Marine Safety and Security Oversight Program Description and Delivery - Fiscal Year 2017-2018

Table of contents

Executive summary

This report documents Transport Canada’s planned oversight activities in the Marine Safety and Security Program for fiscal year 2017 to 2018.

The Marine Safety and Security Program (“the Program”) develops, administers and enforces national and international laws and policies governing marine safety and security, and the marine environment.

The Program:

  • promotes safe and secure practices and procedures
  • develops and maintains regulations
  • conducts examinations, and upholds training standards for people in the industry

Oversight in the Marine Safety and Security context includes a breadth of activities, including:

  • inspections
  • audits
  • follow-up to inspections
  • investigations
  • enforcement
  • training
  • outreach

Our key areas of focus for 2017 to 2018 were:

  • implementing the Oceans Protection Plan (OPP) to improve marine safety and responsible shipping, protect Canada's marine environment, and offer new possibilities for Indigenous and coastal communities
  • developing regulations to ensure the Canadian marine transportation system stays safe, secure and efficient, and respects Canadian values
  • advancing technology tools to improve how we do business

1. Introduction

The Marine Safety and Security Program is broad in scope. Transport Canada defines oversight as:

“Activities that support the systematic promotion, monitoring, or enforcement with Transport Canada requirements governing safety or security and that contribute to departmental strategic outcomes”.

We conduct oversight to address regulatory requirements for four programs: Marine Safety, Marine Security, Clean Air and Clean Water. For a list of general oversight activities and definitions, see Annex A.

In total, the Program employs over 700 full-time employees. Of this population, there are approximately 350 designated inspectors who do inspections and audits. They also contribute to management and quality control, provide technical expertise, and do training and research.

To achieve our objectives, the Program oversees five key areas:

  • Vessels: control of foreign and domestic vessels
  • Personnel: qualification and protection
  • Infrastructure and navigation: ports and facilities
  • Environment: clean air and water
  • Operational systems: surveillance, incident management and enforcement

These areas help achieve two strategic outcomes of Transport Canada’s work: a safe and secure transportation system, and a clean transportation system.

Highlights of the five key oversight areas are presented below. For a more detailed list of our oversight activities and descriptions, see Annex B.

Vessels: control of foreign and domestic vessels

Under this area, we:

  • register and certify (inspect) Canadian flag vessels as per Canadian and international regulations
  • ensure Canadian-flag vessels are inspected in accordance with:
    • Canadian regulations, and
    • for vessels on international voyages, the appropriate international memoranda, conventions and protocols Canada has ratified, adopted or acceded to, and which have been implemented into domestic legislation
  • oversee manufacturers and importers to ensure vessels comply with construction requirements
  • licence vessels used for pleasure (non-passenger), and provide recreational boaters information on regulations, equipment, publications, licensing and courses
  • check inflatable survival equipment to ensure it meets standards, and accredit service providers for life-saving equipment

Personnel: qualification and protection

Under this area, we:

  • issue marine medical certificates and supporting letters to seafarers
  • ensure anyone recruiting and placing seafarers in Canada has a valid Seafarer Recruitment and Placement Service licence
  • maintain a system to ensure Canadian seafarers comply internationally, and prevent detentions of Canadian vessels under Port State Control in foreign countries
  • accredit, monitor and audit third-party organizations and businesses that deliver services to the public in order to obtain a Pleasure Craft Operator Card
  • inspect and investigate labour standards in the marine industry, including issues in:
    • marine occupational health and safety
    • the Hazard Identification and Prevention Program
    • how to apply the Canada Labour Code

Infrastructure and navigation: ports and facilities

Under this area, we:

  • oversee security-related assessments, plans and procedures
  • carry out on-site security inspections of Canadian marine facilities and ports
  • track the number of hours flown by National Aerial Surveillance Program aircraft
  • engage with the Canadian Coast Guard on oil spills

Environment: clean air and water

Under this area, we:

  • review and inspect environmental response plans for vessels and oil handling facilities
  • inspect Canadian and foreign vessels (travelling outside Great Lake waters) subject to the Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations
  • test and inspect vessels to verify their bunker fuel oil complies with sulphur in fuel oil standards

Operational systems: surveillance, incident management and enforcement

Under this area, we:

