Study and Reference Guide for Written Examinations for the Private Pilot Licence Aeroplane - TP 12880


Fifth Edition - November 2006


Examination Prerequisites

Prior to taking a written examination, an applicant for a flight crew permit, licence or rating shall meet the prerequisites for the examination set out in the personnel licensing standards with respect to CAR 401.13(1)

  1. medical fitness;
  2. identification;
  3. a recommendation from the flight instructor who is responsible for the training of the applicant; and
  4. experience.

Knowledge Requirements

All subjects in this guide are considered to be important to applicants for the Private Pilot Licence-Aeroplane and may appear on the exam. Subject areas identified by a bullet () are essential knowledge areas that will be emphasized on the written examination.

Examination Rules

CAR 400.02 (1)

Except as authorized by an invigilator, no person shall, or shall attempt to, in respect of a written examination,

  1. copy or remove from any place all or any portion of the text of the examination;
  2. give to or accept from any person a copy of all or any portion of the text of the examination;
  3. give help to or accept help from any person during the examination;
  4. complete all or any portion of the examination on behalf of any other person;
  5. or use any aid or written material during the examination.

(2) A person who commits an act prohibited under subsection (1) fails the examination and may not take any other examination for a period of one year.

Materials Required

A pencil is required for rough work. Electronic calculators are useful and are permitted if their memory is cleared before and after the examination. Computers capable of storing text are not approved. Navigation tools (ruler/scale, protractor, flight computer) are required for the navigation questions. A list of approved electronic navigation computers is available at:

Time Limits

Examinations, including all sections of a sectionalized examination, that are required for the issuance of a permit or licence or for the endorsement of a permit or licence with a rating shall be completed during the 24-month period immediately preceding the date of the application for the permit, licence or rating.

Rewriting of Examinations

CAR 400.04 (1)

Subject to subsections (2) and (6), a person who fails an examination or a section of a sectionalized examination required for the issuance of a flight crew permit, licence, rating or foreign licence validation certificate is ineligible to rewrite the examination or the failed section for a period of

  1. in the case of a first failure, 14 days;
  2. in the case of a second failure, 30 days; and
  3. in the case of a third or subsequent failure, 30 days plus an additional 30 days for each failure in excess of two failures, up to a maximum of 180 days.

Examination Feedback

Feedback statements on the results letter will inform the candidate which questions were answered incorrectly.

Example of a Feedback Statement: Identify the atmospheric conditions favorable for thunderstorm formation.


Full Examination

Applicants for the Private Pilot Licence-Aeroplane Category shall demonstrate their knowledge by writing a Transport Canada multiple-choice examination on subjects contained in this guide. Applicants must be able to read the examination questions in either English or French without assistance.

Supplementary Examinations

Applicants who obtain 60% or more on the main examination (PPAER), but who fail one or more mandatory subject areas will be assessed a partial pass. During one sitting, they will be required to write supplementary examinations for each subject area failed. Details on the mandatory subject area supplementary examinations are as follows:

Examination Questions Time Limit Pass Mark
Air Law (PALAW)
Navigation (PANAV)
Meteorology (PAMET)
General Knowledge (PAGEN)
1 hour
2 hours
1½ hours
1½ hours

Note: When writing more than one supplementary examination, the maximum time allowed shall be the sum of the times indicated for each examination, not to exceed 3 hours.

Helicopter to Aeroplane Examination

Pilots who hold a valid Private, Commercial or Airline Transport Pilot Licence in the Helicopter Category and who wish to apply for a Private Pilot Licence-Aeroplane shall demonstrate their knowledge by writing the following Transport Canada multiple choice examination.

Examination Questions Time Limit Pass Mark
Private Pilot Aeroplane –
Alternate Category (PARAC)
35 1½ hours 60%

The PARAC examination is based on subjects contained in AIR LAW and AERONAUTICS - GENERAL KNOWLDEGE (Airframes, Engines and Systems, Theory of Flight, Flight Instruments and Flight Operations).

