This report includes a broad overview of the 151 research, development and deployment (RD&D) projects that Transport Canada (TC) advanced over the past year. It highlights 5 key themes and demonstrates how the results directly impact TC's policies, regulations and decisions.
On this page
- Executive summary
- 2021-2022 Research highlights
- Annex A: How research, development and deployment is governed at Transport Canada
- Annex B: List of Transport Canada's research, development, and deployment projects 2021-2022
In 2021-2022, Transport Canada advanced over 150 RD&D projects to support Transport Canada's policies, regulations, and decisions. This report features a selection of these projects across 5 key themes:
- Supply chain resilience: Landslides along Canada's railways account for $200-400M in direct and indirect costs every year. Landslides and floods disrupt the supply chain by damaging railways and causing blockages. To address these challenges, Transport Canada is working with the Railway Ground Hazard Research Program, to develop new tools to better predict these disruptive events, and develop mitigation tools to reduce their impacts on our transportation system.
- Safety: Automated driving technologies, such as automatic emergency braking (AEB), can reduce front-to-rear end crashes by up to 50%. Transport Canada is advancing cutting-edge testing to assess the performance of automated driver assistance technologies in Canadian unique conditions, including ultra-low temperatures, and roads covered by snow and ice. Results are helping the department assess the performance of automated driving systems in real-world conditions, and to work with partners to continue to improve its performance in a wide range of driving situations.
- Cyber security: Canada's Cyber Centre recorded more than 235 ransomware incidents against Canadian victims in 2021, with more than 50% targeted against critical infrastructure providers. As part of our efforts to enhance the cyber-resilience of Canada's transportation system, Transport Canada has developed a series of tools, advice and guidance documents for the industry, including infrastructure owners/operators, which is helping them to improve their cyber-resiliency and reduce the potential for disruptive attacks on Canada's on-road transportation network,
- Climate change adaptation: Canada's climate is warming two times faster than the global average, and three times faster in the North, and this has critical implications for our transportation infrastructure. To address these challenges, in 2022, the department launched the new Rail Climate Change Adaptation Program, in order to help Canadian railways mitigate the impacts of severe weather events caused by climate change. The department also launched the new Zero Emission Trucking Program to electrify the long-haul trucking sector and is supporting joint efforts with the U.S. Department of Transportation to decarbonize the North American transportation system.
- Decarbonization: Transportation is responsible for approximately 25% of Canada's total greenhouse gas emissions. Decarbonizing transportation is a key part of Transport Canada's mandate, and aircraft are recognized as an important source of emissions from transportation as they produce around 2% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. In 2021, Transport Canada worked with the National Research Council's Aerospace Research Centre to test a converted Cessna 337 aircraft in which one of the two engines is replaced by an electric motor and a battery system. The outcome of this work will help inform our safety approaches to aircraft with different propulsion systems and will pave the way to the electrification of aircraft.
Science, innovation, and evidence-based decision-making have always been an inherent part of our activities at Transport Canada. Transport Canada continues to develop and improve processes to address emerging and disruptive technologies, and we are proud to include a small sampling of these projects in this report.
2021-2022 Research highlights
1. Enhancing Canada's supply chain resiliency
Every day our supply chains move goods to Canadians with the help of thousands of workers in ports, terminals, railways, and trucking sectors. Canada's freight railways and ports play a crucial role in transporting more than half of Canada's exports by volume every year. Extreme weather events due to climate change can disrupt supply chains, having important impacts on our communities, and our ability to deliver essential goods to Canadians. Enhancing the resiliency of our supply chains against severe weather impacts is a priority area for Transport Canada's RD&D efforts. The following section outlines four Transport Canada RD&D projects aimed at enhancing Canada's Supply Chain Resiliency.
1A. Railway Ground Hazard Research Program: Enhancing landslide predication capabilities along Canada's rail corridors
$1 M over 2020-2025
NRCan, GSC, CN, CP, University of Alberta, University of Saskatoon
Landslide identification and prevention strategies
Landslides along Canada's railways account for $200-400M in direct and indirect costs every year. Landslides and floods disrupt the supply chain by damaging railways and causing blockages. The closure of some of the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railway lines in B.C. in 2021 highlights how flooding can impact Canada's entire supply chain.
To address these risks, Transport Canada's Railway Ground Hazard Research Program (RGHRP) is bringing together Canadian railways, academia and government to pool resources, in order to advance research that improves the ability to predict and prevent ground hazards.
In 2021-2022, Transport Canada initiated a study with industry, Natural Resources Canada and the Geological Survey of Canada to study landslides along key Canadian National and Canadian Pacific railway corridors. This research focused on the Thompson River Valley in British Columbia and the Assiniboine River valley in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The goal was to better identify the pre-conditions of a potential landslide and enable proactive action by railways to prevent disruptions. The project will be completed in 2025 and the results will be used to develop tools to identify and prevent ground hazards.