  • inspect and review Canadian vessel security plans
  • conduct risk-based vessel security inspections
  • carry out inspections based on:
    • risk assessments (foreign vessel security)
    • regulatory, on-site Port State Control, International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) inspections of foreign vessels
  • conduct enforcement and investigative activities regarding safety and security requirements to compel compliance
    • Generally, violations happen when vessels contravene the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 or its regulations, or the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA), for example, regarding vessel certificates, collisions or pollution
  • issue:
    • letters of suspension or reinstatement
    • assurances of compliance
    • verbal and written warnings
    • notices of corrective action / safety deficiencies
    • administrative monetary penalties
    • detention orders

Additional oversight activities

Safety management audits

  • These include technical inspections, and audits of industry (including classification societies) and safety management regulations
  • Current Safety Management Regulations require all Canadian convention vessels to comply with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea of 1974 (SOLAS) Chapter IX, and meet the International Safety Management Code
  • The Program conducts and/or oversees audit activity on a regular basis

Education, outreach and awareness

  • We conduct targeted education and awareness campaigns aimed at external stakeholders, such as private industry and Indigenous groups
  • This promotes regulatory compliance, and can mitigate risk for a specific safety or security issue

Program budget

Projected costs of Marine Safety and Security oversight activities for fiscal year 2017 to 2018 were $ 63.7 million. Actual costs were $ 61.4 million, 96% of the planned spending.

The 4% variance was due to a decrease in the following:

  • marine safety requests received from training institutions
  • foreign tanker inspections
  • seafarer examinations
  • seafarer certifications

For the overall Program Budgetary Financial Resources, please refer to the 2017-2018 Departmental Results Report (1.15 MB).

Marine Safety and Security facts

Oversight of the marine transportation system is complex. As well as achieving our core mandate (safety, security and environmental responsibilities), Marine Safety and Security oversees air pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions from the marine sector, and pollution of water from transportation.

Our diverse stakeholders include:

  • Canadians
  • seafarers
  • vessel owners and operators
  • staff at ports, marine facilities and oil handling facilities
  • environmental response organizations
  • classification societies
  • shippers of all types of cargo

Most of the commercial vessel fleet in Canada is custom built. No one size “fits all”. Building a safe vessel, which carries passengers and cargo in rough water and storms, is not easy. Unlike commercial airplanes, rail locomotives or vehicles, vessel manufacturers are not limited to a handful of companies. Much of the commercial vessel fleet in Canada and around the world is custom built in many, many shipyards. Marine Safety and Security approves the design of new Canadian vessels. And more often than not, vessels are unique. The range in types and design is vast.

Marine Safety and Security is for Canadian seafarers like the Canadian Medical Association is for physicians. We have very strict requirements for issuing certificates of competency and proficiency, which qualify seafarers for their work. We are responsible for approving and overseeing marine training institutions, programs, courses and even instructors in Canada.

Arctic shipping is not new. But Canada has a lot to do to prepare for safe shipping. Although vessels have been operating in the Arctic for a long time, Arctic shipping is getting attention due to climate change and high-profile crossings. Canada needs many changes to support increases in Arctic vessel traffic. This will include new navigational charts and buoys, as well as environmental and emergency response capacity.

Canada’s marine shipping industry contributes about $3 billion to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, the impact of commercial marine shipping in Canada is estimated at about $30 billion. This is because marine shipping facilitates international trade (Council of Canadian Academies 2017).

Commercial marine shipping is evolving in response to global and domestic social trends. The overall effect of these trends predicts more future shipping activity in Canada. This why Marine Safety and Security is ensuring our Canadian marine facilities (including OHFs), ports and vessels are inspected per the law.

2. Operating context

As a trading nation, Canada relies on a safe and secure marine transportation system to support sustainable economic growth. To achieve this, Canada works with other coastal nations to agree on international standards for safety, security and environment.

Vessels and crew, whether foreign or domestic, must comply with the following laws and regulations:

  • Canada Shipping Act, 2001
  • Marine Transportation Security Act
  • Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act
  • international conventions such as SOLAS

Today, the international shipping industry is responsible for about 90% of world trade.

In 2015, Canada’s domestic fleet and foreign vessels transported over $205 billion in international traded goods. There are now over 50,000 commercial vessels trading internationally, transporting every kind of cargo. The world fleet is registered in over 150 nations and crewed by over a million seafarers of almost every nationality. This has important implications for how we regulate marine transportation in Canada.

