Exercise 30 - Instrument Flying 1 - Effects of Controls


  1. Explain that flight instruments can be divided into three types:
    1. Pitch instruments
    2. Bank instruments
    3. Navigation instruments

Explain the function and mechanical operation of each group of instruments, their limitations, errors and pilot service-ability checks.

  1. Pitch Instruments
    • attitude indicator (artificial horizon)
    • airspeed indicator
    • altimeter
    • vertical speed indicator
  2. Bank Instruments
    • attitude indicator (artificial horizon)
    • heading indicator (D.I.)
    • turn and bank indicator
  3. Navigation Instruments
ADF marker beacons
ILS transponder

2. Explain the application of engine instruments to instrument flying:

a. manifold pressure gauge/torquemeter. Give specific power settings as applicable to type and local conditions.

b. tachometer.

c. engine instruments.

Discuss flight planning procedures and in particular:

Publications, maps, MET forecasts.

Aircraft limitations as appropriate to type

Pre-flight inspection, including pitot heat and static source, as appropriate

Post start and hover taxi checks of flight instruments and radio aids.



For the student to learn to fly by sole reference to the instruments and to use radio aids to navigation.


    1. Airspeed and Power Changes (Ex. 4)
    2. Climbs and Descents (Ex. 5)
    3. Turns (Ex. 6)
    4. Steep Turns (Ex. 16)


An ability to fly safely on instruments is vital should visual contact with the ground be lost whilst flying at night.


Explain that the avoidance of obstacles and other traffic and the general safety of the flight will be the responsibility of the instructor acting as Safety Pilot.

Teaching Points

    1. Describe the effect of fore and aft movement of the cyclic on the
      1. attitude indicator
      2. altimeter
      3. VSI
      4. airspeed indicator.
    2. Describe the effect of lateral movement of the cyclic on the
      1. attitude indicator
      2. direction indicator
      3. magnetic compass
      4. turn and bank indicator.
    3. Describe the effect of the tail rotor pedals on the
      1. direction indicator
      2. magnetic compass
      3. turn and bank indicator
      4. airspeed indicator
      5. tachometer (piston engine)
    4. Describe the effect of collective pitch control on the
      1. altimeter
      2. vertical speed indicator
      3. engine instruments.
    5. Explain:
      1. the need to trust the instruments and to ignore body sensations
      2. the need to develop a habit of systematically scanning or cross checking the instruments
      3. that it is often difficult to avoid being able to get visual reference to the ground, when flying under simulated instrument conditions. Stress the importance of not cheating in this regard.
    6. Explain that since the flight instruments are designed for fixed-wing use, it is necessary to maintain positive airspeed at all times when instrument flying. State the minimum IAS to be observed as appropriate to type.



    1. Student practice, Exercises 4, 5, 6 and 16 clear hood.
    2. Demonstrate effect of controls on flight instruments.
    3. Student practice under the hood.
    4. Demonstrate straight and level cruise and very simple changes of altitude and heading.
    5. Student practice.


    1. Student practice should be kept brief, with frequent rest periods.
    2. Glimpses of the ground in the student's peripheral vision will be very distracting to the student and will encourage disorientation, vertigo or cheating. Every effort should therefore be made to provide an effective hood and to bank-off perspex panels that are in the student's line of sight.