12. Goals and Objectives
The Goal of this Airport Wildlife Management Plan (AWMP) is to promote aviation safety for passengers and flight crews by reducing wildlife hazards and associated risks to aircraft and airport operations caused by wildlife activities on and in the vicinity of the airport.
The purpose of Section B is to identify management techniques that will be implemented to address the hazards and risks identified in Section B of this document.
The objectives of Section B of the AWMP are to:
- Determine and implement wildlife management actions for the airport;
- Identify required actions around the airport;
- Establish a monitoring program for all aspects of the AWMP, including performance monitoring and annual reporting;
- Establish communication procedures with respect to wildlife hazards;
- Describe the training program, roles and responsibilities; and
- Identify research needs that would assist the improvement of the XXX Airport Wildlife Management Plan.
13. Review of Available Wildlife Management Measures
Generally, there are tools and techniques available to manage wildlife hazards associated with airports at an acceptable risk level. Approaches to minimizing the potential for serious strikes at airports have focused on five primary areas (after Jackson, 2001). These are:
- Manipulating habitat and access to habitat at or near the airport ("passive");
- Dispersing, removing or excluding wildlife from the airport ("active");
- Influencing land use decisions around the airport where they may increase the hazard to aircraft;
- Development of systems to warn of bird strike potential; and
- Development of aircraft and engines able to withstand bird strikes.
In this AWMP, the concern is related to the first three approaches.
Critical to the success of any wildlife management program is the human factor and the development of a Safety Management Systems approach (see Transport Canada, 2001a). This encourages the application of the three "Cs" of leadership. These are:
- Commitment: wildlife management requires commitment at all levels from Senior Management to technical field staff. The available tools must be made to work effectively;
- Cognizance: recognizing the hazards and risks and what needs to be done, when, and how, are key to wildlife successful wildlife management; and
- Competence: having adequately trained staff that have the ability to "out-think" the wildlife, identify and properly apply the appropriate tools is critical to successful wildlife management. For example, this may involve considering any consequential effects of managing one species on the abundance of another.
In this Section of the AWMP a brief overview of wildlife management techniques is provided in tabular format, based primarily on the Wildlife Control Procedures Manual (Transport Canada, 2002). The Manual provides much more detail on these techniques and should be consulted directly. However, they are repeated here to provide a ready summary of available techniques to compare against the hazard and risk assessments for this airport. It is important to link the actions being taken back to the hazard and risk assessment, as these prioritize the actions to be undertaken.
The active methods are primarily directed at the immediate airport environment. Additional techniques may be available for specific off-site applications (e.g., over-wiring active landfill facilities).
13.1 Passive Techniques
These techniques are generally those that alter habitat or permanently exclude entry (Table 13). Experienced wildlife managers know very well that measures to deter or exclude one species (e.g., short grass) will inevitably attract another species. There is an overriding principle that should be followed with habitat alteration: the minimization of habitat diversity. More diverse habitat means more diverse wildlife species. Managing one particular group of wildlife species can be easier than addressing a mosaic of species attracted by a variety of habitats through the seasons.
Table 13. Passive Wildlife Management Techniques
|Examples||Suggested Approaches (see Wildlife Control Procedures
Manual for more details)
|• Generally none within 365 m of a runway
• Limit to: hay, alfalfa, flax, soy, fall rye, wheat, barley and other cereals, not corn or oats
• Avoid ploughing - require night-time ploughing, haying; other harvesting controls and no standing bales
|• Manage height according to hazards at the airport
• Adaptive management, experimental manipulation at individual airports
• Avoid allowing grass to set seed, seed-head suppression
|• Ensure entry holes/crevices blocked, screened, netting
• Influence design of new buildings, slope ledges
• Porcupine wire, electric shocking, sticky caulking
Open water, ponds, ditches, stormwater ponds, poorly
|• Drain, improve drainage
• Fill, over-wire, netting, BirdBallsT
• Grade slopes steeply, remove vegetation
• Trap mammals (e.g., American Beaver and Muskrat)
Shrubs, trees, brush, hedges, woodland
|• Remove, including undergrowth and understorey layers
• Reduce biodiversity, habitat niches
Infield perching features
• Apply spikes when required
|• All disposal containers must be wildlife proof
• Eliminate dumps on the airport
Outdoor picnic areas
• Provide wildlife proof garbage containers
All remaining habitats, airport perimeter
|• Chain-link fencing, high-tensile fixed knot fencing,
• ElectroBraidT fencing,
• Buried fences
• One-way gates, cattle gates.
|• Ensure that bird nesting does not occur within parked aircraft, generally from April 01 to July 30 in Canada.|
13.2 Active Techniques
Active techniques fall into two major subgroups. These are:
- Dispersal (various kinds of deterrents, hazing); and
- Removal (live capture, killing).
