2023-2024 Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) Recency Requirements Self-Paced Study Program

Completion of this questionnaire satisfies the 24-month recurrent training program requirements of 901.56(1)(b)(iii) or 901.65(1)(b)(iii) in the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

All remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) pilots who meet the requirements in CAR 901 are to answer general aviation questions 1 to 15 and the following applicable additional questions:

  • RPAS Basic pilots—questions 16 to 21.
  • RPAS Advanced pilots—questions 16 to 26.

The completed copy is to be retained by the pilot.

Note: This page can’t be saved while you work. You can choose to use the PDF above or fill in the fields below and once complete, print your final exam as a hard copy or as a PDF (through your web browser functions).

References are listed after each question. Many answers may be found in the Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM). Other answers can be found in the AIP Canada (ICAO). Amendments to these publications may result in changes to answers and/or references.

The following resources are available online:

General Aviation Questions

TC AIM—GEN—General

  1. How are the most recent changes to any section of the TC AIM indicated for quick reference?)?

    Reference: TC AIM

    Answer 1

    The most recent changes to any section of the TC AIM are listed in the EXPLANATION OF CHANGES pages just prior to the AIM Table of Contents, and are highlighted in the actual section where the change is made.

TC AIM—AGA—Aerodromes

  1. Suspended cable spans, such as power line crossings, assessed as being hazardous to air navigation are normally with suspended from a messenger cable between the tops of the support towers.

    Reference: TC AIM AGA 6.7 Suspended Cable Span Markings

    Answer 2

    Marked, coloured, balls

  2. A seaplane dock is marked with an measuring 2.4 m on each side. The dock is also marked with and side markings.

    Reference: TC AIM AGA 5.3 Seaplane Dock Markers

    Answer 3

    equilateral triangle, red, white.


  1. GPS positioning is based on .

    Reference: TC AIM COM 5.2.1 Global Positioning System

    Answer 4

    Precise, timing

  2. Aeronautical radio communications are restricted to communications relating to: a) the safety and navigation of an aircraft; b) the general operation of the aircraft; and c) the exchange of messages on behalf of the pilot.

    Pilots should:

    • Keep calls a) using   whenever practical;
    • b) the content of the message before ; c) and  on before speaking to avoid interference with other transmissions.

    Reference: Nav Canada VFR Phraseology Recommended Practices

    Answer 5
    • a) brief, concise, standard phraseology
    • b) plan, transmitting
    • c) listen, frequency
  3. The phrase GO AHEAD is only used and an instruction to . It is as an authorization for an aircraft or vehicle to taxi, or to approve a request.

    Reference: TC AIM COM 1.3 Language, Nav Canada VFR Phraseology

    Answer 6

    proceed with your transmission, not used


  1. For greater situational awareness of traditional aircraft operating in your area, you decide to check the NavCanada weather forecasts for your location. As an RPAS pilot, who can you contact if you have questions regarding interpreting this weather information?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 1.1.3 Aviation Weather Services

    Answer 7

    The nearest NavCanada Flight Information Centre (FIC).

  2. What are the hours of service and the telephone number for your Flight Information Centre (FIC)?

    Reference: TC AIM MET 1.3.1

    Answer 8

    All FICs provide 24-hr service. FIC telephone numbers are provided in the CFS. Pilots dialing the common toll-free number 1-866-WXBRIEF (992-7433) will automatically be routed to the FIC serving the area from which the call is being made.

  3. With regard to weather reports issued by NAV CANADA, what is an AWOS?

    Reference: TC AIM GEN 5.2

    Answer 9

    AWOS, LWIS and AUTO refer to automated equipment used as a means to provide an aviation weather service.

  4. Space weather may influence GPS-based RPAS functions, such as 'return to home'. Space weather advisories will contain information about conditions, as well as forecast levels for hours, hours, hours and hours ahead.

    Reference: TC AIM MET 14.3 The ICAO Service Advisories

    Answer 10

    Current, 6, 12, 18, 24

RAC–Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services

  1. How long must a pilot wait after CBD (cannabidiol) use prior to exercising duties as a crew member?.

    Reference: CAR 901.19(2) and Transport Canada Civil Aviation’s (TCCA) guidance on cannabis legalization

    Answer 11

    11- 28 days. The CARs require fitness for duty and state that no person shall act as a crew member of an aircraft while using or under the influence of any drug that impairs the person’s faculties to the extent that aviation safety is affected. Transport Canada’s new policy prohibits flight crews from consuming cannabis, including CBD (cannabidiol) for at least 28 days before being on duty.

