From Transport Canada
Required Navigation Performance 1 (RNP 1)
|Issuing Office:||Standards||Document No.:||AC 700-025|
|File Classification No.:||Z 5000-34||Issue No.:||01|
|RDIMS No.:||6410963-V29||Effective Date:||2013-05-01|
Table of Contents
- 1.0 Introduction
- 2.0 References and Requirements
- 3.0 Background
- 4.0 Aircraft eligibility Requirements
- 5.0 Required Navigation Performance 1 procedures
- 5.1 Pre-Flight Planning
- 5.2 General Operating Procedures
- 5.3 Required Navigation Performance 1 Standard Instrument Departure Specific Requirements
- 5.4 Required Navigation Performance 1 Standard Instrument Arrival Specific Requirements
- 5.5 Contingency Procedures
- 5.6 Navigation Errors
- 5.7 Navigation Database
- 6.0 Flight Crew Member Knowledge and Training
- 7.0 Operational Approval
- 8.0 Conclusion
- 9.0 Information Management
- 10.0 Document history
- 11.0 Contact office
- Appendix A — Functional Requirements
- This Advisory Circular (AC) is provided for information and guidance purposes. It describes an example of an acceptable means, but not the only means, of demonstrating compliance with regulations and standards. This AC on its own does not change, create, amend or permit deviations from regulatory requirements, nor does it establish minimum standards.
The purpose of this AC is to inform the aviation industry that air operators and private operators may now obtain a Canadian authorization by Operations Specification (Ops Spec) 618 for Required Navigation Performance 1 (RNP 1). This authorization will enable Canadian air operators or private operators to operate within airspace designated as RNP 1, subject to the applicable requirements of the Ops Spec. The final step in the operational approval is the issuance of the Ops Spec to the air operator or private operator. This Ops Spec will also form the basis upon which a foreign National Aviation Authority (NAA) may authorize, within their jurisdiction, a Canadian air operator or private operator to operate in RNP 1 airspace.
Note: Ops Spec 618 does not grant the authority to conduct the Radius to Fix (RF) segments which may be part of some RNP 1 procedures. The authority to conduct RF segments is granted by Ops Spec 623 and the guidance associated with such procedures can be found in AC 700-027.
- This AC applies to Canadian air operators holding an Air Operator Certificate issued under Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) and to private operators holding a Private Operator Certificate issued under Subpart 604 of the CARs, who wish to operate in airspace requiring RNP 1 navigation performance. These will be commonly referred to as “operator” in this AC.
- RNP 1 operational authorization is required for operations within some airspace.
- This document is also applicable to all Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) employees, to individuals and organizations when they are exercising privileges granted to them under an External Ministerial Delegation of Authority. This information is also available to the aviation industry at large for information purposes.
1.3 Description of Changes
- Not applicable.
2.0 References and Requirements
2.1 Reference Documents
- The following reference material may be consulted for information purposes:
- Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)—Transport Category Aeroplanes;
- Subpart 604 of the CARs—Private Operator Passenger Transportation;
- Subpart 702 of the CARs—Aerial Work;
- Subpart 703 of the CARs – Air Taxi;
- Subpart 704 of the CARs—Commuter Operations;
- Subpart 705 of the CARs—Airline Operations;
- Standard 624 of the CARs — Private Operator Passenger Transportation;
- Standard 722 of the Commercial Air Services Standards (CASS)—Aerial Work;
- Standard 723 of the CASS – Air Taxi;
- Standard 724 of the CASS—Commuter Operations;
- Standard 725 of the CASS—Airline Operations;
- Operations Specification 618, Required Navigation Performance 1 (RNP 1) Airspace;
- Transport Canada Publication (TP) 308, Criteria for the Development of Instrument Procedures;
- Advisory Circular 700-027, Radius to Fix (RF) Path Terminator;
- Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular (FAA AC) 90-105, Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System;
- International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Doc 4444,Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Air traffic management (PANSATM);
- ICAO Doc. 9613, Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II Part C Implementing RNP 1; and
- ICAO Doc. 7030, Regional Supplementary Procedures.
2.2 Cancelled Documents
- Not applicable.
- By default, it is understood that the publication of a new issue of a document automatically renders any earlier issues of the same document null and void.
2.3 Definitions and Abbreviations
- The following definitions are used in this document:
- Advisory Circular: A document providing an example of an acceptable means, but not the only means, of demonstrating compliance with regulations and standards.
- Aircraft-based Augmentation System: A system which augments and/or integrates the information obtained from other Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) elements with information available on board the aircraft. The most common form of Aircraft based Augmentation System (ABAS) is the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM).