In the following table (Table 14), the relative efficacy of various techniques is also indicated. Many of these techniques are effective when used as part of an integrated program (e.g., playback of distress calls), but can be markedly ineffective when used incorrectly. For example, birds easily habituate to the playback call in the absence of other management techniques.
Because wildlife species often habituate to non-lethal threats within a few weeks, in the long-term, dispersal techniques are seldom effective unless a clear and present danger is presented to the target species (e.g., with a dog, raptor or live gunshot). The management challenge is to keep wildlife guessing when the threat is real, and when it is not.
Table 14. Active Wildlife Management Techniques
|Technique||Primary Targets||Potential Efficacy
as Part of an Integrated Program
|Pyrotechnics||Birds, some mammals||High|
|Gas cannons||Birds, especially migrants||Moderate|
|Report Shells||Soaring birds (e.g., gulls)||High|
|Lasers||Birds, especially roosting||Moderate|
|Border Collies||Birds, some mammals||High to moderate|
|Live trapping||Birds, some mammals||Low to moderate|
|Chemical - irritants||Birds||Low|
|Playback of distress calls - remote system||Birds||Low to moderate|
|Playback - mobile||Birds||Moderate to high|
|Flags||Birds||Low to moderate|
|Dead specimen birds||Birds||Moderate|
|Chemical - behavioural repellents||Birds, mammals (on cables)||Moderate|
|Radio-controlled models||Birds||Low (can be higher)|
|Lethal trapping||Small mammals||Low|
|Chemical - lethal control||Birds in buildings, mammals||High to moderate|
|Chemical - Benomyl/Tersan fungicide||Fungus in turf but kills earthworms||Moderate|
|Earthworm sweeping||Earthworms on hard surfaces||Moderate to high|
|Surfactant water sprays||Roosting birds||Moderate|
|Live-ammunition shooting||Birds, some mammals||High|
The advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques, and the different forms of these techniques, are discussed and reviewed in the Wildlife Control Procedures Manual (Transport Canada, 2002b) and in Aerodrome Safety Circular 98-004- TP13029- Evaluation of the Efficacy of Products and Techniques for Airport Bird Control (1998).
Firearms are heavily restricted and special permits are required. Special training is required before they are used in or around this airport.
In addition, the use of firearms in Canada (e.g., shotguns, but not typical pyrotechnic launchers) requires the possession of a PAL (Possession and Acquisition Licence). To obtain this licence it is necessary for the individual licence holder to undertake the Canadian Firearms Safety Course. A Federal Registration Certificate is also required for individual firearms that identifies to whom they belong. More information can be accessed at: http://www.cfc-ccaf.gc.ca/en/default.asp.
When using firearms, empty casings shall be recovered; they can cause serious damage when ingested into turbine aircraft engines.
13.4 Other Permit Requirements
Wildlife management personnel must ensure that all appropriate permits are in place and current prior to operations commencing. This should include the following.
Migratory Birds - Migratory Birds Convention Act
Regulations under this Act protect most bird species, including gulls (but excluding, for example, crows and blackbirds) and permits are required for active scaring as well as killing. Therefore, an application should be made for both a scare permit and a kill permit. The kill permit application will need to carefully establish the need for a kill permit, explain the limited use to which the permit will be put and the manner in which lethal reinforcement and other alternate deterrents will be used. The permits are issued by [Insert local CWS office].
Provincial and Territorial Regulations
Provincial and Territorial regulations may require a Small Game Licence, or similar, to hunt or trap crows, selected blackbirds and most mammals. In Ontario, for example, the licenced individual will also require an Outdoors Card (hunter version) and must attend a Hunter Education Course and pass the Hunting Licence Examination. More information for Ontario can be accessed at http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/MNR/pubs/pubmenu.html. The use of some chemicals may also be controlled, and provincial or territorial regulations should be consulted. [Insert provincial/territorial regulations that do apply here.]
Local By-Laws - Discharge of Firearms
Many urban and suburban municipalities have discharge of firearm By-laws in place that restrict the use of firearms. In these cases, it may be necessary to apply to the local authority for an exemption from a firearm discharge By-law, for wildlife management purposes. [Determine this and insert here.]
