Aviation Safety Letter: Issue 4/2022

Previously, the ASL was only available in PDF, but starting with issue 3/2019, it’s now also available in HTML. This change makes it easier to share articles with others—but more importantly, will make it easier to search for specific topics.

If you don’t already receive an ASL e-bulletin notification email, we encourage you to sign-up online.

Have a great aviation photo? Send it to TC.ASL-SAN.TC@tc.gc.ca for a chance to be featured on the cover page of an upcoming issue of the ASL!

Winter weather and aviating

Winter flights, properly dressed, thorough briefing, wearing a personal floating device, commercially rated seaplane pilots as of March 6, 2023 you must be water egress trained as per Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 703.98(2)(c.1) and 704.115(2)(a.1).

Notice to airmen (NOTAM) searching tips

Review NOTAMs published under the applicable FIR identifier as well as those NOTAMs published under the aerodromes of interest to ensure that you have reviewed all applicable NOTAMs.


Very high frequency omnidirectional range (VOR) interpretation: Determining position relative to a VOR station

How the VOR sends out its signals, just how do you figure out where you are?, when you set about solving a problem like this, always draw a picture.

Important notice: 2022-2023 Flight Crew Recency Requirements Self-Paced Study Program

No longer published in its entirety in the ASL, exam available online only.


Let’s talk about the Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM)

The TC AIM has been developed to consolidate pre-flight reference information of a lasting nature into a single primary document. It provides flight crews with a single source of information concerning rules of the air and procedures for aircraft operation in Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) of interest to pilots, the TC AIM is an interpretation of the CARs and its best practices. When in doubt, please consult the CARs.

Phraseology guides

The use of the standard, normalized phraseology allows for quick and efficient communication and has a positive impact on frequency congestion, a few years ago, and in collaboration with the industry, NAV CANADA developed four phraseology guides: IFR Phraseology, RNAV Phraseology, VFR Phraseology, and Ground Traffic Phraseology.


Aviation Safety Letter article submission

Share your expert knowledge, promote aviation safety.

Cold weather operations

The cold weather is upon us and so is the season for de-icing and anti-icing.


TSB Final Report A19O0178—Loss of Control and Collision with Terrain

Piper PA-32-260, the pilot likely lost visual reference to the surface, became spatially disoriented, and lost control of the aircraft, weather conditions for the intended flight were below the limits required for a night visual flight rules flight. (See PDF for condensed version).

TSB Final Report A19P0187—Collision With Terrain

Cessna 172H, it is important that pilots assess all available weather information before departure, plan alternate routes, and operate within the limitations of their aircraft and the privileges of their licences or permits. (See PDF for condensed version)


Is it a Micro Drone or a Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)?

Micro drones are RPA with a takeoff weight under 250 g, any payload carried by your drone when it takes off is considered part of its takeoff weight, if the weight pushes your drone above 250 g, then it is considered a small RPA. In this case, you’ll need to register your drone through the Drone Management Portal (DMP).



The Aviation Safety Letter is published by Transport Canada, Civil Aviation. The contents do not necessarily reflect official government policy and, unless stated, should not be construed as regulations or directives.

Articles, comments and suggestions are invited. The editor reserves the right to edit all published articles. The author’s name will be withheld from publication upon request.

Please send your comments, suggestions or articles to:

Jim Mulligan, Editor
Aviation Safety Letter
E-mail: TC.ASL-SAN.TC@tc.gc.ca
Tel.: 343-553-3022
Internet: canada.ca/aviation-safety-letter

Some of the articles, photographs and graphics that appear in the Aviation Safety Letter are subject to copyrights held by other individuals and organizations. In such cases, some restrictions on the reproduction of the material may apply, and it may be necessary to seek permission from the rights holder prior to reproducing it. To obtain information concerning copyright ownership and restrictions on reproduction of the material, please contact the Aviation Safety Letter editor.

Note: Reprints of original Aviation Safety Letter material are encouraged, but credit must be given to Transport Canada’s Aviation Safety Letter. Please forward one copy of the reprinted article to the editor.

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Sécurité aérienne — Nouvelles est la version française de cette publication.

© His Majesty the King in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Transport (2022).

ISSN: 0709-8103
TP 185E