- Air navigation services: This term includes air traffic management (ATM), communications, navigation and surveillance systems (CNS); meteorological services for air navigation (MET); search and rescue (SAR); and aeronautical information services (AIS). These services are provided to air traffic during all phases of operations (approach, aerodrome and en route).
- Air navigation services provider: An independent entity established for the purpose of operating and managing air navigation services, and empowered to manage and use the revenues it generates to cover its costs. In Canada, this function is normally performed by NAV CANADA.
- Area Navigation: A navigation system that allows aircraft to operate on any desired flight track within the coverage of ground- or space-based navigation aids, or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of both methods. Area navigation includes performance-based navigation as well as other operations that are not contemplated in the definition of performance-based navigation.
- Required Navigation Performance (RNP): Area navigation system that includes the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting, designated by the prefix RNP, e.g. RNP 4, RNP APCH.
- Area Navigation (RNAV): Area navigation system that does not include the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting, designated by the prefix RNAV, e.g. RNAV 5, RNAV 1.
- Global Navigation Satellite System: A generic term used by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to define any global position, speed, and time determination system that includes one or more main satellite constellations, such as GPS and the global navigation satellite system (GLONASS), aircraft receivers and several integrity monitoring systems, including ABAS, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS), such as the wide area augmentation systems (WAAS), and ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS), such as the local area augmentation system (LAAS).
- Global Positioning System: The global navigation satellite system of the United States is a satellite-based radio navigation system that uses precise distance measurements to determine position, speed, and time in any part of the world. The GPS is made up of three elements: the spatial, the control, and the user elements. The GPS spatial segment nominally consists of at least 24 satellites in 6 orbital planes. The control element consists of 5 monitoring stations, 3 ground antennas, and one main control station. The user element consists of antennas and receivers that provide the user with position, speed, and precise time.
- Navigation specification: A set of requirements needed to implement and support performance based navigation within a defined airspace.
Performance Based Navigation: Area navigation based on performance requirements for aircraft operating along an Air Traffic Service (ATS) route, on an instrument approach procedure or in a designated airspace.
Note. The performance requirements of a navigation specification (RNAV specification or RNP specification) are expressed in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity, availability and functionality needed for the proposed operation in the context of a particular airspace concept.
- RNP operations: Aircraft operations that use an RNP system for RNP applications.
- RNP system: An area navigation system which includes on-board performance monitoring and alerting.
- Radius to Fix Path Terminator: A specific fixed-radius curved path in a terminal and approach procedure intended to be applied where an accurate repeatable and predictable ground path is required. The portion of the procedure which contains the radius to fix path terminator may be referred to as an RF leg.
- Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring: A form of ABAS whereby a GNSS receiver processor determines the integrity of the GNSS navigation signals using only GPS signals or GPS signals augmented with altitude (baro-aiding). This determination is achieved by a consistency check among redundant pseudo-range measurements. At least one additional satellite with the correct geometry needs to be available, over and above that needed for the position estimation, for the receiver to perform the RAIM function.
- Satellite-based augmentation system: A wide coverage augmentation system in which the user receives augmentation information from a satellite-based transmitter. The WAAS is a form of SBAS.
- Standard instrument arrival: A designated instrument flight rule (IFR) arrival route linking a significant point, normally on an ATS route, with a point from which a published instrument approach procedure can be commenced.
- Standard instrument departure: A designated IFR departure route linking the aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point, normally on a designated ATS route, at which the en-route phase of a flight commences.
- Technical Standard Order: A minimum performance standard for specified materials, parts, and appliances used on civil aircraft.
- Total System Error: The difference between the true position and the desired position. This error is equal to the sum of the vectors of the path definition error (PDE), the flight technical error (FTE), and the navigation system error (NSE).
- Flight Technical Error (FTE): The FTE is the accuracy with which an aircraft is controlled as measured by the indicated aircraft position with respect to the indicated command or desired position. It does not include blunder errors.
- Navigation System Error (NSE): The difference between the true position and the estimated position.
- Path Definition Error (PDE): The difference between the defined path and the desired path at a given place and time.
- World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84): The most recent geocentric reference system definition developed by the United States Department of Defence (World Geodetic System Committee).
- The following abbreviations are used in this document:
- AC: Advisory Circular;
- ABAS: Aircraft-Based Augmentation System;
- ANSP: Air Navigation Service Provider;
- FTE: Flight Technical Error;
- GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System;
- GPS: Global Positioning System;
- NSE: Navigation System Error;
- PBN: Performance Based Navigation;
- PDE: Path Definition Error;
- RNAV: Area Navigation;
- RAIM: Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring;
- RF: Radius to Fix;
- RNP: Required Navigation Performance;
- SBAS: Satellite-Based Augmentation System;
- SID: Standard Instrument Departure;
- STAR: Standard Instrument Arrival;
- TSE: Total System Error;
- TSO: Technical Standard Order; and
- TCCA: Transport Canada Civil Aviation.