13.5 Outside Airport Boundaries
Although most wildlife management activities detailed in this plan will take place within the airport limits, where most wildlife strikes occur, the immediate surroundings of airports are increasingly being scrutinized as critical sources for wildlife species that either visit the airport or pass through conflict zones.
In some circumstances, airports may extend their active or passive wildlife management activities beyond the airport boundary. However, the typical tool kit for influencing land use activities outside of the airport discussion and persuasion. The following approaches can be used to influence activities outside the airport.
Airport Zoning Regulations
Airport Zoning Regulations that are established under the Authority of the Aeronautics Act, Section 5.4(2) could be enacted to prohibit land use activities that have been identified as hazardous to aircraft operations. As of July 2004, 55 airports across Canada have a Waste Disposal Clause contained within their zoning regulations.
Engagement in the local planning process is critical to influencing land use change around the airport. The airport operator can open a dialogue with planners, provide materials and copies of the AWMP, and provide a presentation every two years or so on land use issues that affect the airport. It is important to keep this information current and to include all planning partners (i.e., in the case where the airport zone of influence straddles two jurisdictions or where there are two or more tiers of planning authority). In some cases, local Official Plans refer applicants to seek consultation with the Airport Managers when certain changes in land use activities are proposed near the airport.
Providing an occasional presentation on wildlife issues at the airport to local, city or regional council is an important step in influencing future land use change applications, Many proponents will "test the water" with local politicians prior to launching a full scale development application. Having wildlife concerns identified at the earliest possible stage will help encourage positive outcomes.
The users of lands around the airport can be engaged in a dialogue with the airport. This may be more easily facilitated when these landowners have a direct interest in the airport (e.g., a local farmer who also crops hay within the airport boundary). However, this does not mean that other land users should be excluded. An open house to discuss hazard issues, safety, potential liability, what land users can do to help and how the airport might able to assist the land users is a useful start. Specific problems may indicate a need to contact individual land users.
Regulatory agencies may influence a variety of projects from wildlife habitat creation to the design of stormwater management facilities. Without knowledge within the agency of wildlife strike issues, proponents of land use change may find themselves pulled in two different directions. The kinds of agencies that need to be regularly updated on airport wildlife issues include federal, provincial and municipal authorities such as: Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans, provincial ministries responsible for natural heritage and land and water resources and Conservation Authorities (or other flood and fill-oriented agencies).
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
Some of the larger national or provincial NGOs may be involved in habitat creation initiatives and maybe included in a stakeholder group (e.g., Ducks Unlimited Canada). Others, such as natural history groups or humane societies, may become important to the airport if wildlife control, especially lethal control, is included as part of the AWMP. Organized public opposition can influence a variety of permit applications, it is therefore important to ensure that these groups are included when appropriate.
In some circumstances the striking of a stakeholder committee (a "Wildlife Management Committee") may help foster awareness and support for management actions and the airport will consider establishing such a committee should the need arise.
14. Determination of Wildlife Management Activities for XXX Airport
Section A of this AWMP has presented detailed information on:
- aircraft movement statistics, including types;
- wildlife hazards and their habitats and movements; and
- a risk assessment for this airport.
In Section B (chapters 1 and 2), typical management tools that can be used on and off the airport have been discussed. In the following chapters, management activities that are intended to remove or manage the hazards and mitigate risks created by those hazards will be detailed.
This section has been broken into first, second and third priority. The planned activities have been developed from a review of the problem species, what attracts them into the conflict zone (whether on or off the airport) and steps taken to address both the attractants (e.g., short grass, open water, small mammals or worms as food) and the species themselves (e.g., dispersal of gulls).
It is important to note that steady improvement in wildlife management at the airport does not mean that all activities need to be undertaken in the first instance. It is intended that this plan will provide guidance on management priorities. Progress will be made towards plan objectives, as amended from time to time, over the next several years.
[The following sections must be developed from the previous information that has been presented in this document. Provided here are two fictitious examples of first priority and one each of second and third. These should be deleted and completed for your airport. Note that the most effective techniques are identified in TP11500E Wildlife Control procedures Manual (Transport Canada 2002)].
14.1 First Priority
Highest Airport Risk Ranking: Moderate
Management Priority: High
This species was ranked high priority because it is frequently seen at the airport, and can fly across aircraft approaches in the afternoons, when they move to a frequently used portion of the XYZ River. Geese occasionally forage on the airport grass and annually attempt to nest at the ponds. It is a large-sized bird, has flocking habits and a relatively slow flight. The species is generally present from March through December.
The following steps will be undertaken:
- A zero-tolerance policy will be implemented for geese at the airport.