Moreover, the marine industry is always changing due to:

  • rapidly changing technology, shipping routes, vessel size and customization
    • For example, most commercial vessels (over 15 gross tonnes) are custom built and vary considerably based on use
    • Customization creates efficiency but requires more oversight
  • a need for additional trade agreements, as shipping volumes increase
  • more international transportation in the Arctic
    • Earlier ice break-up and later freeze-up are lengthening the ice-free open-water season, and which means we need to invest more in infrastructure
  • increased use and reliance on technology, which is escalating cyber risk in the sector
  • mounting demand for travel to, and supply of, remote locations, which increases safety and security risks
  • growing environmental issues

In 2017 to 2018, the Program was responsive to several changes in the international and domestic marine sectors. We dedicated significant efforts to drafting legislative amendments and regulations to ensure Canada complies with international laws and conventions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

Some of these significant changes included:

  • completing an amendment to the Administrative Monetary Penalties and Notices (CSA 2001) Regulations
  • incorporating new Regulations Respecting Compulsory Insurance for Ships Carrying Passengers into the Regional Inspections Regime
  • completing amendments to the Vessel Operation Restriction Regulations
  • advancing proposed amendments to the Maritime Occupational Health and Safety Regulations to protect the health and safety of certain employees
  • working closely with Public Safety to develop Bill C-23, the Preclearance Act, which received Royal Assent on December 12, 2017 and which gives preclearance to travellers and goods between Canada and the United States
  • finalizing the guidelines for cruise ships and tour operators

We also did significant work on Oceans Protection Plan (OPP) initiatives aimed to considerably improve marine safety and responsible shipping.

In November 2016, the Prime Minister announced the $1.5 billion five-year OPP. It aims to build a world-leading marine safety system that protects the marine environment, is built on collaboration with Indigenous and coastal communities, and is based in science and evidence-based decision-making.

The Program contributed resources to deliver on this important new initiative. Some of the OPP initiatives included:

  • adopting the Arctic Shipping Safety and Pollution Prevention Regulations
  • amending the Atlantic Pilotage Authority Regulations (Belledune Pilotage Authority)
  • developing Environmental Response Regulations (phase 1) to improve the effectiveness of the Canada’s Oil Spill Preparedness and Response Regime for ships and oil handling facilities

Finally, we contributed substantial efforts to various transformation initiatives underway in the Department, including:

  • modernizing the current fee structures for marine services
  • aligning acts and regulations to address the changing global standards and advanced technologies
  • advancing the modernization of marine services by using digital tools that Canadians have come to expect and rely on

3. Risks and planning assumptions

Marine Safety and Security largely does two types of work: regulatory authorizations and accident-incident surveillance.

Because we need to allocate about 90% of our budget to conduct required oversight, only a smaller portion of our resources remain for risk-based oversight activities. These conditions pose challenges to how well we can follow a risk-based methodology for planning and resource allocation.

Nonetheless, we continue to mitigate risks in the marine transportation system.

One area involves working in parallel with Transport Canada’s 2-year action plan to ensure we systematically address the Transportation Safety Board’s (TSB) watch list of issues and recommendations. For instance, commercial fishing safety, safety management and fatigue management are issues of particular concern, and we continue to develop our regulatory framework with these at the forefront.

In 2018 to 2019, we will prioritize policy work to support major regulatory reform in navigation safety, fatigue management and fishing vessel safety. We will also enhance our engagement to reduce risk and initiate a culture change in the fishing industry.

Other risk-based action plans include:

  • amending the Marine Personnel Regulations to comply with international conventions
    • This will ensure the ongoing safety of all Canadian seafarers, and include amendments to strengthen the provisions relating to hours of work and rest for seafarers
  • amending the Navigation Safety Regulations to expand Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) carriage requirements to a wider category of passenger vesselsFootnote 1
  • enhancing navigation safety in terms of search and rescue efforts and collision avoidance, including through additional amendments
  • amending the Fishing Vessel Safety Regulations to address vessel construction requirements

4. Considerations

Responding to incidents is an important component of the oversight regime. It demands significant time and effort. In 2016 to 2017, the Program examined National Situation Centre (SitCen) data to better understand and quantify these impacts. We noted that 50% of all national SitCen notifications, across all of Transport Canada is for marine, totalled nearly 40 reports per day.

The Program considers the different operating environments and geography across regions in Canada. For example, eastern and northern operations must adjust their activities to respond to adverse weather conditions and seasonal changes. The Atlantic and Quebec regions have a significant concentration of fishing vessels, whereas in 2017 to 2018, the Pacific region had double the foreign vessel visits of any other region.