- The material described in this Advisory Circular (AC) has been developed based on International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Doc 9613 Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Vol. II Part C Implementing Required Navigation Performance 1 (RNP 1).
- This AC does not establish all the requirements that may be specified for a given Standard Instrument Departure (SID) or Standard Instrument Arrival (STAR). These requirements are established in other documents, such as the Transport Canada Publication (TP) 308 Criteria for the Development of Instrument Procedures and ICAO Doc 7030 – Regional Supplementary Procedures. Although operational approval is normally related to airspace requirements, operators must consider the operational documents required by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) before conducting flights in RNP 1 airspace.
- The final step in the operational approval is the issuance of the Ops Spec 618 to the operator.
3.1 Required Navigation Performance 1 Operations
- RNP 1 Operations:
- are based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS);
- rely on conventional compliance with descent profiles and altitude requirements;
- must use the world geodetic system (WGS) 84 coordinates in the creation of routes and procedures;
- must meet the requirements of Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation in the navigation data published for the routes and procedures;
- are intended in environments where Air Traffic Services (ATS) surveillance is limited or not available, but with direct controller-pilot communication;
- will clearly indicate the required navigation standard (e.g. RNP 1) on all the appropriate charts.
4.0 Aircraft Eligibility Requirements
- The purpose of this section is to assist an operator in determining if its aircraft is eligible to be considered for approval to conduct RNP 1 operations in Canada. Aircraft eligibility alone does not authorize RNP 1 operations.
4.1 System Eligibility
- The aircraft eligibility has to be determined through demonstration of compliance against the relevant airworthiness criteria and the criteria contained in this AC.
- Operators may demonstrate the qualification of their aircraft navigation system by satisfying one of the following criteria:
- The aircraft manufacturer has included a statement in the Aircraft Flight Manual indicating that the aircraft is approved to conduct RNP 1 operations, and that this approval is based on GNSS (GPS) navigation. Approval based exclusively on other navigation aids, such as DME, is not acceptable;
- The aircraft manufacturer has included a statement in the Aircraft Flight Manual that the aircraft meets the requirements of Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular (FAA AC) 90-105 Appendix 2, and that this approval is based on GNSS (GPS) navigation. Approval based exclusively on other navigation aids, such as Distance Measuring Equipment (DME), is not acceptable;
- Stand-alone systems: Stand-alone E/TSO-C129 Class A1 or A2 systems (without deviation from the functional requirements established in this AC) or E/TSO-C146 Class 1, 2 or 3 systems (without deviation from the functional requirements established in this AC) meet aircraft qualification requirements for RNP 1 operations. This equipment must be installed and certified as per Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs);
- Multi-sensor systems: Multi-sensor systems using E/TSO-C129() Class B or C sensors or E/TSO-C145 Class 1, 2 and 3 sensors, meet aircraft qualification requirements for RNP 1 operations, provided that the installations comply with the criteria of this AC. The associated FMS must comply with E/TSO-C115b and all equipment must be installed and certified as per Part V of the CARs; or
- In the event that the aircraft does not meet any of the above criteria but the operator is able to demonstrate that the navigation system meets all of the functional requirements listed below, aircraft eligibility may be determined by TCCA Aircraft Certification.
4.2 Functional Requirements
Note: The design approval holder will demonstrate compliance, and the approval will be documented in manufacturer documentation. Such documentation indicates that the aircraft and equipment meet the technical requirements of this section.
- During operations in airspace or on routes designated as RNP 1, the lateral total system error must be within +/- 1 NM for at least 95% of total flight time. The along-track error must also be within +/- 1 NM for at least 95% of total flight time. To satisfy the accuracy requirement, the 95% flight technical error (FTE) should not exceed 0.5 NM.
Note: The use of a course deviation indicator (CDI) with 1 NM full-scale deflection has been found to be an acceptable means of compliance. The use of an autopilot (AP) or flight director (FD) has been found to be an acceptable means of compliance (roll stabilization systems do not meet the requirements).
- During operations in airspace or on routes designated as RNP 1, the lateral total system error must be within +/- 1 NM for at least 95% of total flight time. The along-track error must also be within +/- 1 NM for at least 95% of total flight time. To satisfy the accuracy requirement, the 95% flight technical error (FTE) should not exceed 0.5 NM.
- Malfunctioning of the aircraft navigation equipment is classified as a major failure condition under airworthiness regulations (i.e. probability of failure not greater than 1 X 10-5 per hour).
- Loss of function is classified as a minor failure condition if the operator can revert to a different navigation system and proceed to a suitable aerodrome.