  2. List three situations in which pilots are permitted to operate at less than 2000 ft over an aerodrome when they are not taking off or landing:

    , , .

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 5.5 and CAR 602.96 (5)

    Answer 12

    in the service of a police authority; for the purpose of saving human life; for fire-fighting or air ambulance operations; for the purpose of the administration of the Fisheries Act or the Coastal Fisheries Protection Act; for the purpose of the administration of the national or provincial parks; for the purpose of flight inspection; for the purpose of aerial application or aerial inspection; for the purpose of highway or city traffic patrol; for the purpose of aerial photography conducted by the holder of an air operator certificate; for the purpose of helicopter external load operations; for the purpose of flight training conducted by the holder of a flight training unit operator certificate.

  3. No person shall act as a crew member of a remotely piloted aircraft system within hours after consuming an alcoholic beverage.

    Reference: CAR 901.19(2)

    Answer 13


  4. When operating in Class G airspace, all pilots should continuously monitor MHz whenever practical and when not required to monitor an MF or ATF.

    Reference: TC AIM RAC 8.10 and RPA

    Answer 14


MAP–Aeronautical Charts & Publications

  1. Where can forest fire NOTAMs be found?

    Reference: TC AIM MAP 3.5 NOTAM Distribution

    Answer 15

    NAV CANADA’s Web site. Note: NOTAMs may also be depicted on the NavDrone App, and the NRC Drone Site Selection Tool

RPAS-Specific Questions

  1. The Drone Safety Web site names three main operation types that require a Special Flight Operations Certificate (SFOC). What are they?

    • a) 
    • b) 
    • c) 

    Reference: Drone Safety Web site

    Answer 16
    • a) Foreign Pilots
    • b) Flying a drone in higher-risk environments
    • c) Lower risk environments
  2. How do the CARs define “detect and avoid functions”?

    Reference: CAR 900.01

    Answer 17

    “detect and avoid functions” means the capability to see, sense or detect conflicting air traffic or other hazards and take the appropriate action.

  3. The RPA - Remotely Piloted Aircraft chapter in the TC AIM provides weather information related to RPAS operations. What does venturi effect relate to in reference to weather and RPAS operations?

    Reference: TC AIM RPA

    Answer 18

    If the spacing between buildings restricts the wind path, air flowing through the constriction can increase to a speed causing a venturi effect. Wind speed can increase up to twice the upstream wind speed. This can occur at any building height, including pedestrian level.

  4. The CARs state: “No holder of a pilot certificate—small remotely piloted aircraft (VLOS) [...] shall operate a remotely piloted aircraft system unless the holder has, within the 24 months preceding the flight [...] successfully completed:

    Reference: CAR 901.56 or 901.65

    Answer 19
    • a) either of the examinations referred to in paragraphs 901.55(b) and 901.64(b),
    • b) a flight review referred to in paragraph 901.64(c), or
    • c) any of the recurrent training activities set out in section 921.04 of Standard 921 — Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Visual Line-of-Sight (VLOS).
  5. Reckless or negligent operation of an RPAS is applicable to?

    • a) Only small RPAS operated under the Basic Operations regulations
    • b) Only small RPAS operated under the Advanced Operations regulations
    • c) Not applicable to micro RPAS operated in Canada
    • d) All remotely piloted aircraft systems

    Reference: CAR 900.06

    Answer 20

    d) All remotely piloted aircraft systems

  6. Transport Canada provides five privacy guidelines for recreational drone operators regarding the Privacy Act. What are the five guidelines?

    Reference: Drone Safety Web site

    Answer 21
    • a) Be accountable
    • b) Limit collection
    • c) Obtain consent
    • d) Store information securely
    • e) Be open and responsive about your activities
  7. Anyone that is not directly associated with the operation would be defined as a

    Reference: CAR 901.69

    Answer 22


  8. For an operation at less than 5 m over people, the RPA must have a .

    Reference: Drone Safety Web site

    Answer 23

    a manufacturer safety assurance declaration for the type of operations and distances from people (CAR 901.76(1)).

  9. When using your RPAS in Canada near the U.S. border, can you fly outside of Canadian airspace?

    a) Yes / No

    Reference: CAR 901.13

    Answer 24


  10. In order to operate an RPAS at night, it must be quipped with

    Reference: CAR 901.39

    Answer 25

    position lights sufficient to allow the aircraft to be visible to the pilot and any visual observer, whether with or without night-vision goggles, and those lights are turned on.

  11. Morning and Evening Twilight Charts are found in which section of the AIP Canada?

    Reference: AIP Canada

    Answer 26

    AIP Canada GEN 2.7 Sunrise and Sunset Tables