Conversion Examination, United States of America FAA Pilot Certificate – Aeroplane

Pilots who hold an FAA Private Pilot Certificate, Commercial or Airline Transport Pilot Certificate – Aeroplane, shall demonstrate their knowledge by writing the following Transport Canada multiple choice examination:

Examination Questions Time Limit Pass Mark
Conversion - Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane, (FAAPA) 20 1 hour 60%

The FAAPA examination is based on subjects contained in the Air Law and procedures section of this study and reference guide. Candidates should read the recommended references on pages 22 and 23 as they apply to aeroplanes.

Air Law

Air Law and Procedures

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
Some Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) refer to their associated standards. Questions from the CARs may test knowledge from the regulation or the standard.

Part I - General Provisions

101- Interpretation

  • 101.01 Interpretation

103 - Administration and Compliance

  • 103.02 Inspection of Aircraft, Requests for Production of Documents and Prohibitions
  • 103.03 Return of Canadian Aviation Documents
  • 103.04 Record Keeping

Part II – Aircraft Identification and Registration and Operation of a Leased Aircraft by a Non-Registered Owner

  • 202.01 Requirements for Marks on Aircraft
  • 202.26 Carrying Certificate of Registration on Board the Aircraft

Part III – Aerodromes and Airports

300 - Interpretation

  • 300.01 Interpretation

301 - Aerodromes

  • 301.01 Application
  •  301.04 Markers and Markings
  •  301.06 Wind Direction Indicator
  • 301.07 Lighting
  • 301.08 Prohibitions
  • 301.09 Fire Prevention

302 - Airports

  • 302.10 Prohibitions
  • 302.11 Fire Prevention

Part IV - Personnel Licensing and Training

400 - General

  • 400.01 Interpretation

401 - Flight Crew Permits, Licenses and Ratings

  • 401.03 Requirement to Hold a Flight Crew Permit, Licence or Rating
  • 401.04 Flight Crew Members of Aircraft Registered in Contracting States other than Canada
  •  401.05 Recency Requirements
  • 401.08 Personal Logs
  •  401.26 Aeroplane - Privileges (Private Pilot Licence)
  • 401.45 Privileges (Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Over-the-Top)

404 - Medical Requirements

  • 404.03 Requirement to Hold a Medical Certificate
  • 404.04 Issuance, Renewal and Validity Period of Medical Certificate
  • 404.06 Prohibition Regarding Exercise of Privileges
  • 404.18 Permission to Continue to Exercise the Privileges of a Permit, Licence or Rating

Part VI - General Operating and Flight Rules

600 - Interpretation

  • 600.01 Interpretation

601 - Airspace Structure, Classification and Use

  • 601.01 Airspace Structure
  • 601.02 Airspace Classification
  •  601.03 Transponder Airspace
  •  601.04 IFR or VFR Flight in Class F Special Use Restricted Airspace or Class F Special Use Advisory Airspace
  • 601.06 VFR Flight in Class A Airspace
  • 601.07 VFR Flight in Class B Airspace
  •  601.08 VFR Flight in Class C Airspace
  •  601.09 VFR Flight in Class D Airspace
  • 601.15 Forest Fire Aircraft Operating Restrictions
  • 601.16 Issuance of NOTAM for Forest Fire Aircraft Operating Restrictions

602 - Operating and Flight Rules


  • 602.01 Reckless or Negligent Operation of Aircraft
  • 602.02 Fitness of Flight Crew Members
  • 602.03 Alcohol or Drugs - Crew Members
  • 602.04 Alcohol or Drugs - Passengers
  • 602.05 Compliance with Instructions
  • 602.06 Smoking
  • 602.07 Aircraft Operating Limitations
  • 602.08 Portable Electronic Devices
  • 602.09 Fuelling with Engines Running
  •  602.10 Starting and Ground Running of Aircraft Engines
  •  602.11 Aircraft Icing
  •  602.12 Overflight of Built-up Areas or Open-Air Assemblies of Persons during Take-offs, Approaches and Landings
  •  602.13 Take-offs, Approaches and Landings within Built-up Areas of Cities and Towns
  •  602.14 Minimum Altitude and Distances
  • 602.15 Permissible Low Altitude Flight
  •  602.19 Right-of-Way - General
  • 602.20 Right-of-Way - Aircraft Manoeuvring on Water
  •  602.21 Avoidance of Collision
  • 602.22 Towing
  • 602.23 Dropping of Objects
  • 602.24 Formation Flight
  • 602.25 Entering or Leaving an Aircraft in Flight
  • 602.26 Parachute Descents
  •  602.27 Aerobatic Manoeuvres - Prohibited Areas and Flight Conditions
  • 602.28 Aerobatic Manoeuvres with Passengers
  •  602.31 Compliance with Air Traffic Control Instructions and Clearances
  • 602.32 Airspeed Limitations
  •  602.34 Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels
  •  602.35 Altimeter-setting and Operating Procedures in the Altimeter-setting Region
  •  602.36 Altimeter-setting and Operating Procedures in the Standard Pressure Region
  • 602.37 Altimeter-setting and Operating Procedures in Transition between Regions
  • 602.40 Landing at or Take-off from an Aerodrome at Night