- Performance monitoring and alerting
- The RNP system must provide an alert if the accuracy requirement is not met, or if the probability that the lateral total system error (TSE) exceeding 1 NM is greater than 1 X 10-5 per hour.
If GNSS is used, the aircraft navigation equipment will provide an alert if the probability of signal-in-space errors causing a lateral position error greater than 1 NM exceeds 1 X 10-7 per hour (ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, Table 220.127.116.11.1).
Note: Compliance with the on-board performance monitoring and alerting requirements does not imply automatic monitoring of flight technical errors. The on-board monitoring and alerting function should consist at least of a navigation system error (NSE) monitoring and alerting algorithm and a lateral deviation display enabling the crew to monitor the FTE. To the extent operational procedures are used to monitor FTE, the crew procedure, equipment characteristics, and installation are evaluated for their effectiveness and equivalence, as described in the Functional Requirements and operating procedures.
- RNP 1 is based on GNSS positioning
- Positioning data from other types of navigation sensors may be integrated with the GNSS data provided the other positioning data do not cause position errors exceeding the TSE budget. Otherwise, means should be provided to deselect the other navigation sensor types. This requirement does not imply an equipment capability must exist providing a direct means of inhibiting DME updating. A procedural means for the flight crew to inhibit DME updating or executing a missed approach if reverting to DME updating may meet this requirement.
- For TSO-C129a equipment, the navigation system must be able to maintain 1NM CDI scaling sensitivity, either automatically or by manual selection, during terminal procedures which extend beyond 30NM from the airport. Operators wishing to conduct RNP 1 operations with aircraft unable to demonstrate this capability may be issued Ops Spec 618 with a restriction to conduct such operations within 30 NM of an airport. Such operators would have to include this restriction in the flight crew member training.
- The navigation system must meet the functional requirements contained in Appendix A of this AC.
- If the operator wishes to conduct the RF leg segments associated with some RNP 1 procedures, the navigation system must meet the requirements of Ops Spec 623.
- The navigation system should not permit the flight crew to select a procedure that is not supported by the equipment, either manually or automatically (e.g., a procedure is not supported if it incorporates an RF leg and the equipment does not provide RF leg capability).
The navigation system should also prohibit flight crew access to procedures requiring RF leg capability if the system can select the procedure, but the aircraft is not otherwise equipped (e.g., the aircraft does not have the required roll steering autopilot or flight director installed).
Note: One acceptable means to meet these requirements is to screen the aircraft’s onboard navigation database and remove any routes or procedures the aircraft is not eligible to execute. For example, if the aircraft is not eligible to complete RF leg segments, then the database screening could remove all procedures containing RF leg segments from the navigation database.
Another acceptable means of compliance may be flight crew training to identify and prohibit the use of procedures containing RF legs.
4.3 Continued Airworthiness
- The operators of aircraft approved to perform RNP 1 operations must ensure that the navigation system is maintained according to the design approval holder’s instructions for continuing airworthiness (ICAs), including any software updates.
Each operator who applies for RNP 1 operational approval is required to incorporate the RNP 1 equipment inspection requirements, specified by the design approval holder, and amend the aircraft maintenance schedule as required. This requirement is designed to ensure that navigation systems continue to meet the RNP 1 approval criteria.
Note: If the aircraft was delivered by the aircraft manufacturer with RNP 1 capability the maintenance requirements may already exist in the maintenance schedule.
- Maintenance for the affected aircraft is required to include the maintenance practices listed in the maintenance manuals of the aircraft manufacturer and its components, and must consider:
- that the equipment involved in the RNP 1 operation is required to be maintained according to the ICA from the component design approval holder;
- that any amendment or change of navigation system affecting in any way RNP 1 initial approval, must be submitted to the principal maintenance inspector (PMI) and reviewed for acceptance or approval of such changes prior to its implementation; and
- that any repair that is not included in the approved/accepted maintenance documentation, and that could affect the integrity of navigation performance, is required to be forwarded to the PMI or regional airworthiness office for acceptance or approval thereof.
5.0 Required Navigation Performance 1 procedures
- Operational approval is required to confirm the adequacy of the operator’s normal and contingency procedures for the particular equipment installation. Information that indicates the potential for repeated errors may require modification of an operator’s training program. Information that attributes multiple errors to a particular flight crew member may necessitate remedial training.
- The operator and its flight crew members will be familiar with the following operating and contingency procedures associated with RNP 1 operations.
5.1 Pre-Flight Planning
- The appropriate flight plan suffixes must be included on the flight plan.
- The on-board navigation data must be current and include appropriate procedures.
Note: Navigation databases are expected to be current for the duration of the flight or series of flight segments. If the AIRAC cycle is due to change during flight, procedures should be established to ensure the accuracy of the navigation data, including the suitability of navigation facilities used to define the routes and procedures for flight.
