Part 4 — Enroute Procedures


To facilitate the student learning:

  • to navigate from the point of departure to the destination using GPS


The introduction of GPS has revolutionized how pilots navigate enroute. It is essential that pilots acquire and maintain a high standard of operating skill for this phase of flight.

Essential Background Knowledge

Explain the functions of the navigation (NAV) mode of the GPS receiver

Explain the moving map display screen symbology, if applicable

Explain the track bar sensitivity parameters in NAV mode

Explain the "Direct TO" (DTO) function of the GPS

Explain how retrieve information about the nearest suitable airport to the route of flight

Explain how to add Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) to the flight plan

Advice to Instructors

Take care not to become so involved in demonstrating the functions and explaining the features of the GPS that your lookout is compromised, especially immediately after take off, in the climb, during the transition to the approach and during the missed approach.

If there are no airports near the training area with a STAR, instructors should get the student to input a flight plan to an airport with a STAR even though that airport is beyond the range of the aircraft. Once programmed, the student can then modify the flight plan to fit the aircraft capability.

Sometime during the exercise give the student an emergency which requires him/her to divert to the nearest suitable airport. Be alert to ensure the student takes care of the emergency and then programs the GPS. Do not allow the student to be so concerned with programming the GPS that aircraft safety becomes a secondary consideration.

Air Instruction and Student Practice

The student should fly the aircraft to several waypoints enroute so that he/she can practice normal enroute navigation techniques including determining fuel flows, making position reports and calculating ETAs. At least three legs of 10 to 15 minutes should be enough for this practice.

Ensure the student practices going direct to a waypoint and adding a STAR to the flight plan.

Completion Standards

The student shall be able to:

  • navigate from the point of departure to destination using GPS for guidance
  • describe the track bar sensitivity parameters in NAV mode
  • intercept a track to a waypoint
  • maintain track within 1/2 deflection of the track bar
  • maintain assigned altitudes within 100 feet
  • delete or add waypoints to the flight plan
  • create user-defined waypoints
  • program and fly "Direct TO" (DTO) a waypoint
  • divert to the nearest suitable airport in the event of an emergency
  • retrieve airport information from the GPS database
  • add a STAR to the flight plan