Operational and Emergency Equipment Requirements

  • 602.58 Prohibition
  • 602.59 Equipment Standards
  •  602.60 Requirements for Power-driven Aircraft
  • 602.61 Survival Equipment - Flights over Land
  •  602.62 Life Preservers and Flotation Devices
  •  602.63 Life Rafts and Survival Equipment - Flight over Water

Flight Preparation, Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries

  • 602.70 Interpretation
  • 602.71 Pre-flight Information
  • 602.72 Weather Information
  •  602.73 Requirements to File a Flight Plan or a Flight Itinerary
  • 602.74 Contents of a Flight Plan or a Flight Itinerary
  • 602.75 Filing of a Flight Plan or a Flight Itinerary
  •  602.76 Changes in the Flight Plan
  •  602.77 Requirement to File an Arrival Report
  • 602.78 Contents of an Arrival Report
  • 602.79 Overdue Aircraft Report

Pre-Flight and Fuel Requirements

  • 602.86 Carry-on Baggage, Equipment and Cargo
  •  602.88 Fuel Requirements
  • 602.89 Passenger Briefings

Operations at or in the Vicinity of an Aerodrome

  •  602.96 General
  •  602.97 VFR and IFR Aircraft Operations at Uncontrolled Aerodromes within a MF Area (Mandatory Frequency Area)
  •  602.98 General MF Reporting Requirements
  •  602.99 MF Reporting Procedures before Entering Manoeuvring Area
  •  602.100 MF Reporting Procedures on Departure
  •  602.101 MF Reporting Procedures on Arrival
  •  602.102 MF Reporting Procedures when Flying Continuous Circuits
  •  602.103 Reporting Procedures when Flying through an MF Area

Visual Flight Rules

  •  602.114 Minimum Visual Meteorological Conditions for VFR Flight in VFR Flight in Controlled Airspace
  •  602.115 Minimum Visual Meteorological Conditions for VFR Flight in Uncontrolled Airspac
  •  602.116 VFR Over-the-Top
  •  602.117 Special VFR Flight


  • 602.136 Continuous Listening Watch
  •  602.138 Two-way Radiocommunication Failure in VFR Flight

Emergency Communications and Security

  • 602.143 Emergency Radio Frequency Capability
  • 602.144 Interception Signals, Interception of Aircraft and Instructions to Land
  • 602.145 ADIZ
  • 602.146 ESCAT Plan

605 - Aircraft Requirements


  • 605.03 Flight Authority
  • 605.04 Availability of Aircraft Flight Manual
  • 605.05 Markings and Placards
  • 605.08 Unserviceable and Removed Equipment - General

Aircraft Equipment Requirements

  •  605.14 Power-driven Aircraft - Day VFR
  • 605.15 Power-driven Aircraft - VFR OTT (Over-the-Top)
  • 605.16 Power-driven Aircraft - Night VFR
  • 605.17 Use of Position and Anti-collision Lights
  • 605.22 Seat and Safety Belt Requirements
  • 605.24 Shoulder Harness Requirements
  •  605.25 General use of Safety Belts and Restraint Systems
  • 605.28 Child Restraint System
  • 605.29 Flight Control Locks
  • 605.31 Oxygen Equipment and Supply
  •  605.32 Use of Oxygen
  • 605.35 Transponder and Automatic Pressure-altitude Reporting Equipment
  • 605.38 ELT
  •  605.40 ELT Activation

Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

  • 605.84 Aircraft Maintenance - General
  • 605.85 Maintenance Release and Elementary Work
  • 605.86 Maintenance Schedule
  • 605.88 Inspection after Abnormal Occurrences

Technical Record

  • 605.92 Requirement to Keep Technical Records
  • 605.93 Technical Records - General
  • 605.94 Journey Log Requirements
  • 605.95 Journey Log - Carrying on Board
  • 605.97 Transfer of Records

606 - Miscellaneous

  • 606.02 Liability Insurance

Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) - (AIM GEN 3.0)

  1. Definitions
  2.  Reporting an aviation occurrence
  3.  Protection of occurrence site

Air Traffic Services and Procedures

  1.  Air Traffic Services and Advisory Services
  2.  Communication procedures
  3.  Radar service - clock position system
  4.  ATC clearances and instructions
  5. Wake turbulence separation
  6.  Controlled and uncontrolled aerodrome operations
  7. Mandatory (MF) and Aerodrome Traffic Frequencies (ATF)
  8. VFR en route procedures
  9. VFR holding procedures
  10.  Operations on intersecting runways including (LAHSO)
  11.  Procedures for the prevention of runway incursion


Navigation and Radio Aids


  1. Meridian
  2. Prime Meridian
  3. Longitude
  4. Equator
  5. Latitude
  6. Rhumb Line/Great Circle
  7. Variation
  8. Isogonal
  9. Agonic Line
  10. Deviation
  11. Track
  12. Heading
  13. Airspeed
  14. Ground Speed
  15. Air Position
  16. Ground Position
  17. Bearing
  18. Wind Velocity
  19. Drift

Maps and Charts

  1. VTA - Transverse Mercator Projection
  2. VNC - Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
  3.  Topographical symbols
  4.  Elevation and contours (relief)
  5.  Aeronautical information
  6.  Scale and units of measurement
  7.  Locating position by latitude and longitude
  8. Navigation aids

Time and Longitude

  1. 24 hour system
  2. Time Zones and relation to longitude
  3. Conversion of UTC to local and vice versa

Pilot Navigation

  1. Use of Aeronautical Charts
  2.  Measurement of track and distance
  3. Map reading
  4. Setting heading - visual angle of departure
  5. Check-points and pin-points
  6. Use of position lines to obtain a fix
  7.  Ground Speed checks and ETA revisions
  8.  Variation/deviation
  9.  True track/magnetic track
  10. Determining drift by 10° lines
  11. Double track error method to regain track
  12. Opening and closing angles method
  13. Visual alteration method of correcting to track
  14.  Diversion to alternate destinatio
  15.  Return to departure point (Reciprocal Track)
  16. Low Level Navigation
  17. Dead reckoning (DR navigation), triangle of velocity
  18. In-flight log and mental calculations
  19.  Procedures when lost
  20. True, magnetic and compass headings
  21. Indicated airspeed, calibrated airspeed
  22. True airspeed, ground speed
  23. Compass errors
  24. Radio communications

Navigation Computers

  1.  Heading and ground speed
  2.  Pressure, density and true altitudes
  3.  Indicated, calibrated and true airspeed
  4.  Time, ground speed and distance
  5.  Fuel consumption and conversions

Pre-Flight Preparation

  1.  Factors affecting choice of route
  2. Map preparation
  3. Meteorological information
  4.  NOTAM
  5. Selection of check-points
  6.  Fuel requirements
  7.  Weight and balance
  8.  Use of Canada Flight Supplement
  9. Documents to be carried in aircraft
  10. Flight Plans, itineraries
  11. Flight log forms
  12. Aircraft serviceability

Radio Theory

  1. Characteristics of low, high and very high frequency radio waves
  2. Frequency bands used in navigation and communication
  3. Reception limitations

VHF Omnidirection Range (VOR)

  1. Aircraft equipment
  2. Tuning and identifying
  3. Serviceability check
  4.  Interpretation, orientation and homing
  5. Voice feature

Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)