- The availability of the Navigation Aid (NAVAID) infrastructure required for the intended routes, including any non-RNAV contingencies, must be confirmed for the period of intended operations, using all available information. Since ICAO Annex 10 Volume I requires GNSS integrity (RAIM or SBAS signal) the availability of these should also be determined as appropriate. For aircraft that navigate with SBAS receivers (all TSO-C145() / C146() receivers), availability of the GNSS RAIM must be confirmed in areas where the SBAS signal is not available.
- Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) (ABAS) Availability:
- RAIM levels required for RNP 1 can be verified either through Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) (where available) or through prediction services. Operators must be familiar with the prediction information available for the intended route.
- The prediction of RAIM availability must take into account the latest GPS constellation NOTAMs. The RAIM prediction service can be provided through the Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs), the avionics manufacturers, other entities, or through the RAIM prediction capability of the aircraft on-board receiver. RAIM availability can be confirmed using model-specific RAIM prediction software.
- The predictive capability must account for known and predicted outages of GPS satellites or other effects on the navigation system sensors. The prediction program should not use a mask angle below 5 degrees, since operational experience indicates that satellite signals on low elevations are not reliable. The use of a higher mask angle should be considered when conducting RAIM availability predictions for airports with known topographical obstructions. RAIM availability prediction should take into account the latest GPS constellation NOTAMs, and use an identical algorithm to that used in the airborne equipment or an algorithm based on assumptions for RAIM prediction that provides a more conservative result.
- In the event of a predicted continuous loss of the appropriate level of fault detection of more than five (5) minutes for any part of the RNP 1 operation, the flight planning must be revised (e.g. delaying the departure or planning a different departure procedure).
- The RAIM availability prediction software does not guarantee the service. This software is a tool for assessing the expected capability to meet the required navigation performance. Due to unplanned failures of some GNSS elements, both RAIM and GNSS navigation may be lost while airborne, which may require reversion to an alternate means of navigation. Therefore, flight crew members should assess their capability to navigate (potentially to an alternate destination) in the case of the failure of GPS navigation.
5.2 General Operating Procedures
- Any instructions or procedures identified by the manufacturer as necessary to comply with RNP 1 performance requirements must be followed.
- Operators and flight crew members should not request, accept or file RNP 1 procedures unless all the criteria in this AC are satisfied.
- At system initialization, the aircraft position must be confirmed as having been entered correctly. The proper entry of the ATC assigned route upon initial clearance and any subsequent change of route must be verified. The waypoint sequence depicted by the navigation system must match the route depicted on the appropriate chart(s) and the assigned route.
- An RNP 1 SID or STAR must be retrievable by procedure name from the on-board navigation database and conform to the charted procedure. However, the procedure may subsequently be modified through the insertion or deletion of specific waypoints in response to ATC clearances. The entry or creation of new waypoints by manual entry of latitude and longitude, or rho/theta values, is not permitted. Additionally, a SID or STAR database waypoint may not be changed from a fly-by type to a fly-over type or vice versa.
The cleared flight plan should be cross-checked by comparison to charts or other applicable resources with the navigation system textual display and the aircraft map display, if applicable. If required, the exclusion of specific NAVAIDs should be confirmed.
Note: There may be a slight difference between the navigation information portrayed on the chart and the primary navigation display. Differences of 3 degrees or less may result from the equipment manufacturer’s application of magnetic variation and are operationally acceptable.
- Cross-checking with conventional NAVAIDs is not required, as the absence of an integrity alert is considered sufficient to meet the integrity requirements. However, monitoring of navigation reasonableness is suggested, and any loss of RNP capability must be reported to ATC.
- For RNP 1 routes, a lateral deviation indicator, flight director, or autopilot in lateral navigation mode must be used. Lateral deviation scaling must be suitable for the navigation accuracy associated with the route/procedure (e.g. full-scale deflection: ±1 nm for RNP 1), when using a lateral deviation display.
As depicted by on-board lateral deviation indicators and/or flight guidance during all RNP 1 operations described in this manual, the centrelines must be maintained unless authorized to deviate by ATC or under emergency conditions. For normal operations, FTE should be limited to 0.5 nm. Brief deviations from this standard (e.g. overshoots or undershoots) during and immediately after turns, up to a maximum 1.0 nm are allowable.
Note: Some aircraft do not display or compute a path during turns, but are still expected to satisfy the above standard during intercepts following turns and on straight segments.
- If ATC issues a heading assignment that takes an aircraft off a route, the flight plan in the RNP system should not be modified until a clearance is received to rejoin the route or ATC confirms a new route clearance. When the aircraft is not on the published RNP 1 route, the specified accuracy requirement does not apply.