- The ponds on the airport will be filled to the extent possible.
- Ponds to remain for stormwater management will be overwired.
- Any future redesign of drainage features will minimize waterfowl habitat, steep sides (4 to 1), hard edges and no vegetation where possible, pipes should be used where possible.
- Wetland vegetation associated with drainage features will be cut and minimized in extent.
- Grass length at the airport in wetter areas that cannot be cut by traditional methods will be maintained at a minimum height of 30 to 50 cm.
- In short grass areas, fertilizer will not be part of the grass management regime.
- Local geese at the airport will be shot in March to prevent nesting and in the fall to reinforce deterrents.
- Pyrotechnics (reinforced with live shooting) will be used whenever geese are seen during wildlife patrols or reported by staff or pilots. Patrols specifically for geese will be increased during April and especially during August when geese begin to occur at the airport again after their flightless period.
- A PowerPointT hazard awareness program will be developed for geese.
- The awareness program will be presented to: a) the local municipality to seek assistance with managing the stormwater pond along Regional Road 28 (Figure 3 - Section A) and regional goose numbers in general; b) the adjacent golf course to see if there is mutual interest in goose management, and c) local farmers to encourage stubble ploughing and avoidance of grain crops, where feasible.
A forb-rich grass management technique will not be an objective at this time, as this may increase use by small mammals, European Hare, White-tailed Deer and raptors.
Highest Airport Risk Ranking: Moderate
Management Priority: High
This species was ranked high priority because it is frequently seen at the airport, feeds on worms and loafs on the runway. A medium-sized bird, it also has flocking habits and relatively slow flight. The species is present year round, with larger number in fall and early winter. It may fly across aircraft approach when birds are moving between the landfill and other attractants, or towards the City along the XYZ River, or between the City and XZY Lake (a potential seasonal roost). Insufficient data are available to be certain on flightlines and potential risks. There has been one serious strike at this airport involving an unidentified gull species.
The following steps will be undertaken:
- In the spring and fall, precipitation events that cause worms to emerge onto the runway and taxi surfaces in great numbers will result in mechanical sweeping to remove the worms.
- Generally, short grass length at the airport will be increased to 12 cm and cut to a minimum of 9 cm.
- The small ponds will be eliminated at the airport and/or overwired.
- Gulls will be selectively shot at the airport to reinforce deterrents.
- Pyrotechnics and report shells (reinforced with live shooting) will be used whenever gulls are seen during wildlife patrols. Patrols specifically for gulls will be increased when monitoring shows increased use of the airport.
- All garbage bins on site will be wildlife proof.
- Airport policy to ban feeding of wildlife by staff and visitors will be posted and initiated.
- A PowerPointT hazard awareness program for gulls will be developed and presented to: a) the landfill operator with a request that the landfill prepare a Gull Management Plan (safety and liability will be stressed), and b) local farmers, primarily the two hotspots, to encourage night ploughing.
- If deemed necessary, the airport will formally request a risk assessment for the gull problem, citing safety concerns. The airport will also ask to be circulated on any certification process for the landfill.
14.2 Second Priority
Highest Airport Risk Ranking: Moderate
Management Priority: Moderate
This species is ranked moderate, rather than high, because the use of an ElectroBraidTM fence has reduced deer observations by 90% at the airport. Deer cause significant damage when they are struck by aircraft. They are also particularly active at dawn and dusk and during the night when low light conditions make them hard to see. They frequent the ponds, especially in summer, as well as long grass area, they use to frequently cross the airport area. They are infrequent or absent in typical winters.
The following steps will be undertaken:
- A zero tolerance policy for deer incursions will be continued.
- The ElectroBraid T fence will be inspected once daily and repairs made as needed, particular attention will be applied to crossings of drainage features.
- Once weekly during the growing season, vegetation will be cut along the entire electric fence with a trimmer to avoid short circuits.
- Interference by deep snow will be monitored and appropriate actions taken, this will mean the turning off of one or two strands, or the entire fence unless tracks indicate deer activity.
- Long grass areas will be maintained at a height not exceeding 50 cm.
- The small ponds will be eliminated at the airport or overwired.
14.3 Third Priority
Highest Airport Risk Ranking: Low
Management Priority: Low
This species is ranked low, rather than moderate, because it is likely that only one or two pairs frequent the area. They also tend to displace Red Fox and control a number of other potentially hazardous species such as European Hare, Killdeer, nesting waterfowl, limit the abundance or prey for raptors (e.g., voles), or provide disturbance to White-tailed Deer. On balance, the active control of Coyotes is not currently anticipated unless dens are actually located on the site, but this could change if numbers increase or behaviour changes.