  1. Aircraft equipment
  2. Tuning and identifying
  3. Serviceability check
  4. Interpretation, orientation and homing
  5. Voice feature

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS/GPS)

  1.  Basic principles, use and limitations

Other Radio And Radar Aids - Basic Principles and Use

  1.  Transponder
  2.  Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
  3.  VHF Direction Finding (DF) assistance
  4. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)(primary and secondary)



The Earth's Atmosphere

  1. Composition and physical properties
  2. Vertical structure
  3. Standard atmosphere
  4. Density and pressure
  5. Expansion and compression

Atmospheric Pressure

  1. Units of measurement
  2. Station pressure
  3. Sea level pressure
  4. Pressure systems and their variations
  5. Effects of temperature
  6. Isobars

Meteorological Aspects of Altimetry

  1.  Pressure altitude
  2.  Density altitude
  3.  Altimeter settings
  4.  Considerations when flying to/from high to low pressure or temperature areas


  1.  Heating and cooling of the atmosphere - convection, advection and radiation
  2. Horizontal differences
  3.  Temperature variations with altitude
  4.  Inversions
  5. Isothermal layers


  1.  Relative humidity and dewpoint
  2. Sublimation and condensation
  3. Cloud formation
  4. Precipitation
  5. Saturated and dry adiabatic lapse rate

Stability and Instability

  1. Lapse rate and stability
  2. Modification of stability
  3.  Characteristics of stable and unstable air
  4. Surface heating and cooling
  5.  Lifting processes
  6. Subsidence and convergence


  1. Classification
  2. Formation and structure
  3.  Types and recognition
  4.  Associated precipitation and turbulence

Surface Based Layers

  1.  Fog formation
  2.  Fog types (including mist)
  3. Haze and smoke
  4. Blowing obstruction to vision


  1. Convection
  2. Mechanical
  3. Orographic
  4.  Wind shear
  5. Reporting criteria


  1. Definition
  2.  Pressure gradient
  3. Deflection caused by the earth's rotation
  4.  Low level winds - variation in surface wind
  5. Friction
  6.  Veer/back
  7. Squall/gusts
  8. Diurnal effects
  9. Land and sea breezes
  10. Katabatic and anabatic effects
  11.  Topographical effects
  12.  Wind shear - types, causes

Air Masses

  1. Definition and characteristics
  2. Formation and classification
  3. Modification
  4. Factors that determine weather
  5. Seasonal and geographic effects
  6. Air masses affecting North America


  1. Structure
  2.  Types
  3. Formation
  4. Cross-sections
  5.  Cold front weather
  6.  Warm front weather
  7. Trowal and upper front

Aircraft Icing

  1. In-flight - freezing rain
  2. Hoar frost
  3. Impact icing (engine)


  1.  Requirements for development
  2. Structure and development
  3. Types - air mass and frontal
  4.  Hazards - Updrafts, downdrafts, gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, hail and lightning
  5. Squall lines

Hurricanes and Tornadoes

  1. Hazards

Meteorological Services Available to Pilots

  1. Aviation Weather Information Services (AWIS)
  2. Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)
  3. Flight Service Stations (FSS) and Flight Information Centres
  4. Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)
  5. Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS)
  6. Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

Aviation Weather Reports

  1.  Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) - decoding
  2. Automated Weather Observation Station (AWOS)
  3. Pilot Reports (PIREP)

Aviation Forecasts

  1.  Times issued and period of coverage
  2.  Decoding
  3.  Graphical Area Forecast (GFA)
  4.  Terminal Area Forecast (TAF)
  5.  Upper Winds and Temperature Forecast (FD)
  6. Airman's Meteorological Advisory (AIRMET)
  7.  Significant In-flight Weather Warning Message (SIGMET)

Weather Maps and Prognostic Charts

  1. Times issued and period of coverage
  2. Symbols and decoding
  3. Surface weather map
  4. Upper air charts - weather Information to 700 mb Level
  5. Prognostic surface charts