- Manually selecting aircraft bank limiting functions may reduce the aircraft’s ability to maintain its desired track and are not recommended. Manually selectable aircraft bank-limiting functions might reduce the ability to satisfy ATC path expectations, especially when executing large angle turns. This should not be construed as a requirement to deviate from aeroplane flight manual procedures. The selection of such functions should be limited within accepted procedures.
- Before starting a RNP 1 procedure, flight crew members must:
- confirm that the correct procedure has been selected. This process includes verifying waypoint sequence, the reasonableness of track angles, distances, and of any other parameter that can be modified by the flight crew member, such as altitude or speed constraints; and
- for multi-sensor systems, verify that the correct sensor is being used for position computation.
- Flight crew members operating aircraft with RNP accuracy value input selection capability should confirm, and correct as required, an RNP accuracy value of 1 or lower for RNP 1 SIDs and STARs.
- Operators are only permitted to conduct the RF leg portion of RNP 1 procedures if they have received the authority to do so by the issuance of Ops Spec 623.
5.3 Required Navigation Performance 1 Standard Instrument Departure Specific Requirements
- Prior to flight, the flight crew members must verify their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and the correct runway and departure procedure (including any applicable en-route transition) are entered and properly depicted. Flight crew members who are assigned a RNP 1 departure procedure and subsequently receive a change of runway, procedure or transition must verify the appropriate changes are entered and available for navigation prior to take-off. A final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before take-off, is recommended.
- The use of RNP 1 equipment to follow flight guidance for lateral navigation (e.g. LNAV) must begin no later than 153 m (500 ft) above the aerodrome elevation.
- Flight crew members must use an authorized method (lateral deviation indicator/navigation map display/flight director/autopilot) to achieve an appropriate level of performance for RNP 1.
- The GNSS signal must be acquired before the take-off roll commences.
- For aircraft using TSO-C129a avionics, the departure airport must be loaded into the flight plan in order to achieve the appropriate navigation system monitoring and sensitivity. For aircraft using a lateral deviation display (i.e. navigation map display), the scale must be adjusted for the RNP 1 SID and flight director or autopilot should be used. If the RNP 1 SID extends beyond 30 nm from the aerodrome and a lateral deviation indicator is used, its full-scale sensitivity must be selected to not greater than 1 NM between 30 nm from the aerodrome and the termination of the RNP 1 SID.
- For aircraft using TSO-C145()/C146() avionics, if the departure begins at a runway waypoint, then the departure airport does not need to be in the flight plan to obtain appropriate monitoring and sensitivity.
5.4 Required Navigation Performance 1 Standard Instrument Arrival Specific Requirements
Prior to the arrival phase, the correct terminal route must be verified as having been loaded. The active flight plan should be checked by comparing the charts with the route depicted and entered. This includes confirmation of the waypoint sequence, reasonableness of track angles and distances, any altitude or speed constraints, and, where possible, which waypoints are fly-by and which are flyover. A route must not be used if doubt exists as to the validity of the route in the navigation database.
Note: As a minimum, the arrival checks could be a simple inspection of a suitable map display that achieves the objectives of this paragraph.
- The creation of new waypoints by manual entry into the RNP 1 system would invalidate the route and is not permitted.
- Where the contingency procedure requires reversion to a conventional arrival route, necessary preparations must be completed before commencing the RNP 1 procedure.
- Procedure modifications in the terminal area may take the form of radar headings or “direct to” clearances, and the flight crew members must be capable of reacting in a timely fashion. This may include the insertion of tactical waypoints loaded from the database. Manual entry or modification of the loaded route, using temporary waypoints or fixes not provided in the database, is not permitted.
- The flight crew members must verify that the aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and that the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered and properly depicted.
- Although a particular method is not mandated, any published altitude and speed constraints must be observed.
- For aircraft using TSO-C129a avionics, when using a lateral deviation display (i.e. navigation map display), the scale must be set for the RNP 1 STAR, and the flight director or autopilot should be used. If the RNP 1 STAR begins beyond 30 NM from the aerodrome and a lateral deviation indicator is used, then full scale sensitivity should be manually selected to not greater than 1 NM prior to commencing the STAR.
5.5 Contingency Procedures
- If, for any reason, it is not possible to meet the requirements of a RNP 1 SID or STAR, the flight crew members must notify ATC as soon as possible together with the proposed course of action. The loss of RNP capability includes any failure or event causing the aircraft to no longer satisfy the RNP 1 requirements of the route.
- In the event of communication failure, the flight crew members should continue with the published procedure.
5.6 Navigation Errors
- The operator will establish a procedure to receive, analyze, and follow up on navigation error reports in order to determine appropriate corrective action.
