4.4 Evacuations

Training Objective:

The trainee will be able to identify the types of evacuations, crew responsibilities and procedures relating to the different types of evacuation situations.


Crew Member Responsibilities
External Factors
Brace Position
Exit Procedures
Evacuation Responsibilities
Preparation for Evacuation
Evacuation Procedures
Rapid Deplanement
Accident/Incident Review

4.4A General

4.4A.1 Define evacuation and rapid deplanement.

4.4A.2 Identify the types of occurrences that may require evacuation or rapid deplanement, who is responsible for making this decision, and the factors to be considered when making this decision.

4.4A.3 Define "prepared" and "unprepared" evacuation.

4.4A.4 Define "ditching" and "inadvertent water contact". Describe the conditions which may be associated/expected with each type of emergency.

4.4A.5 Define Able-Bodied-Person (ABP). Describe the types of persons a crew member would choose for an ABP.

4.4B Crew Member Responsibilities

4.4B.1 Define situational awareness and the responsibility of crew members to be situationally aware (e.g. unwarranted evacuations).

4.4B.2 Identify the requirement of crew members to be aware of their duties and the duties of other crew members and what this means in an evacuation.

4.4B.3 Describe the need to be prepared during critical phases of flight due to increased risk of accidents.

4.4B.4 Describe the importance of silent review in preparing for a possible evacuation.

4.4B.5 Identify when crew members have the authority and the responsibility to initiate an evacuation. Include who is responsible for activating evacuation signals.

4.4B.6 Describe the different types of passenger behaviour (e.g. passive, aggressive and hysteric) and identify effective ways of managing passenger behaviour in evacuations.

4.4B.7 Identify the responsibility of crew members to provide leadership in an evacuation and list ways this may be achieved.

4.4C External Factors

4.4C.1 Identify how crew members can manage evacuations in adverse conditions (e.g. heavy smoke, darkness).

4.4C.2 Describe the different aircraft attitudes possible as a result of accidents/incidents (e.g. gear collapse, off-runway, shift in center of gravity).

4.4C.3 Identify the factors that could adversely affect aircraft flotation in water landings (e.g. structural damage, weight, center of gravity, outside conditions, etc.).

4.4C.4 Describe the effect of environmental conditions in evacuations (e.g. strong winds, terrain, snow/ice).

4.4C.5 Identify the importance of time management in prepared and unprepared evacuations and how time affects survivability in different accident situations.

4.4D Communication

4.4D.1 Describe the importance of crew communication in an evacuation and the established communication signals for evacuations.

4.4D.2 Identify the briefings required between flight deck and cabin crew in an emergency situation that may require an evacuation. Include the following information in the description:

  1. Who is responsible to conduct briefing;
  2. When and where to conduct the briefing;
  3. What information is required; and
  4. How to conduct the briefing including time management.

4.4D.3 Identify the briefings required to prepare passengers in an emergency situation that may require an evacuation. Include the following information in the description:

  1. Who is responsible to conduct briefing;
  2. When and where to conduct the briefing;
  3. What information is required; and
  4. How to conduct the briefing including time management.

4.4E Brace Position

4.4E.1 Define brace position.

4.4E.2 Identify the brace positions for crew members in forward or aft-facing seats, passengers (seat orientation as appropriate), including pregnant passengers, passengers with a disability, children and infants. Describe the effectiveness of each brace position and the importance of assuming the preferred brace position to minimize injury. Describe the effect of seat pitch on preferred brace positions.

4.4E.3 Identify the signal(s) for assuming the brace position in emergency situations, when it is given, who is responsible for giving it and the crew responsibilities when the brace signal has been given.

4.4E.4 Identify when crew members should assume the brace position if no signal has been given.

4.4F Exit Procedures

4.4F.1 Identify crew member responsibility to assess conditions prior to opening any exit.

4.4F.2 Identify the evacuation procedures for each type of exit (i.e. doors, windows, hatches, ventral exits, tailbones, opening in fuselage).

4.4F.3 Describe the procedures to operate and use any evacuation aids (e.g. slides, ramps, ropes) that are provided on the aircraft. Include instructions on operation and use of these evacuation aids to passengers.

4.4F.4 Identify the inflation times for the different evacuation aids (e.g. slides, ramps, slide/rafts). Describe how to recognize if an evacuation device is fully inflated.

4.4F.5 Describe alternate procedures if initial inflation fails and if the inflation fails during the course of the evacuation.

4.4F.6 Describe the preferred techniques for special attention passengers using evacuation slides (e.g. passengers with a disability, passengers with guide and service animals).

4.4F.7 Describe purpose and procedures of protective position, including the use of assist handle and assist space or alternates as applicable (e.g. avoiding partial blockage of exit with body).

4.4F.8 Describe the importance of maintaining a balanced flow of passengers to all available exits (e.g. to minimize evacuation time).

4.4G Evacuation Responsibilities

4.4G.1 Identify the shouted commands for each type of evacuation and describe the rationale behind each of the commands. Describe the ways to increase the effectiveness of commands (e.g. assertive, loud, positive, short, body language, phraseology, commands in unison, etc.).

4.4G.2 Identify the responsibility of crew members to assist passengers and fellow crew members in an evacuation and any limitation to this responsibility. Outline the conditions when crew members should evacuate themselves.

4.4G.3 Describe ways to assist incapacitated passengers and fellow crew members in evacuations.