Aeronautics - General Knowledge

Airframes, Engines And Systems


  1. Types of construction

Landing Gear, Brakes and Flaps

  1. Mechanical
  2. Hydraulic
  3. Electric


  1. Two and four stroke cycle
  2. Methods of cooling
  3. Principle of the magneto
  4.  Dual ignition
  5. Exhaust systems
  6.  Auxiliary controls
  7. Turbo-charging
  8. Effects of density altitudes and humidity
  9. Limitations and operations
  10. Instruments


  1. Theory of operation
  2.  Fuel-air mixture
  3.  Mixture controls
  4.  Carburettor icing
  5.  Use of Carb heat and its effects on mixture

Fuel Injection

  1. Principle and operation
  2. Icing
  3. Alternate air

Electrical System

  1. Generator, alternator and battery
  2. Lighting
  3. Ammeter and load meter
  4. Bus bars
  5. Circuit breakers and fuses
  6. Grounding and bonding

Lubricating Systems and Oils

  1.  Types, viscosity, grades and seasonal use
  2.  Purposes
  3. Methods of lubrication
  4. Venting
  5. Filters
  6. Oil Cooler

Fuel System and Fuels

  1. Types - Colour and properties
  2. Density and weight
  3. Additives
  4.  Contamination and deterioration
  5. Tank location
  6. Venting
  7. Fuel line - filters and drains
  8. Induction manifold
  9.  Detonation - causes and effects
  10. Vapour lock
  11. Primers
  12. Fuel management
  13. Fuel handling - fuelling aircraft

Other Aircraft Systems

  1. Oxygen
  2. Vacuum

Theory of Flight

Principles of Flight

  1. Bernoulli's Theorem
  2. Newton's Laws

Forces Acting on an Aeroplane

  1.  Lift
  2.  Drag - induced and parasite
  3.  Relationship of lift and drag to angle of attack
  4. Thrust
  5. Weight
  6. Equilibrium
  7. Centre of pressure
  8. Centrifugal and centripetal
  9.  Forces acting on an aircraft during manoeuvres
  10.  Relationship of load factor to stalling speed
  11.  Structural limitations
  12. Gust loads


  1. Pressure distribution about an aerofoil
  2.  Relative airflow and angle of attack
  3. Downwash
  4. Wing tip vortices
  5. Angle of incidence


  1. Propeller efficiency at various speeds
  2. Fixed and variable pitch
  3. Torque, slipstream, gyroscopic effect and asymmetric thrust

Design of the Wing

  1. Wing planform
  2. Area, span, chord
  3. Aspect ratio
  4. Streamlining
  5. Camber
  6. Laminar flow
  7. Dihedral, anhedral
  8. Wash in, wash out
  9. Slots, slats
  10. Wing fences, stall strips
  11. Spoilers
  12.  Flaps
  13. Canards


  1.  Longitudinal, lateral and directional stability
  2. Inherent stability
  3. Methods of achieving stability

Flight Controls

  1. Aeroplane axes and planes of movement
  2. Functions of controls
  3. Relationship between effects of yaw and roll
  4. Adverse yaw, aileron drag
  5. Static and dynamic balancing of controls
  6. Trim and trimming devices

Flight Instruments

Pitot Static System

  1.  Pitot
  2.  Static
  3. Anti-icing
  4. Alternate static - source, errors

Airspeed Indicator

  1. Principles of Operation
  2.  Errors
  3.  Markings
  4. Definitions (IAS/CAS/TAS)

Vertical Speed Indicator

  1. Principles of operation
  2. Errors
  3. Lag

Altimeter/Encoding Altimeter

  1. Principles of operation
  2. Errors

Magnetic Compass

  1. Principles of operation
  2.  Magnetic dip
  3.  Turning, acceleration and deceleration errors
  4. Deviation
  5. Compass correction card
  6. Compass serviceability


  1. Principles of operation
  2. Inertia
  3. Precession

Heading Indicator

  1.  Principles of operation
  2.  Errors
  3. Limitations
  4. Power sources

Attitude Indicator

  1.  Principles of operations
  2.  Errors
  3. Limitations
  4. Power sources

Turn and Bank Indicator/Turn Co-Ordinator

  1.  Principles of operations
  2. Errors
  3. Limitations
  4. Power sources

Instrument Flying

  1. Loss of visual reference
  2. The control and performance instruments
  3. Instrument scan and interpretation
  4. Aircraft control
  5. Unusual attitudes and recoveries