The following steps will be undertaken:
- This species will be carefully monitored for changes in numbers or behaviour.
- Coyote dens on the airport property will be removed or destroyed in the early summer to reduce the potential for young, inexperienced animals wandering airside.
Monitoring is a critically important wildlife management tool. Monitoring provides information to assist the Wildlife Management Officer (WMO) in adjusting the program in response to shifts in hazard and risk. It also provides a tool to demonstrate, to regulators and others what the airport has been doing to minimize risks, and to maximize safety for its staff and the traveling public. This can be particularly important should a litigious situation arise.
15.1 Daily Wildlife Management Log
The first step in a good monitoring program is good record-keeping. The most efficient manner to collate daily wildlife logs is using software specifically designed for the task. These programs can be purchased from several vendors (see Section K.3 of the Wildlife Control Procedures Manual). This airport will be purchasing a software program to record (for all target species listed in this report) the standard data that are suggested by Transport Canada in the sample field form of the Manual. This will include: date, start and finish, numbers and species, control activity, details of lethal control, results/evaluation, location of wildlife, weather, personnel, and other pertinent information.
15.2 Monthly Summary
At the end of each month, a written summary will be provided within the Wildlife Management Log that discusses any environmental changes or unusual conditions that may have led (or might lead) to unusual wildlife hazard situations or changes in risk assessment.
This summary will also provide a discussion of wildlife interactions to help focus the need for future changes to the AWMP. For example, success in managing one species that leads to a sharp increase in another species should be noted, even if the evidence is largely circumstantial and anecdotal. The "best judgement" of experienced WMOs on the ground will be given careful consideration.
The monthly summary provides an opportunity for any new information on policies, new laws, changes in the status of rare species known to frequent the airport, training programs or management reviews to be written and stored in a readily accessible location.
15.3 Wildlife Strikes
The regulations now require airport management to report all wildlife strikes to Transport Canada as they occur or to file an annual report detailing all wildlife strikes by March 01 of the following year. [Identify here which method this airport is going to implement.]
When reporting a wildlife strike, the Transport Canada form titled Bird/Wildlife Strike Report number #51-0272 can be used and is available on-line at:
Any information that the airport operator has, that is outlined on the form, should be included. If strike data become increasingly reliable sources of information, they will also assist in the risk analysis procedure for this airport and future updates to this AWMP.
Wildlife strikes are now defined by Transport Canada as occurring when:
- a pilot reports the striking of wildlife;
- aircraft maintenance personnel identify damage to an aircraft as having been caused by a wildlife strike;
- personnel on the ground report seeing an aircraft strike wildlife; or
- wildlife remains are found on an airside pavement area or within 200 feet of a runway centreline, unless another cause of death is identified.
Strike data will be entered into the wildlife management database with the required fields of information provided (see Appendix 3 of the Wildlife Control Procedures Manual). The software discussed in the preceding section includes a data entry window for wildlife strikes.
At this airport, regular wildlife patrols will note any dead wildlife found within 200 m of the runway centreline, for struck wildlife species. Notation will also be made of any animal remains that are considered non-strikes, prior to their removal.
Where the identity of remains of wildlife species that have been struck is in doubt, parts will be preserved for identification. After taking a digital photograph for the Wildlife Log, remains will be bagged in zip-lock bags (i.e., bones, fur, feathers of different types, bill and feet, but not soft tissues). Specialists may be able to identify a bird from a single small feather, so even if they look unidentifiable, remains should be recovered. Specimen material can be sent by courier to: Ms. Carla J. Dove, Division of Birds, Smithsonian Institution PO Box 37012 National Museum of Natural History Room E 607 MRC 116 Washington, DC 20013-7012 USA. (Email: email@example.com). The form can be found on-line at:
WMOs should also consider the collection of any strikes (even those identified) should stomach contents or bird age be a factor for future consideration (i.e., what food source was attracting the bird to airport?).
In addition to any studies, research, or other new information that is available, the Daily Wildlife Management Log and the Monthly Summaries will be carefully examined for information that will assist the required two-year update to this AWMP.
16. Establishment of Performance Indicators and Self-Assessment
The establishment of performance indicators is critical to help determine the need for enhancement or modification. It is also very necessary because actions to reduce one wildlife hazard will inevitably result in improved conditions for some other wildlife species. When inadvertent effects such as these result in an increase in hazards, this must be recognized and addressed.
