Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
Content last revised: 2021/09/21
- 523.1301-1 - Aeroplane Operation After Ground Cold Soak
- 523.1457 - Cockpit Voice Recorders
- 523.1459 - Flight Data Recorders
- 523.1529 - Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
- A (523.2000-523.2010),
- B (523.2100-523.2165),
- C (523.2200-523.2270),
- D (523.2300-523.2335),
- E (523.2400-523.2440),
- F (523.2500-523.2550),
- G (523.2600-523.2620)
Subchapter A — General
523.2000 Applicability and Definitions
(a) This chapter prescribes standards of airworthiness for the issuance of type certificates, and changes to those certificates, for aeroplanes in the normal category.
(b) For the purposes of this chapter, the following definition applies:
Continued Safe Flight and Landing means an aeroplane is capable of continued controlled flight and landing, possibly using emergency procedures, without requiring exceptional pilot skill or strength. Upon landing, some aeroplane damage may occur as a result of a failure condition.
523.2005 Certification of Normal Category Aeroplanes
- (a) Certification in the normal category applies to aeroplanes with a passenger-seating configuration of 19 or less and a maximum certificated take-off weight of 8,618 kg (19,000 lb) or less.
- (b) Aeroplane certification levels are:
- (1) Level 1: for aeroplanes with a maximum seating configuration of 0 to 1 passengers.
- (2) Level 2: for aeroplanes with a maximum seating configuration of 2 to 6 passengers.
- (3) Level 3: for aeroplanes with a maximum seating configuration of 7 to 9 passengers.
- (4) Level 4: for aeroplanes with a maximum seating configuration of 10 to 19 passengers.
- (c) Aeroplane performance levels are:
- (1) Low speed: for aeroplanes with a VNO and VMO ≤ 250 Knots Calibrated Airspeed (KCAS) and a MMO ≤ 0.6.
- (2) High speed: for aeroplanes with a VNO or VMO > 250 KCAS or a MMO > 0.6.
- (d) Aeroplanes not certified for aerobatics may be used to perform any manoeuvre incident to normal flying, including:
- (1) Stalls (except whip stalls); and
- (2) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, in which the angle of bank is not more than 60 degrees.
- (e) Aeroplanes certified for aerobatics may be used to perform manoeuvres without limitations, other than those limitations established under subchapter G of this chapter.
523.2010 Accepted Means of Compliance
- (a) An applicant must comply with this chapter using a means of compliance, which may include consensus standards, accepted by the Minister.
- (b) An applicant requesting acceptance of a means of compliance must provide the means of compliance to Transport Canada in a form and manner acceptable to the Minister.
Subchapter B — Flight
523.2100 Weight and Centre of Gravity
- (a) The applicant must determine limits for weights and centres of gravity that provide for the safe operation of the aeroplane.
- (b) The applicant must comply with each requirement of this subchapter at critical combinations of weight and centre of gravity within the aeroplane’s range of loading conditions using tolerances acceptable to the Minister.
- (c) The condition of the aeroplane at the time of determining its empty weight and centre of gravity must be well defined and easily repeatable.
523.2105 Performance Data
- (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, an aeroplane must meet the performance requirements of this subchapter in:
- (1) Still air and standard atmospheric conditions at sea level for all aeroplanes; and
- (2) Ambient atmospheric conditions within the operating envelope for levels 1 and 2 high-speed and levels 3 and 4 aeroplanes.
- (b) Unless otherwise prescribed, the applicant must develop the performance data required by this subchapter for the following conditions:
- (1) Airport altitudes from sea level to 3048 m (10,000 ft); and
- (2) Temperatures above and below standard day temperature that are within the range of operating limitations, if those temperatures could have a negative effect on performance.
- (c) The procedures used for determining take-off and landing distances must be executable consistently by pilots of average skill in atmospheric conditions expected to be encountered in service.
- (d) Performance data determined in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section must account for losses due to atmospheric conditions, cooling needs, and other demands on power sources.
523.2110 Stall Speed
The applicant must determine the aeroplane stall speed or the minimum steady flight speed for each flight configuration used in normal operations, including take-off, climb, cruise, descent, approach, and landing. The stall speed or minimum steady flight speed determination must account for the most adverse conditions for each flight configuration with power set at:
- (a) Idle or zero thrust for propulsion systems that are used primarily for thrust; and
- (b) A nominal thrust for propulsion systems that are used for thrust, flight control, and/or high-lift systems.