Flight Operations


  1. Pilot-In-Command responsibilities
  2. Winter operations
  3. Thunderstorms avoidance
  4. Mountain flying operations
  5. Collision avoidance - use of landing lights
  6.  Runway numbering
  7. Airport rotating beacon
  9. Obstruction marking and lighting
  10. Units of measurements and conversion
  11. Radio communications
  12.  Wheelbarrowing
  13.  Hydroplaning
  14.  Taxiing
  15.  Effects of wind and wind shear
  16.  Side-slips

Use of Performance Charts

  1.  Take-off charts
  2.  Cross-wind charts
  3.  Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI)
  4.  Cruise charts
  5. Fuel burn charts
  6.  Landing charts
  7. Performance (V) speeds - Va, Vno, Vfe, Vlo, Vne, Vs, Vx, Vy
  8. Effect of ice, snow, frost, slush, water on take-off and landing distance
  9. Effect of various runway surfaces on take-off and landing distance
  10. Upslope, downslope runway

Aircraft Performance

  1.  Effects of aircraft critical surface contamination
  2. Lift/drag ratio
  3.  Effects of density altitude and humidity
  4. Attitude plus power equals performance
  5. Normal, short, soft and rough field take-offs and landing
  6.  Ground effect
  7.  Best angle of climb (Vx)
  8.  Best rate of climb (Vy)
  9. Manoeuvring speed (Va)
  10. Normal operating limit speed (Vno)
  11. Never exceed speed (Vne)
  12. Maximum flap speed (Vfe)
  13. Maximum gear operating speed (Vlo)
  14. Gliding for range
  15. Flying for range
  16. Flying for endurance
  17.  Slow flight
  18.  Stalls
  19.  Indicated and true stalling speed
  20.  Stall speed vs altitud
  21.  Spins
  22.  Spirals
  23. Recommended safe recovery altitudes
  24. Bank/speed vs rate/radius of turn
  25.  Effects of change of weight or centre of gravity (CG) on performance
  26. Use of aircraft flight manual and approved operational information
  27. Use of unapproved operational information

Weight and Balance

  1. Terms - e.g. datum, arm and moment
  2.  Locating CG
  3.  CG limits
  4. Empty weight and gross weight
  5. Load adjustment
  6. Cargo tie-down and passenger loading
  7. Normal and utility category

Wake Turbulence

  1.  Causes
  2.  Effects
  3.  Avoidance

Search and Rescue (SAR)
(AIM Canada - SAR Information)

  1. Types of service available
  2.  ELT (exclude categories)
  3. Aircraft emergencies
  4. Survival - basic techniques

Aircraft Critical Surface Contamination

  1. Clean aircraft concept
  2. Frozen contaminants and removal techniques
  3. Cold soaking phenomenon
  4. Pre-take-off contamination inspection
  5. De-ice/Anti-ice fluids - Type I, II, III, IV
  6. Correct use of fluid

Human Factors

Aviation Physiology

  1.  Hypoxia and hyperventilation
  2. Gas expansion effects
  3. Decompression (including SCUBA diving)
  4.  Visual scanning techniques
  5. Hearing
  6.  Orientation and disorientation (Including visual and vestibular illusions)
  7. Positive and negative “G”
  8. Sleep and fatigue
  9. Anaesthetics
  10. Blood donations

The Pilot and the Operating Environment

  1. Personal health and fitness
  2. Diet and nutrition
  3.  Medications (prescribed and over-the-counter)
  4. Substance abuse (alcohol and drugs)
  5. Pregnancy
  6. Heat and cold
  7. Noise and vibration
  8. Effects of smoking
  9.  Toxic hazards (including carbon monoxide)

Aviation Psychology

  1. The decision-making process
  2.  Factors that influence decision-making
  3.  Situational awareness
  4.  Stress
  5.  Managing risk
  6. Attitudes
  7. Workload - attention and information processing

Pilot - Equipment/Materials Relationship

  1. Controls and displays - errors in interpretation and control
  2. Errors in the interpretation and use of maps and charts
  3. Correct use of check-lists and manuals