The seven primary measurements of performance in this plan are:
- The number of wildlife strikes;
- Strike rate;
- Damage associated with strikes;
- Individual species' hazard assessments;
- Feedback from airport users;
- Risk rankings for this airport; and
- The status of action items that have been recommended in the plan.
Strike data will be generated from the monitoring program and the annual strike report that must be filed with the Minister prior to March 01 of each following year. Although this airport is interested in reducing the overall strike rate independent of air traffic movements, it is true that more strikes are likely when air traffic increases. Therefore, the strike rate will also be measured per 10,000 air traffic movements. A discussion of damage related to strikes will also be provided, as strikes that do not produce much or any damage may not be treated with the same level of concern as damaging strikes.
The hazard and risk assessment will be updated and compared to the previous assessments in the AWMP every two years (or earlier if there is a significant change in hazards or risk). A discussion of any changes will be provided.
Feedback from airport users will be sought and reported in time for each two-year update this will help determine if the wildlife program is being responsive to their needs.
The final performance measurement will be the extent to which action items in the plan have been instigated. A list of action items is provided in Section 17; this will be put into tabular form for the updated AWMP and the status of the proposed actions will be noted.
Taken together, these seven measurements will form an effective and objective measurement of performance of the AWMP for this airport.
17. Summary of Activities and Approaches
Several of the proposed management techniques in the previous sections are duplicated. For example, the removal of a particular habitat feature, such as a pond, will reduce the hazard and risk associated with several groups of species (e.g., geese, ducks and blackbirds).
In this section, a brief bullet point summary of activities is provided, along with other requirements such as permits.
[Summarize all proposed actions and steps required to ensure these actions are possible, e.g., permits, requisition of special equipment. The following sections are examples and they should be replaced with planned activities for this airport.]
- Short grass length at the airport will be increased to 12 cm target height with a maximum cut to 9 cm (except where shorter grass is required for navigation aids and drainage areas).
- Long grass areas will be maintained at 30 to 50 cm.
- Bare unvegetated areas will be minimized.
- Both grass lengths will include efforts to cut prior to seeding and in the late fall to remove high standing seed-heads.
- A grass management plan will be developed to reduce forbs and promote good grass growth without the use of fertilizer. Seed-head suppression technology will be investigated for application to grass.
- Efforts will be made to find a grass-cutting method for tall grass in wet conditions.
- Wetland vegetation associated with drainage features will be cut and minimized.
- Vegetation along the ElectroBraidT fence will be cut as required and the fence will be checked daily.
- Interference of the ElectroBraidT fence by deep snow will be monitored and appropriate actions taken; this will mean the turning off of one or two strands, or the entire fence unless tracks indicate deer activity.
- Drainage features, if and when re-built, will have 4:1 side slopes, preferably with hard edges, and will be piped where feasible.
- No crops will be grown at the airport.
- In conjunction with airport development, the ponds on airport property will be filled.
- Any ponds necessary for stormwater management will be subject to engineered overwiring.
- Future stormwater outflows must be beaver-proof.
- Local farmers will be asked to consider night-time ploughing.
- All garbage bins on site will be wildlife proofed.
- Airport policy to ban feeding of wildlife by staff and visitors will be initiated and posted.
- Breeding ledges for Rock Doves will be wire netted to reduce nesting opportunities.
- Entry holes for starlings, Rock Doves and swallows will be identified and filled or covered.
- Masting tree species (e.g., maple, oak and beech) will be opportunistically removed.
- Wildlife patrols will be maintained at irregular intervals throughout the times when the airport is open.
- Sweeping of runway and taxiway areas will be undertaken in spring and fall following mass emergence of earthworms.
- Gulls will be selectively shot at the airport to reinforce deterrents.
- Geese will be shot in March and in fall as necessary to act as a deterrent.
- Mallard may be shot in April to deter breeding.
- Canada Goose, Mallard, Killdeer, Barn Swallow and Cliff Swallow nests will be searched for at appropriate times (each species twice per season minimum) and destroyed.
- A spring baiting program will be initiated to kill nesting Rock Doves (if they occur).
- Wildlife patrols will note any dead wildlife as strikes within 200 m of the runway.
- Wildlife patrols will photograph any struck wildlife and if necessary bag some specimen material for identification by specialists.
- Any animal carcasses on the airport or the adjacent road will be recorded, removed by wildlife patrols and disposed of in a manner that makes them unavailable to scavengers.
- Wildlife patrols will inspect the ElectroBraidTM fence daily, especially at drainage features, and will ensure rapid repairs.
- Wildlife patrols will undertake a beaver activity sweep weekly, April to November.