5. Initiatives to strengthen oversight

Modernization initiatives

Legislative, regulatory and oversight regimes

We developed a 5-year Marine Safety and Security Regulatory Review Plan to advance policies and enforce legislation that supports transportation efficiency, safety, security and the environment. This plan will help modernize our current safety and security business to address marine sector needs and public expectations.

As part of the Government of Canada’s modernization of service fees, Transport Canada conducted a review of its business lines and services. The Cost Recovery initiative is a major initiative that will lead us on a path to long-term financial sustainability. We also plan to update our existing fees and introduce new ones where needed.

Human resources modernization initiative

We continue to adapt our workforce and organizational structure to meet changing priorities. We are working to improve how we recruit, retain and develop our inspectors. We are making our recruitment, training and succession planning more flexible and adaptable.

The new human resources strategy will support and advance transformational priorities, including:

  • stabilizing the organization
  • ensuring financial sustainability
  • modernizing how we do business
  • strengthening a culture of continuous improvement

Renewed efforts in education and outreach

Despite funding shortages, we continue to recognize the need for education, outreach and awareness activities with key stakeholder groups. This is a key part of our oversight program.

In 2017 to 2018, we carried out some education and outreach to support fishing vessel regulations. This type of work adds enormous value to the Marine Safety and Security portfolio.

We anticipate that renewed education and outreach efforts will improve overall compliance levels, given that non-compliance often stems from not knowing the regulations. This is particularly true among pleasure craft and small vessel operators.

Lean initiatives

With approximately 15,000 medical certificates being issued to seafarers annually, the marine medicine certification process needs to operate efficiently. We identified opportunities to improve end-to-end cycle time and reduce process variations.

As part of Transport Canada’s Lean Initiative, marine medicine certification will move to an online database. Seafarers who continue to need a paper certificate (because of IMO standards) will receive one upon request.

Improved risk analysis and risk-based decision-making

Accurate, complete and up-to-date information is key for effective performance measurement and risk analysis. For years, the Program has encountered challenges in analyzing data, because information has been collected through various unintegrated systems.

We are making progress in integrating systems to improve reporting on results and perform trend analysis. This will likely create some challenges in the short term, but we believe our systems development initiatives will bring improved results in the near future.

Innovation and IT solutions

Increased demand for data and the need for better information management tools led us to update our National Time and Activities Reporting System (NTARS). The system shows all the work employees are doing to provide the information we need to better allocate resources, and improve planning and budgeting.

6. Oversight delivery in 2017 to 2018

As per Transport Canada’s Oversight Transparency Integration Plan, the Program will report results of all oversight activities, including planned and actual results and variance explanations where needed, through the Canadian Center on Transportation Data (CCTD).

7. Organizational contact information

The Marine Safety and Security Program at Transport Canada welcomes your comments on this report.


Annex A: Oversight Activities and Descriptions

Oversight category / activity name Description of oversight activity
Oversight How Transport Canada promotes, monitors or enforces compliance with our safety and security requirements.
Regulatory authorizations Given when a regulated party (for example, a railway company or vehicle manufacturer) applies for permission to do a regulated activity, or be exempt from it. We may give permission in various forms, including a permit, licence or certification. Transport Canada does not control the number of regulatory authorizations per planning cycle.

A documented, formal examination of industry compliance with Canadian transportation safety and security rules, regulations and requirements. Authorized Transport Canada officials record the results of each inspection. For the purposes of this document, audits are a type of inspection.

*Includes pre-site, onsite, and post-site inspection and oversight activities. Is complete when the inspector submits an approved inspection or oversight activities report. Does not include follow-up action, quality control checks or outreach activities.

Planned, risk-based inspections

All inspections Transport Canada initially commits to doing in a given planning cycle. The SO3 Management Board may authorize updates as needed.

*Include inspections that are announced (and expected), and those that are unannounced. Does not include:

  • estimated numbers of demand-driven activities, such as regulatory authorizations
  • "reactive" or "opportunity" inspections that happen because of a change in oversight
Follow-up activities

Arise from findings of an initial inspection. May include an on-site inspection, requests for more information, or enhanced monitoring.

*Do not include enforcement.

Other activities Oversight activities that Transport Canada did not initially commit to in a planning cycle, and are not a follow-up to an inspection or audit.
Enforcement Measures we use to enforce requirements and compel compliance. For example:
  • letters of non-compliance
  • directions or orders
  • ticketing
  • notices of violation
  • administrative monetary penalties
  • prosecutions
  • suspensions or cancellations of certificates or authorizations
Education, outreach and awareness How we educate the public, and encourage people and companies to comply with the law (for example: industry conferences, air shows, training, web portal).
Quality control

How we ensure inspectors follow policies and procedures, and complete required documentation. Applies to an entire oversight activity, from inspection, to follow-up, to resolving non-compliance. Supervisors and managers are responsible for quality control.