4.4G.4 Identify the importance of checking the cabin, flight deck and lavatories after all passengers have been evacuated and describe how and under what conditions this should be accomplished.

4.4G.5 Identify the crew responsibilities for removal of equipment when they evacuate the aircraft and under what conditions this should be accomplished.

4.4H Preparation for Evacuation

Outlined below are steps involved for the preparation of an evacuation, including required communications between crew members and passengers. The evacuation of the aircraft when it is stopped is outlined in 4.4I.1 below.

These steps are arranged in order of priority to allow the more important duties to be completed first, on a time available basis. If during any step the situation dictates that preparations must cease or that there is no more time available, the cabin crew must immediately proceed to Stepj) in the evacuation preparation list shown below in 4.4H.1 and prepare themselves for the emergency landing.

Each operator will develop their own established procedures and commands as required by their operation.

4.4H.1 The list below identifies, in order of importance, the cabin crew duties required to prepare the cabin, passengers and crew for an evacuation when time permits. Describe the established procedures for each of the duties for a prepared evacuation on land and outline the differences for a ditching.

    1. Pilot-in-Command to In-charge Flight Attendant
      • Nature of emergency
      • Land or water evacuation
      • Time available for preparation
      • Who will advise passengers and when
      • Any other information/instructions
    2. In-charge Flight Attendant to Flight Attendants
      • Information provided by PIC briefing
      • Preferred exits
      • Crew communication signals during preparation (i.e. thumbs-up)
      • Confirm F/A’s assume position in cabin for announcement and emergency demonstration
    3. In-charge Flight Attendant to Pilot-in-Command
      • Crew briefing completed
      • Update any information as required
    4. Pilot-in-Command or In-charge Flight Attendant to Passengers
      • Nature of situation
      • Follow crew instructions
    1. Re-stow meal trays, trolleys, serving utensils and equipment
    2. Stow garbage
    3. Close and lock compartment doors
    4. Turn off circuit breakers, if applicable
    (F/A’s to conduct cabin checks throughout process)
    1. Position seat backs upright
    2. Stow chair tables
    3. Loosen collars and ties
    4. Remove sharp objects
    5. Remove high heeled shoes (if applicable to equipment)
    6. Don warm clothing (inclement weather/ditching)
    7. Secure baggage
    8. Distribute infant life preservers (if applicable)
    9. Don life preservers (If applicable)
    10. Secure safety belts
    11. Review brace position and when to assume
    12. Review exit locations
    13. Review floor proximity lighting
    14. Advise to review safety features card
    1. Assisting Special Attention Passengers
      • How to best assist during evacuation
    2. Operating unmanned exit
      • When to open exit
      • Assess for safe exit conditions
      • Exit opening procedure
      • Procedure if exit unsafe/unusable
      • Location and operation of slide, slide raft, life rafts, and/or stairs, escape ropes, etc.
    3. Crowd Control
      • How to block
      • Assist at bottom of slide/stairs
    1. Ensure window shades are positioned up or down as appropriate
    1. Begin silent review

4.4I Evacuation Procedures

4.4I.1 Describe the established evacuation procedures in order of priority, as shown in the Evacuation flow chart on page4-12, for each of the following types of evacuations:

  1. Land - prepared;
  2. Land - unprepared;
  3. Ditching;
  4. Inadvertent water contact;
  5. Tidal flat;
  6. Evacuation with passenger transfer vehicle (PTV) mated to aircraft;
  7. Evacuation at an airport gate/ramp jetway; and
  8. Any other scenario applicable to the operator.

4.4J Rapid Deplanement

4.4J.1 Describe the established procedures for rapid deplanement.

4.4K Post-Evacuation

4.4K.1 Describe the responsibilities of crew members after an evacuation (e.g. grouping passengers, assisting with first aid, etc.).

4.4K.2 Identify the supplies and equipment available after an evacuation that will provide assistance and enhance survivability (e.g. ELT, survival kit, blankets, megaphone, raft, life preservers, flashlight, food, water, axe, etc.).

4.4K.3 Describe the type of assistance, which may be available at the various airports in the operator’s route system. Include ways crew members can manage the evacuation to coordinate their actions with the ground rescue personnel.

4.4K.4 Describe the different groups (e.g. media, legal, accident investigators) that will attempt to solicit information from cabin crew after an evacuation and outline the procedures for dealing with these groups.

4.4K.5 List the types of survival situations crew members may encounter as a result of an evacuation including wilderness, arctic, sea, desert, jungle survival as appropriate to the air operator's operation.

4.4K.6 Identify the importance of post-crash procedures to increase survivability in each of the survival situations. Include the following:

  1. Survival first aid;
  2. Survival priorities;
  3. Hazards inherent in different environments;
  4. Survival skills for different environments;
  5. Survival equipment and supplies carried on the aircraft; and
  6. Signalling and recovery techniques.

4.4K.7 Describe the search-and-rescue systems, their scope of operation and how they are able to locate downed aircraft.

4.4K.8 Describe the process of accident investigation and describe the official groups tasked with accident investigation, internationally and nationally. Identify their mandate and their role in aviation safety.

4.4L Accident/Incident Review

4.4L.1 Describe the air operator's experience with accidents/incidents involving rapid deplanements and evacuations

4.4L.2 List both the positive and negative factors affecting survivability in evacuation such as fuselage break-up, smoke, fire, etc. It is acceptable to use the accident/incident data from other operators when the teaching points can be universally applied.