523.2115 Take-Off Performance
- (a) The applicant must determine aeroplane take-off performance accounting for:
- (1) Stall speed safety margins;
- (2) Minimum control speeds; and
- (3) Climb gradients.
- (b) For single engine aeroplanes and levels 1, 2, and 3 low-speed multi-engine aeroplanes, take-off performance includes the determination of ground roll and initial climb distance to 15 m (50 ft) above the take-off surface.
- (c) For levels 1, 2, and 3 high-speed multi-engine aeroplanes, and level 4 multi-engine aeroplanes, take-off performance includes a determination of the following distances after a sudden critical loss of thrust:
- (1) An aborted take-off at critical speed;
- (2) Ground roll and initial climb to 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface; and
- (3) Net take-off flight path.
523.2120 Climb Requirements
The design must comply with the following minimum climb performance out of ground effect:
- (a) With all engines operating and in the initial climb configuration:
- (1) For levels 1 and 2 low-speed aeroplanes, a climb gradient of 8.3 percent for landplanes and 6.7 percent for seaplanes and amphibians; and
- (2) For levels 1 and 2 high-speed aeroplanes, all level 3 aeroplanes, and level 4 single-engines aeroplanes, a climb gradient after take-off of 4 percent.
- (b) After a critical loss of thrust on multi-engine aeroplanes:
- (1) For levels 1 and 2 low-speed aeroplanes that do not meet single-engine crashworthiness requirements, a climb gradient of 1.5 percent at a pressure altitude of 1524 m (5,000 ft) in the cruise configuration(s);
- (2) For levels 1 and 2 high-speed aeroplanes, and level 3 low-speed aeroplanes, a 1 percent climb gradient at 122 m (400 ft) above the take-off surface with the landing gear retracted and flaps in the take-off configuration(s); and
- (3) For level 3 high-speed aeroplanes and all level 4 aeroplanes, a 2 percent climb gradient at 122 m (400 ft) above the take-off surface with the landing gear retracted and flaps in the approach configuration(s).
- (c) For a balked landing, a climb gradient of 3 percent without creating undue pilot workload with the landing gear extended and flaps in the landing configuration(s).
523.2125 Climb Information
- (a) The applicant must determine climb performance at each weight, altitude, and ambient temperature within the operating limitations:
- (1) For all single-engine aeroplanes;
- (2) For levels 1 and 2 high-speed multi-engine aeroplanes and level 3 multi-engine aeroplanes, following a critical loss of thrust on take-off in the initial climb configuration; and
- (3) For all multi-engine aeroplanes, during the enroute phase of flight with all engines operating and after a critical loss of thrust in the cruise configuration.
- (b) The applicant must determine the glide performance for single-engine aeroplanes after a complete loss of thrust.
The applicant must determine the following, for standard temperatures at critical combinations of weight and altitude within the operational limits:
- (a) The distance, starting from a height of 15 m (50 ft) above the landing surface, required to land and come to a stop.
- (b) The approach and landing speeds, configurations, and procedures, which allow a pilot of average skill to land within the published landing distance consistently and without causing damage or injury, and which allow for a safe transition to the balked landing conditions of this chapter accounting for:
- (1) Stall speed safety margin; and
- (2) Minimum control speeds.
- (a) The aeroplane must be controllable and manoeuvrable, without requiring exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength, within the operating envelope:
- (1) At all loading conditions for which certification is requested;
- (2) During all phases of flight;
- (3) With likely reversible flight control or propulsion system failure; and
- (4) During configuration changes.
- (b) The aeroplane must be able to complete a landing without causing substantial damage or serious injury using the steepest approved approach gradient procedures and providing a reasonable margin below VREF or above approach angle of attack.
- (c) VMC is the calibrated airspeed at which, following the sudden critical loss of thrust, it is possible to maintain control of the aeroplane. For multi-engine aeroplanes, the applicant must determine VMC, if applicable, for the most critical configurations used in take-off and landing operations.
- (d) If the applicant requests certification of an aeroplane for aerobatics, the applicant must demonstrate those aerobatic manoeuvres for which certification is requested and determine entry speeds.
- (a) The aeroplane must maintain lateral and directional trim without further force upon, or movement of, the primary flight controls or corresponding trim controls by the pilot, or the flight control system, under the following conditions:
- (1) For levels 1, 2, and 3 aeroplanes in cruise.
- (2) For level 4 aeroplanes in normal operations.
