparation for Evacuation

4.4H.1 Describe procedures for preparation of an evacuation for each of the following:

  1. Land - prepared; and
  2. Ditching.

4.4I Evacuation Procedures

4.4I.1 Describe evacuation procedures for each of the following:

  1. Land - prepared;
  2. Land - unprepared;
  3. Ditching;
  4. Inadvertent water contact;
  5. Tidal flat;
  6. Evacuation with a passenger transfer vehicle (PTV) mated to aircraft;
  7. Evacuation at an airport gate/apron jetway; and
  8. Any other scenario applicable to the operator.

4.4J Rapid Deplanement

4.4J.1 Describe the established procedures for rapid deplanement.

4.4.K Post-Evacuation

4.4K.1 Describe crew member responsibilities after an evacuation (e.g. grouping passengers, assisting with first aid, etc.).

4.4K.2 Identify the supplies and equipment available after an evacuation that will provide assistance and enhance survivability (e.g. ELT, survival kit, blankets, megaphone, raft, life preservers, flashlight, food, water, axe, etc.).

4.4K.3 Identify the importance of post-crash procedures to increase survivability in each of the survival situations. Include the following:

  1. Survival first aid;
  2. Survival priorities;
  3. Hazards inherent in different environments;
  4. Survival skills for different environments;
  5. Survival equipment and supplies carried on the aircraft; and
  6. Signalling and recovery techniques.