Each program must have:

  • a documented, nationally consistent way of doing quality control
  • a procedure or set of procedures to ensure inspections follow approved standard operating procedures

Annex B: Marine Safety and Security Program Oversight Activities and Descriptions

Oversight category / activity name Description of oversight activity
Marine vessels: control of foreign and domestic vessels
Manufacturers and Importers Compliance Program The Marine Safety and Security Program oversees the requirements for manufacturers and importers to ensure that vessels are built in compliance with the Canadian construction requirements, which are set in Parts 7, 8 and 9 of the Small Vessel Regulations (SVR), made pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act, 2001.
Safe design and construction of large vessels Ship construction plans must be reviewed and approved according to requirements specified in several regulations including the Hull Construction Regulations, Hull Inspection Regulations, Marine Machinery Regulations, and Life Saving Equipment Regulations, all made pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act, 2001.
Vessel registrations Transport Canada registers vessels in Canada as set out in Part 2 of the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 (CSA 2001). All non-pleasure vessel powered by an engine of 10hp (7.5kw) or more, or commercial river rafts in Canada, must be registered with Transport Canada's Canadian Register of Vessels.
Pleasure craft licensing The Program conducts licensing for vessels that are used for pleasure.
Office of Boating Safety The Office of Boating Safety provides information to recreational boaters on regulations, equipment, publications, vessel licensing and courses.
Small vessel oversight The Small Vessel Compliance Program (SVCP) is an optional program that provides an easy-to-use tool to help meet all legal requirements to operate small non-pleasure vessels. While enrolment in the program is voluntary, compliance with the regulations is mandatory.
Flag state certification by TC (including delegated statutory inspection program enrolments, exemptions and ship radio inspections) All large commercial marine vessels of 24 metres and above must be inspected and certified which is done through the Delegated Statutory Inspection Program (DSIP). Third-party organizations, known as “recognized organizations” conduct the inspections under the authority of Transport Canada.
Flag state compliance monitoring (TC-certificated and delegated vessels) Flag State Control is responsible for ensuring that Canadian-flag vessels are inspected in accordance with both Canadian regulations and, for vessels on international voyages, the appropriate international memoranda, conventions and protocols. It is also responsible for taking all steps to ensure that, from a point of view of safety of life and environmental protection, a Canadian ship is fit for the service intended.
Safety equipment oversight The Program carries out compliance monitoring for inflatable survival equipment, including prototype approvals, as well as the monitoring and accreditation of service providers for life saving equipment.
Recognized organization (classification society) oversight A recognized organization is a classification society that has an authorization agreement with Transport Canada. The Canada Shipping Act, 2001 provides Transport Canada to authorize classification societies or other organizations to issue Canadian maritime documents. As part of this approach, the Program monitors and audits these organizations on a regular basis.
Foreign vessel safety oversight: Port State Control and tanker inspections Port State Control (PSC) is a ship inspection program where foreign vessels entering a sovereign state's waters are boarded and inspected. This ensures compliance with various major international maritime conventions.
Cargo oversight: Port Warden and dangerous goods

The Program inspects cargo vessel loading processes, including:

  • pre-wash
  • pre-loading
  • readiness to load
  • loading plans
  • fitness to proceed
Marine insurance liability certificates

The Program tracks and issues marine pollution insurance liability certificates. These include:

  • Bunkers Certificate (under the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001)
  • Canada Labour Code (CLC) Certificate (under the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992)
  • Wreck Removal Certificate (under the Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks, 2007 – coming into force July 30, 2019.
Marine personnel: qualification and protection
Marine Medical Program The Program issues marine medical certificates and supporting letters to seafarers who have applied, and who are fit for sea service (with or without limitations) or are unfit, in accordance with Marine Personnel Regulations.
Seafarer examinations, certifications and services The Program develops and maintains regulations, examinations and training standards for the certification of seafarers. It also issues certificates of competency to seafarers after they successfully complete all prerequisites and examinations for the level of certification.
Recruitment and placement agencies, marine training institutions As a result of being signatory to the International Maritime Organization’s International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping for Seafarers, 1978 Convention, the Program is required to use a quality assurance system for the certification and training of Canadian seafarers. We must implement this system in order to ensure Canadian seafarers internationally comply, and to prevent detentions of Canadian vessels under Port State Control (PSC) in foreign countries.
Pleasure Craft Operator Competency Program The Program accredits and monitors third party organizations and businesses, which deliver services to the public so they can obtain their Pleasure Craft Operator Card (PCOC).
Maritime labour standards (including Canada Labour Code, Maritime Occupational Health and Safety inspections) The Program carries out inspections and investigations of labour standards in the marine industry. This includes Marine Occupational Health and Safety (MOHS), the Hazard Identification and Prevention Program (HIPP) and the application of the Canadian Labour Code.
Marine infrastructure and navigation: ports and facilities
Ports and marine facility security certification The Program assesses security, procedures and plans approved for a Canadian Marine Facility or an Occasional Use Marine Facility (OUMF).
Ports and marine facility security compliance monitoring The Program conducts on-site inspections and monitoring of Canadian Marine Facilities, Ports and Occasional Use Marine Facilities (OUMF).
Technical Review Process of Marine Terminal Systems and Transshipment Sites (TERMPOL) review (non-OPP)

The Program oversees the cost-recovered technical review of:

  • proposed marine terminal systems
  • trans-shipment sites for bulk oil, chemicals, liquefied gas and other dangerous cargoes
National Aerial Surveillance Program The Program tracks the number of hours flown by the National Aerial Surveillance Program (NASP) aircraft. Data is compiled through daily flight reporting.
Incident management and response

The Program:

  • engages the Canadian Coast Guard on the number of oil spills reported
  • monitors the information and reports supplied by the Canadian Coast Guard
  • conducts Arctic monitoring
Marine environment: clean air and clean water
Oil handling facility oversight Under the Canada Shipping Act, 2001, the Response Organizations and Oil Handling Facilities Regulations outline the procedures, equipment and resources of response organizations and oil handling facilities for use in respect of an oil pollution incident. The Program reviews and inspects Oil Handling Facilities (OHF) plans for regulatory compliance.
Ballast Water Program Every vessel entering waters under Canada’s jurisdiction must manage its ballast water properly. Discharging ballast water properly prevents non-native bacteria, plants and animal species from being released into Canada’s waters. As per the Canada Shipping Act, 2001, the Program inspects Canadian and foreign vessels (travelling outside the Great-Lakes waters) subject to the Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations.
Environmental response organization oversight Ships that transit Canadian waters must have a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan, as well as an arrangement with a certified response organization that would respond to a spill on the polluter’s behalf. Response organizations are certified every 3 years by Transport Canada.
Clean air compliance monitoring The Program tracks reports received from vessel owners (mostly foreign-flagged), travelling to Canadian ports situated within the North American Emission Control Area (ECA), who were not able to obtain compliant fuel, or enough compliant fuel to operate for the duration of its time in the ECA. These tests are conducted by inspectors during a vessel inspection to verify that the vessel’s bunker fuel oil complies with sulphur in fuel oil standards.
Marine operational systems: surveillance, incident management and enforcement
Vessel security certification Canadian flag (SOLAS and domestic ferries)

The Program oversees:

  • Canadian vessels on international voyages
  • domestic ferries on certain routes
  • foreign vessels in Canadian waters
  • Canadian marine facilities and ports that interface with those vessels

We certify a number of activities related to requirements of the Marine Transportation Security Act and its regulations, which capture security-related international conventions and codes.

Vessel security compliance monitoring Canadian flag (SOLAS and domestic ferries) The Program collaborates with industry stakeholders to ensure a common understanding of the requirements of the Marine Transportation Security Act (MTSA) and its regulations. As part of the compliance monitoring process, we inspect regulated vessels.
Foreign vessel security compliance monitoring The Program inspects foreign vessels to ensure they comply with the Marine Transportation Security Act and its regulations.
Marine safety enforcement (vessels and seafarers)

When faced with cases of non-compliance, the Program determines the appropriate response as per Transport Canada’s enforcement policy. This ensures the safety of vessels, their crew and passengers, and the marine environment. The Program may:

  • issue verbal warnings
  • give notices of corrective action
  • issue written warnings
  • issue administrative monetary penalties
Marine security enforcement The Program has a number of enforcement tools to encourage industry to meet the requirements of the Marine Transportation Security Act and its regulations. As noted above, the Program may give verbal or written warnings, notices of corrective action, or administrative monetary penalties.