Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
Content last revised: 2021/09/21
- 523.1301-1 - Aeroplane Operation After Ground Cold Soak
- 523.1457 - Cockpit Voice Recorders
- 523.1459 - Flight Data Recorders
- 523.1529 - Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
- A (523.2000-523.2010),
- B (523.2100-523.2165),
- C (523.2200-523.2270),
- D (523.2300-523.2335),
- E (523.2400-523.2440),
- F (523.2500-523.2550),
- G (523.2600-523.2620)
Subchapter E - Powerplant
523.2400 Powerplant Installation
- (a) For the purpose of this subchapter, the aeroplane powerplant installation must include each component necessary for propulsion, which affects propulsion safety, or provides auxiliary power to the aeroplane.
- (b) Each aeroplane engine and propeller must be type certificated, except for engines and propellers installed on level 1 low-speed aeroplanes, which may be approved under the aeroplane type certificate in accordance with a standard accepted by Transport Canada that contains airworthiness criteria the Minister has found appropriate and applicable to the specific design and intended use of the engine or propeller and provides a level of safety acceptable to Transport Canada.
- (c) The applicant must construct and arrange each powerplant installation to account for:
- (1) Likely operating conditions, including foreign object threats;
- (2) Sufficient clearance of moving parts to other aeroplane parts and their surroundings;
- (3) Likely hazards in operation including hazards to ground personnel; and
- (4) Vibration and fatigue.
- (d) Hazardous accumulations of fluids, vapours, or gases must be isolated from the aeroplane and personnel compartments, and be safely contained or discharged.
- (e) Powerplant components must comply with their component limitations and installation instructions or be shown not to create a hazard.
523.2405 Automatic Power or Thrust Control Systems
- (a) An automatic power or thrust control system intended for in-flight use must be designed so no unsafe condition will result during normal operation of the system.
- (b) Any single failure or likely combination of failures of an automatic power or thrust control system must not prevent continued safe flight and landing of the aeroplane.
- (c) Inadvertent operation of an automatic power or thrust control system by the flight crew must be prevented, or if not prevented, must not result in an unsafe condition.
- (d) Unless the failure of an automatic power or thrust control system is extremely remote, the system must:
- (1) Provide a means for the flight crew to verify the system is in an operating condition;
- (2) Provide a means for the flight crew to override the automatic function; and
- (3) Prevent inadvertent deactivation of the system.
523.2410 Powerplant Installation Hazard Assessment
The applicant must assess each powerplant separately and in relation to other aeroplane systems and installations to show that any hazard resulting from the likely failure of any powerplant system, component, or accessory will not:
- (a) Prevent continued safe flight and landing or, if continued safe flight and landing cannot be ensured, the hazard has been minimised;
- (b) Cause serious injury that may be avoided; and
- (c) Require immediate action by any crew member for continued operation of any remaining powerplant system.
523.2415 Powerplant Ice Protection
- (a) The aeroplane design, including the induction and inlet system, must prevent foreseeable accumulation of ice or snow that adversely affects powerplant operation.
- (b) The powerplant installation design must prevent any accumulation of ice or snow that adversely affects powerplant operation, in those icing conditions for which certification is requested.
523.2420 Reversing Systems
Each reversing system must be designed so that:
- (a) No unsafe condition will result during normal operation of the system; and
- (b) The aeroplane is capable of continued safe flight and landing after any single failure, likely combination of failures, or malfunction of the reversing system.
523.2425 Powerplant Operational Characteristics
- (a) The installed powerplant must operate without any hazardous characteristics during normal and emergency operation within the range of operating limitations for the aeroplane and the engine.
- (b) The pilot must have the capability to stop the powerplant in flight and restart the powerplant within an established operational envelope.