Interpersonal Relations

  1. Communications with maintenance personnel, air traffic services and passengers
  2. Operating pressures - family relationships and peer group

Recommended Study Material

  • Sample Examination for Private Pilot Licence (TP 13014E)
  • Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR) (TP 11919E)
  • When in Doubt...Small and Large Aircraft - Aircraft Critical Surface Contamination Training (TP 10643E)
  • Air Command Weather Manual (TP 9352E)
  • Air Command Weather Manual (Supplement) (TP 9353E)
  • Flight Training Manual
  • Human Factors for Aviation - Basic Handbook (TP 12863E)
  • Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM) (TP 14371E )
  • Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
  • VFR Navigation Charts (VNC) / VFR Terminal Area Charts (VTA)
  • Canada Flight Supplement (CFS)

The Study Guide (RIC-21) for the Radiotelephone Operator's Restricted Certificate (Aeronautical) is available free of charge from district offices of Industry Canada - Examination and Radio Licensing (

Information on textbooks and other publications producedby commercial publishers can be obtained through local flying training organizations, bookstores and similar sources.

Recommended Study Material for the FAA Conversion Examination

Candidates attempting the examination for conversion from an FAA certificate to a Canadian Private pilot licence (FAAPA examination) are encouraged to review the following references as they apply to aeroplanes in VFR operations:

CARs Part I, Subpart 1 

General Provisions
101.01 - Interpretation (definitions as needed) 

CARs Part IV, Subpart 1 Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings
401.05 – Recency Requirements
401.26 – Private Pilot Licence, Aeroplanes – Privileges 
CARs Part IV, Subpart 4

Medical Requirements
404.04 – Issuance, Renewal, Validity Period and Extension of a Medical Certificate 

CARs Part VI, Subpart 1 

Division I – Airspace Structure, Classification and Use
Division II – Aircraft Operating Restrictions and Hazards to Aviation Safety 

CARs Part VI, Subpart 2

Operating and Flight Rules
Division I – General
Division II – Operational and Emergency Equipment requirements
Division III – Flight Preparation, Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries
Division IV – Pre-Flight and Fuel Requirements
Division V – Operations at or in the Vicinity of an Aerodrome
Division VI – Visual Flight Rules
Division VIII – Radiocommunications
Division IX – Emergency Communications and Security 

CARs Part VI, Subpart 5

Aircraft Requirments
Division I – Aircraft Requirements – General
Division II – Aircraft Equipment Requirements 


1.0  – General Information
3.0 – Transportation Safety Board of Canada  


7.19 – Aerodrome Lightning – Aircraft Radio Control of Aerodrome Lightning (ARCAL) 


5.15 – Radio Communications – Phone Use During Radio Communication Failure 


Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services
2.0  – Airspace – Requirements and Procedures
3.6 – Flight Planning – Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries (Opening)
3.12 – Closing
4.0 – Airport Operations
5.0 – VFR En Route Procedures 


Search and Rescue
3.9 – Emergency Locator Transmitter – Schedule of Requirements  


Aeronautical Charts and Publications
2.0  – Aeronautical Information – VFR
6.0 – Aeronautical Information Circulars – General  


Licensing, Registration And Airworthiness
3.9 – Pilot Licensing – Recency Requirements 

TC AIM – AIR Airmanship
1.6 – General Information – Canadian Runway Friction Index
2.12 – Flight Operations – Flight Operations in Winter


Information concerning the location of pilot training organizations and matters pertaining to flight crew licensing may be obtained by contacting the appropriate Regional Offices. A complete listing may be found at:


© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Transport, 2006.

Permission is granted by the Department of Transport, Canada, to copy and/or reproduce the contents of this publication in whole or in part provided that full acknowledgment is given to the Department of Transport, Canada, and that the material be accurately reproduced. While use of this material has been authorized, the Department of Transport, Canada, shall not be responsible for the manner in which the information is presented, nor for any interpretations thereof.

The information in this publication is to be considered solely as a guide and should not be quoted as or considered to be a legal authority. It may become obsolete in whole or in part at any time without notice.

TP 12880E

You may reproduce this guide as required and it can be found at

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