- (b) The aeroplane must maintain longitudinal trim without further force upon, or movement of, the primary flight controls or corresponding trim controls by the pilot, or the flight control system, under the following conditions:
- (1) Climb;
- (2) Level flight;
- (3) Descent; and
- (4) Approach.
- (c) Residual control forces must not fatigue or distract the pilot during normal operations of the aeroplane and likely abnormal or emergency operations, including a critical loss of thrust on multi-engine aeroplanes.
- (a) Aeroplanes not certified for aerobatics must:
- (1) Have static longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability in normal operations;
- (2) Have dynamic short period and Dutch roll stability in normal operations; and
- (3) Provide stable control force feedback throughout the operating envelope.
- (b) No aeroplane may exhibit any divergent longitudinal stability characteristic so unstable as to increase the pilot’s workload or otherwise endanger the aeroplane and its occupants.
523.2150 Stall Characteristics, Stall Warning, and Spins
- (a) The aeroplane must have controllable stall characteristics in straight flight, turning flight, and accelerated turning flight with a clear and distinctive stall warning that provides sufficient margin to prevent inadvertent stalling.
- (b) Single-engine aeroplanes, not certified for aerobatics, must not have a tendency to inadvertently depart controlled flight.
- (c) Levels 1 and 2 multi-engine aeroplanes, not certified for aerobatics, must not have a tendency to inadvertently depart controlled flight from thrust asymmetry after a critical loss of thrust.
- (d) Aeroplanes certified for aerobatics that include spins must have controllable stall characteristics and the ability to recover within one and one-half additional turns after initiation of the first control action from any point in a spin, not exceeding six turns or any greater number of turns for which certification is requested, while remaining within the operating limitations of the aeroplane.
- (e) Spin characteristics in aeroplanes certified for aerobatics that includes spins must recover without exceeding limitations and may not result in unrecoverable spins:
- (1) With any typical use of the flight or engine power controls; or
- (2) Due to pilot disorientation or incapacitation.
523.2155 Ground and Water Handling Characteristics
For aeroplanes intended for operation on land or water, the aeroplane must have controllable longitudinal and directional handling characteristics during taxi, take-off, and landing operations.
523.2160 Vibration, Buffeting, and High-Speed Characteristics
- (a) Vibration and buffeting, for operations up to VD/MD, must not interfere with the control of the aeroplane or cause excessive fatigue to the flight crew. Stall warning buffet within these limits is allowable.
- (b) For high-speed aeroplanes and all aeroplanes with a maximum operating altitude greater than 7620 m (25,000 ft) pressure altitude, there must be no perceptible buffeting in cruise configuration at 1g and at any speed up to VMO/MMO, except stall buffeting.
- (c) For high-speed aeroplanes, the applicant must determine the positive manoeuvring load factors at which the onset of perceptible buffet occurs in the cruise configuration within the operational envelope. Likely inadvertent excursions beyond this boundary must not result in structural damage.
- (d) High-speed aeroplanes must have recovery characteristics that do not result in structural damage or loss of control, beginning at any likely speed up to VMO/MMO, following:
- (1) An inadvertent speed increase; and
- (2) A high-speed trim upset for aeroplanes where dynamic pressure can impair the longitudinal trim system operation.
523.2165 Performance and Flight Characteristics Requirements for Flight in Icing Conditions
- (a) An applicant who requests certification for flight in icing conditions defined in Part I of Appendix C to Chapter 525 of this manual, or an applicant who requests certification for flight in these icing conditions and any additional atmospheric icing conditions, must show the following in the icing conditions for which certification is requested under normal operation of the ice protection system(s):
- (1) Compliance with each requirement of this subchapter, except those applicable to spins and any that must be demonstrated at speeds in excess of:
- (i) 250 knots CAS;
- (ii) VMO/MMO or VNE; or
- (iii) A speed at which the applicant demonstrates the airframe will be free of ice accretion.
- (2) The means by which stall warning is provided to the pilot for flight in icing conditions and non-icing conditions is the same.
- (1) Compliance with each requirement of this subchapter, except those applicable to spins and any that must be demonstrated at speeds in excess of:
- (b) If an applicant requests certification for flight in icing conditions, the applicant must provide a means to detect any icing conditions for which certification is not requested and show the aeroplane’s ability to avoid or exit those conditions.
- (c) The applicant must develop an operating limitation to prohibit intentional flight, including take-off and landing, into icing conditions for which the aeroplane is not certified to operate.