- Beaver activity will result in immediate trapping. Lodges and dams will be completely removed.
- Pyrotechnics and report shells (reinforced with live shooting where appropriate) will be used whenever high or moderate risk species are seen during wildlife patrols.
- Wildlife patrols will be increased in April and August or when monitoring shows increased use of the airport by gulls.
- Wildlife patrols will be undertaken prior to MEDIVAC flights, or when night time flights are due, provided advance notice is given and staff are available.
- Active Coyote dens within the airport will be destroyed during the summer.
- Common Snapping Turtles found airside will be removed to alternate wetland or creek locations.
- Wild Turkey and White-tailed Deer hunting will be encouraged on the airport.
- A Daily Wildlife Management Log will be established using prepared field data sheets and computer software for data storage and analysis.
- Monthly summaries will be established within the wildlife log.
- An annual strike report will be prepared and submitted to Transport Canada by March 01 of the following year.
- A hazard awareness program for Canada Geese (to include Rock Doves and ducks) will be developed using PowerPointTM and presented to municipal staff, the adjacent golf course and local farmers.
- A hazard awareness program for gulls (to include Turkey Vultures) will be developed using PowerPoint and shown to City staff and the landfill operator. The local landfill will be asked to address the gull issue.
- A combined hazardous awareness program will be prepared for general audience use (e.g., local government).
- The AWMP will be reviewed and updated prior to [Enter date two years hence].
Equipment, Contract Requirements and Permits
- An equipment list will be prepared for the AWMP.
- A mowing device appropriate for cutting long grass in wet areas will be required.
- A pest control specialist will be contracted for pigeon baiting (if nesting occurs).
- A contract will be let for beaver trapping on a 48-hour response.
- A Wildlife Management and Wildlife Strike software program will be purchased.
- Federal firearm permits and federal kill permits for migratory birds will be updated to include the additional species (kill permits for gulls, geese, mallard, and nest destruction permits for Killdeer, Mallard, Canada Geese, Barn Swallows and Cliff Swallows).
- Provincial/territorial hunting licences, trapping permits and kill permits will be updated.
18. Communications Procedures
[Delete or amend any of these recommendations as applicable.]
The following communication procedures have been established for the purposes of wildlife management at this airport.
- Information will be provided directly from the field staff on duty to Air Traffic Services (ATS) via radio contact.
- Field staff will be responsible for ensuring that updated wildlife information is provided to ATS immediately if an urgent situation arises and on a regular basis depending on the current conditions, or when requested by ATS. ATS will also relay any information received regarding wildlife observations to field staff in a timely manner.
- ATS will provide information to pilots on current wildlife hazards and will ask pilots to report any wildlife observations to ATS (or UNICOM), especially those observed while taxiing.
- Wildlife activity will be regularly updated on the Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) and or UNICOM.
- Entry in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) to warn pilots of hazardous wildlife.
19. Training Program
The Wildlife Management and Planning Regulation requires that a training program be established for the AWMP in accordance with the airport standards. Properly trained staff to implement the plan, to reassess risks and to provide updates to this plan every two years, is an essential and required part of the regulation.
Effective wildlife management is critically dependant on staff with the tools, knowledge and motivation to complete the task at hand. Transport Canada has a standard training program that is available for wildlife management staff. The program will address the following:
- Nature and Extent of the Wildlife Management Problem;
- Regulations, Standards and Guidance;
- Ecology and Biology of Key Species;
- Wildlife Control Procedures Manual (TP 11500) and Sharing the Skies (TP 13549);
- Species of Conservation Concern;
- Habitat Management;
- Issues Outside of the Airport Boundary;
- Active Management;
- Removal Techniques;
- Firearm Safety (a pre-requisite being the Canadian Firearms Safety Course);
- Wildlife Management Planning;
- Development and Implementation of Awareness Programs;
- Monitoring; and,
- Training Record and Schedule.
In addition to training directly associated with wildlife behaviour and the application of management techniques as part of the AWMP, it is essential that safety requirements are fully reviewed and addressed. This should include at a minimum:
- Safe use and storage of pyrotechnics;
- Safe use, storage and maintenance of pyrotechnic launchers; and
- Identification and mandatory use of safety equipment.
The following table (Table 15) details the staff who have attended the training program or are proposed to do so.
Table 15. Training Program
|Name||Responsibility/Title||Attended Training Program||Will Attend Training Program by|
|• Airport Manager
• Wildlife Management Officer
|• Duty Manager
• Back-up WMO
20. Roles and Responsibilities
[Amend this section according to circumstances prevalent at your airport. It may be that at smaller facilities, these responsibilities will be shared among fewer personnel.)