- Information indicating a potential for repetitive errors may require the modification of the training program of the operator.
- Information attributing multiple errors to a flight crew member may call for additional training.
- Repetitive navigation errors attributed to the equipment or a specific part of the navigation equipment or to operating procedures can be the cause of cancellation of an operational approval (withdrawal/suspension of RNP 1 operation specification authorization).
5.7 Navigation Database
- The operator must obtain the navigation database from a supplier that complies with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) document DO 200A/EUROCAE ED 76 – Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data. A Letter of Acceptance (LOA) issued by the appropriate regulatory authority to each participant in the data chain demonstrates compliance with this requirement (e.g., FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) LOA issued in accordance with EASA OPINION Nr. 01/2005).
- Discrepancies that invalidate a SID or STAR must be reported to the navigation database supplier and the affected SID or STAR must be prohibited by an operator’s notice to its flight crew members.
6.0 Knowledge and Training requirements
- Flight crew members must be trained to the standard as required by:
- Subpart 604 of the CARs;
- Subsection 722.76(15) of the Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS);
- Subsection 723.98(21) of the CASS;
- Subsection 724.115(22) of the CASS;
- Subsection 725.124(27) of the CASS;
- Additionally, flight crew members will be trained on the following:
- The information in this AC;
- The meaning and proper use of aircraft equipment/navigation suffixes;
- RNP 1 procedure characteristics as determined from the charts;
- Depiction of waypoint types (fly-over and fly-by) and path terminators as well as associated aircraft flight paths;
- Required navigation equipment for operation on RNP 1 SIDs and STARs;
- RNP system specific information:
- Levels of automation, mode annunciations, changes, alerts, interactions, reversions and degradation;
- Functional integration with other aircraft systems;
- The meaning and appropriateness of route discontinuities as well as related flight crew procedures;
- Flight crew member procedures consistent with the operation;
- Types of navigation sensors utilized by the RNP system and associated system prioritization/weighting/logic;
- Turn anticipation with consideration to speed and altitude effects;
- Interpretation of electronic displays and symbols;
- Understanding of the aircraft configuration and operational conditions required to support RNP 1 operations, i.e. appropriate selection of CDI scaling (lateral deviation display scaling);
- RNP system operating procedures, as applicable, including how to perform the following actions:
- Verify currency and integrity of the aircraft navigation data;
- Verify the successful completion of RNP system self-tests;
- Initialize navigation system position;
- Retrieve and fly a RNP 1 SID or a STAR with appropriate transition;
- Adhere to speed and/or altitude constraints associated with a RNP 1 SID or STAR;
- Select the appropriate RNP 1 SID or STAR for the active runway in use and be familiar with procedures to deal with a runway change;
- Verify waypoints and flight plan programming;
- Fly direct to a waypoint;
- Fly a course/track to a waypoint;
- Intercept a course/track;
- Fly radar vectors and rejoining a RNP 1 route from “heading” mode;
- Determine cross-track error/deviation. More specifically, the maximum deviations allowed to support RNP 1 must be understood and respected;
- Resolve route discontinuities;
- Remove and reselect navigation sensor input;
- Change arrival airport and alternate airport;
- Perform parallel offset function if capability exists. Flight crew members should know how offsets are applied, the functionality of their particular RNP system and the need to advise ATC if this functionality is not available;
- Perform RNAV holding function;
- Select the required CDI scaling, particularly when conducting terminal procedures beyond the automatic scaling capability of the RNAV system;
- Inhibit or de-select RNP 1 procedures containing RF legs (for operators not having Ops Spec 623);
- Perform RF leg associated with RNP 1 procedures as per the requirements of Ops Spec 623 (for operators holding that Ops Spec 623);
- Operator-recommended levels of automation for phase of flight and workload, including methods to minimize cross-track error to maintain route centerline;
- R/T phraseology for RNAV/RNP applications;
- Contingency procedures for RNAV/RNP failures; and
- Any TCCA-imposed restrictions associated with the Ops Spec 618.
- Operational Control Personnel must be trained on the following:
- The Performance Based Navigation concept;
- Flight planning as it pertains to RNP 1;
- WAAS NOTAMs (as applicable);
- RAIM prediction;
- Maintenance personnel involved in the routine or detailed checks of RNP 1 avionics should be familiar with the Performance Based Navigation concept.
- Operators wishing to receive credit for elements of RNP training already conducted as part of an existing training program (e.g. elements of a training curriculum already in place to satisfy a foreign state’s approval requirements) must receive approval from their principal operations inspector or equivalent. In such a case, the operator must include flight crew member training on the differences between RNP 1 procedures and the operation(s) associated with the common training elements.