523.2430 Fuel Systems
- (a) Each fuel system must:
- (1) Be designed and arranged to provide independence between multiple fuel storage and supply systems so that failure of any one component in one system will not result in loss of fuel storage or supply of another system;
- (2) Be designed and arranged to prevent ignition of the fuel within the system by direct lightning strikes or swept lightning strokes to areas where such occurrences are highly probable, or by corona or streamering at fuel vent outlets;
- (3) Provide the fuel necessary to ensure each powerplant and auxiliary power unit functions properly in all likely operating conditions;
- (4) Provide the flight crew with a means to determine the total useable fuel available and provide uninterrupted supply of that fuel when the system is correctly operated, accounting for likely fuel fluctuations;
- (5) Provide a means to safely remove or isolate the fuel stored in the system from the aeroplane;
- (6) Be designed to retain fuel under all likely operating conditions and minimise hazards to the occupants during any survivable emergency landing. For level 4 aeroplanes, failure due to overload of the landing system must be taken into account; and
- (7) Prevent hazardous contamination of the fuel supplied to each powerplant and auxiliary power unit.
- (b) Each fuel storage system must:
- (1) Withstand the loads under likely operating conditions without failure;
- (2) Be isolated from personnel compartments and protected from hazards due to unintended temperature influences;
- (3) Be designed to prevent significant loss of stored fuel from any vent system due to fuel transfer between fuel storage or supply systems, or under likely operating conditions;
- (4) Provide fuel for at least one-half hour of operation at maximum continuous power or thrust; and
- (5) Be capable of jettisoning fuel safely if required for landing.
- (c) Each fuel storage refilling or recharging system must be designed to:
- (1) Prevent improper refilling or recharging;
- (2) Prevent contamination of the fuel stored during likely operating conditions; and
- (3) Prevent the occurrence of any hazard to the aeroplane or to persons during refilling or recharging.
523.2435 Powerplant Induction and Exhaust Systems
- (a) The air induction system for each powerplant or auxiliary power unit and their accessories must:
- (1) Supply the air required by that powerplant or auxiliary power unit and its accessories under likely operating conditions;
- (2) Be designed to prevent likely hazards in the event of fire or backfire;
- (3) Minimise the ingestion of foreign matter; and
- (4) Provide an alternate intake if blockage of the primary intake is likely.
- (b) The exhaust system, including exhaust heat exchangers for each powerplant or auxiliary power unit, must:
- (1) Provide a means to safely discharge potential harmful material; and
- (2) Be designed to prevent likely hazards from heat, corrosion, or blockage.
523.2440 Powerplant Fire Protection
- (a) A powerplant, auxiliary power unit, or combustion heater that includes a flammable fluid and an ignition source for that fluid must be installed in a designated fire zone.
- (b) Each designated fire zone must provide a means to isolate and mitigate hazards to the aeroplane in the event of fire or overheat within the zone.
- (c) Each component, line, fitting, and control subject to fire conditions must:
- (1) Be designed and located to prevent hazards resulting from a fire, including any located adjacent to a designated fire zone that may be affected by fire within that zone;
- (2) Be fire resistant if carrying flammable fluids, gas, or air or required to operate in event of a fire; and
- (3) Be fireproof or enclosed by a fire proof shield if storing concentrated flammable fluids.
- (d) The applicant must provide a means to prevent hazardous quantities of flammable fluids from flowing into, within or through each designated fire zone. This means must:
- (1) Not restrict flow or limit operation of any remaining powerplant or auxiliary power unit, or equipment necessary for safety;
- (2) Prevent inadvertent operation; and
- (3) Be located outside the fire zone unless an equal degree of safety is provided with a means inside the fire zone.
- (e) A means to ensure the prompt detection of fire must be provided for each designated fire zone:
- (1) On a multi-engine aeroplane where detection will mitigate likely hazards to the aeroplane; or
- (2) That contains a fire extinguisher
- (f) A means to extinguish fire within a fire zone, except a combustion heater fire zone, must be provided for:
- (1) Any fire zone located outside the pilot’s view;
- (2) Any fire zone embedded within the fuselage, which must also include a redundant means to extinguish fire; and
- (3) Any fire zone on a level 4 aeroplane.