Senior airport staff will be responsible for the implementation of this AWMP. and awareness programs and the review and submission of the annual strike reports and two-year updates.
Senior management, or their designate, will be responsible for coordinating, supervising and the overall management of the AWMP on a long-term and a daily basis at the site-specific level. This will include the nomination of the key Wildlife Management Officer, co-ordination of training, safety assurance and ensuring that the necessary equipment is available.
The Wildlife Management Officer will be responsible for:
- establishment and maintenance of the Wildlife Management Log (e.g., including strike data, details on wildlife numbers and activity; AWMP measures undertaken, firearm use details; details on the use of lethal reinforcement and monthly summaries);
- co-ordination of the entire monitoring program;
- preparation of the annual strike report;
- ensuring that Airport operations are consistent with the requirements of the AWMP;
- ensuring that the appropriate permits are current and present on-site;
- undertaking deterrent activities;
- ensuring all activities are undertaken following standard practices and safety protocols; and
- the identification of equipment, resource and training needs.
The following table identifies the key roles and responsibilities under this plan.
Table 16. Key Roles and Responsibilities
|Name and Contact Telephone Number||Title||Key AWMP Responsibilities|
|• Implementation of this AWMP
• Acquisition of the various permits
• Provision of training and awareness programs
• Review and submission of the annual strike reports and two year updates
|• Coordinating, supervising and the overall management of the AWMP. Nomination of the key Wildlife Management Officer (WMO)
• Co-ordination of training, safety assurance
• Ensuring that the necessary equipment is available
Wildlife Management Officer (WMO)
|• Maintenance of the Wildlife Management Log (e.g., including strike data, details on wildlife numbers and activity; AWMP measures undertaken, firearm use details; details on the use of lethal reinforcement and monthly summaries);
• Co-ordination of the monitoring program;
• Preparation of the annual strike report;
• Ensuring that Airport operations are consistent with the requirements of the AWMP;
• Ensuring that the appropriate permits are current and present on-site;
• Undertaking deterrent activities;
• Ensuring all activities are undertaken following standard practices and safety protocols; and,
• The identification of equipment, resource and training needs.
Back-up to WMO
|• Filling in for WMO during vacations, lunch, sick time etc.|
21. Research Projects
Occasionally a research need will be identified. This may be related to a proposed change in habitat management. A good example is changes to grass height, which are very much airport-specific. When a target grass height is increased for infield grass to dissuade certain species (e.g., European Starlings and Killdeer), this may increase habitat opportunities for other species (e.g., Sandhill Cranes and deer). A small-scale research project may be needed to determine which option works best in the overall framework of wildlife management.
Any necessary studies to ensure that unacceptable effects of the proposed habitat change do not outweigh the benefits, will be documented in this section in future updates to this AWMP. Documentation will include a summary of the purpose and objectives of any initiatives, the methods to be employed to satisfy the objectives, and timelines for the project. Future updates or special reports (e.g., to Bird Strike Committee Canada) will provide the results of the research.
Current priorities for research at this airport are:
[Insert any priorities here, an example is provided below.]
- Gull movements and behaviours associated with the landfill site and other gull attractants in the vicinity.
Canada. Transport Canada. 2001a. Safety Management Systems (TP13739E). Ottawa: Transport Canada.
Canada. Transport Canada. 2001b. Sharing the Skies: An Aviation Industry Guide to the Management of Wildlife Hazards (TP13549E). Ottawa: Transport Canada.
Canada. Transport Canada. 2002. Wildlife Control Procedures Manual (TP11500E). Ottawa: Transport Canada.
Canada. Transport Canada. Aerodrome Safety Circular 98-004. 1998. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Products and Techniques for Airport Bird Control (TP13029). Ottawa: Transport Canada.
Dolbeer, R. A., S. A. Wright and E. C. Cleary. 200. Ranking the Hazard Level of Wildlife Species to Aviation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28 (2), 2000.
Jackson, J. A.. 2001. Understanding Bird-Strike Potential: Niche Concepts, Birds and Airports. Proceedings and Papers, Joint Meeting of the Canada/USA Bird Strike Committees, Calgary. 243 - 253.
Kelly, T. Safety System review of Land Use in the Vicinity of Vancouver International Airport. Unpublished draft February 2004. Prepared for Transport Canada, Ottawa.
Wildlife Management Plan
The following individuals have read this Plan and understand their role in the implementation of the Plan at this airport.