7.0 Operational Approval
- The requirements for authorization to operate in RNP 1 airspace are as follows:
- The equipment must meet the certification and installation requirements of Part V of the CARs;
- The operator must ensure the quality of the navigation database;
- The operator must establish procedures in its Company Operations Manual (COM), or private operator equivalent, for the guidance of its personnel related to the conduct of RNP 1 operations. These procedures must include at least a system description and any limitations; operational aspects, including normal, abnormal and emergency operations; and any effects or dependences on other aircraft systems. Updates to the operator’s COM should be done in accordance with the requirements of Subpart 604 and sections 702.82, 703.105, 704.121, 705.135, of the CARs, as applicable;
- If a MEL has been approved by the Minister, in respect of an operator of that type of aircraft, the operator must amend its MEL, where required, and specify the required dispatch conditions. The MEL must indicate clearly to the flight crew members the implications of equipment failures to RNP 1 operations. All MEL amendments must be submitted to, and approved by, TCCA;
- The operator must amend its Maintenance Program accordingly; and
- The operator must amend its training program to provide training to operational control personnel, each flight crew member and, when applicable, maintenance personnel involved with RNP 1 operations. Updates to the operator’s Training Program should be done in accordance with the requirements of Subpart 604 of the CARs, or the guidance in Sections 722.26, 723.98, 724.115, 725.124, of the CASS, as applicable.
- Operators intending to apply for Ops Spec 618 should review the referenced documents and then contact their Principal Operations Inspector (POI), or private operator equivalent, for more information. In order to minimize the workload for the operator (e.g. Training Program development, aircraft eligibility), it is recommended that operators who wish to apply for Ops Spec 623, authorization to conduct radius to fix legs, do so simultaneously with the application for Ops Spec 618.
- RNP 1 operational approval may be restricted to operations within 30NM of an airport if the navigation system’s functionality does not include the capability to demonstrate 1NM scaling outside of 30NM of an airport.
- The POI, with the assistance of the PMI or Regional Airworthiness office, should confirm that all of the above requirements are satisfied. Once all of the applicable conditions of this AC have been met, Ops Spec 618 may be issued to the operator.
9.0 Information Management
- Not applicable.
10.0 Document history
- Not applicable.
11.0 Contact office
For more information, please contact:
Commercial Flight Standards Division (AARTF)
Suggestions for amendment to this document are invited, and should be submitted via:
Original signed by Arlo Speer on September 20, 2013.
Transport Canada documents or intranet pages mentioned in this document are available upon request through the Contact Office.
Appendix A — Functional Requirements
|a)||Navigation data, including a failure indicator, must be displayed on a lateral deviation display (e.g. CDI, (E)HSI) and/or a navigation map display. These lateral deviation displays must be used as primary flight instruments for the navigation of the aircraft, for manoeuvre anticipation, and for indication of failure/status/integrity.||
|b)||The following system functions of the RNP 1 system are required as a minimum within any RNP 1 equipment:||
NOTE. Due to variability in systems, this document defines the RNAV segment from the first occurrence of a named waypoint, track or course to the last occurrence of a named waypoint, track or course. Heading legs prior to the first named waypoint or after the last named waypoint do not have to be loaded from the navigation database. The entire SID will be considered an RNP 1 procedure.
|c)||The means to display the following items, either in the flight crew member’s primary field of view, or on a readily accessible display page||
|d)||The capability to execute a “direct to” function.|
|e)||The capability for automatic leg sequencing with the display of sequencing to the flight crew member.|
|f)||The capability to load and execute a RNP 1 SID or STAR from the on-board database by procedure name into the RNP system.
|g)||The aircraft must have the capability to automatically execute leg transitions and maintain tracks consistent with the following ARINC 424 path terminators or their equivalent:
- Initial fix (IF);
- Course to fix (CF);
- Direct to fix (DF); and
- Track to fix (TF).
|NOTE Path terminators are defined in the ARINC Specification 424, and their application is described in more detail in RTCA documents DO-236B/EUROCAE ED-75B and DO-201A/EUROCAE ED-77.
NOTE Numeric values for courses and tracks must be automatically loaded from the RNP system database.
|h)||The aircraft must have the capability to automatically execute leg transitions consistent with VA, VM and VI ARINC 424 path terminators or must be able to be manually flown on a heading to intercept a course or to go direct to another fix after reaching a procedure-specified altitude.|
|i)||The aircraft must have the capability to automatically execute leg transitions consistent with CA and FM ARINC 424 path terminators, or the RNP system must permit the flight crew member to readily designate a waypoint and select a desired course to or from a designated waypoint.|
|k)||The capability to display an indication of the RNP 1 system failure in the flight crew member’s primary field of view.|
AC 700-025 - Required Navigation Performance 1 (RNP 1)
(PDF, 296 KB)