1B. Deploying remotely piloted aircraft systems to monitor supply-chain risks
ISED, Spexi Geospatial, the Geological Survey of Canada, VIA Rail, 40 Mile Rail, Arctic Gateway Group
Rail inspection by machine learning algorithms
Through the Innovation Solution Canada Program, Transport Canada worked with Spexi Geospatial to demonstrate new use cases for drones, including monitoring and collecting data about landslides, water levels, and fire risks near rail corridors. Spexi's technology uses artificial intelligence to inspect critical infrastructure and learn about the surrounding environment through images and videos. In 2021, we completed successful tests at landslide sites along the Thompson River, Canadian National, and Canadian Pacific Railways and the Ottawa-Montreal VIA rail corridors. As a primary outcome of this project, preliminary machine vision algorithms were developed and tested to identify rail defects and hazards and improve the maintenance of rail tracks operated by VIA rails. Currently, the licensing is provided for Transport Canada for two years and Spexi will work on future versions of these algorithms to improve the degree of accuracy and precision. The software will enable Transport Canada to develop better management and mitigation measures to address safety risks and reduce railway accidents.
1C. Water level monitoring through automatic inspection tools
$192 K in 2021-2022
NRC, McGill, VIA Rail, Short Line
Inspection of 43 acres of ground through 12,000 images
Transport Canada is working in collaboration with McGill University's Applied Remote Sensing Laboratory and VIA Rail Canada and the National Research Council to monitor and manage water levels along rail corridors. The study is comparing images from satellites, drones and hi-rail trucks instrumented with a suite of sensors to proactively identify water-related issues near railway tracks between Ottawa and Brockville.
Approximately 43 acres of ground were inspected by drone, totalling almost 12,000 images, and 180 km of track were inspected by the hi-rail truck. By combining the 3 platforms, researchers were able to map the changes in water levels over an extended period. Using this data, the team developed artificial intelligence algorithms to help detect and classify the water into pure water and water with vegetation coverage. Initial findings demonstrate that these technologies can make inspections faster, more effective and easier, decreasing the risk of potential incidents that are difficult to detect with current inspection methods. Moving forward, we will further improve detection algorithms, develop capabilities to automatically detect variations in water levels over time, and establish a practical suite of digital tools for use by TC and railways to proactively identify and mitigate rail ground hazards.
1D. Enhancing Cetacean Habitat and Observation (ECHO) Program
$5.3 M Phase III
Government of Canada’s Ocean Protection Plan and Whales Initiative
The world’s largest ship noise database
The Port of Vancouver handled 146 million metric tonnes of cargo in 2021, with projected growth over the coming decade. While vital to Canada's supply chains, marine shipping also has impacts on the marine environment, including endangered marine mammals. For example, an increase in vessel traffic can lead to increased underwater vessel noise, which impacts marine mammals' ability to forage for food and communicate.
Underwater noise has been identified as a key threat to the recovery of the Southern Resident killer whale (SRKW). In order to protect the Southern Resident killer whale, and other marine mammals while marine shipping increases, developing an understanding of current underwater noise conditions, and what factors most affect this noise is crucial, so we can learn to manage and reduce its impacts on the marine environment.
Transport Canada supports Enhancing Cetacean Habitat and Observation (ECHO) Program through the Government of Canada's Whales Initiative. ECHO is a collaborative initiative launched in 2014 by the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority to understand and reduce the effects of shipping on cetaceans (whales, porpoises and dolphins) throughout the southern coast of British Columbia. The program brings together a diverse group of partners and advisors from the government, the marine transportation industry, Indigenous communities, environmental groups and scientists whose cultural, economic, and environmental expertise guide ECHO's initiatives.
The ECHO Program conducts projects and initiatives to better understand the threats associated with commercial vessel-related activities. Transport Canada works with ECHO on many of these initiatives, particularly those that inform the development of mitigation and management measures relating to acoustic disturbance to whales (i.e., underwater noise from vessels).
For example, using TC's state-of-the-art underwater listening station (ULS) that was deployed in 2020 (featured in Transport Canada's first RD&D report), Transport Canada and the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority collaborate on a number of important research projects, such as: evaluating operational and technological mitigations for underwater vessel noise, using the extensive dataset from the ULS to develop a statistical noise prediction model that relates vessel characteristics to noise levels, and convening international vessel classification societies to align quiet vessel notations, which includes developing a standardized method among the class societies to apply a quiet ship notation.
Projects conducted in partnership with the ECHO program have produced valuable outcomes that have improved the understanding of the impacts of underwater noise in the Salish Sea, including the following:
- establishing best practices for undertaking underwater noise measurement and assessment in the Salish Sea
- developing a statistical model that can accurately predict the trends in underwater noise emissions from different vessel classes
- sea trials using ULS measurements have shown a relationship between increased vessel speed and underwater noise levels but could not identify differences in underwater noise levels for different fuel types
Transport Canada and the ECHO program will continue to co-develop research projects that assess the impacts of vessel design and operation on underwater vessel noise, including looking at:
- prediction and evaluation of cavitation inception speeds for different vessel classes
- evaluation of the emissions reduction co-benefits of voluntary vessel slowdowns
- case studies examining the design and construction of quieter vessels
Transport Canada uses results to identify technologies, vessel design characteristics or operational measures that can effectively reduce underwater noise. Transport Canada also supports the ECHO Program's on-water initiatives to slow or distance vessels in key foraging areas. Slower vessels produce lower emissions both in the air and below the surface. Understanding and supporting vessel speed management can provide multiple benefits, supporting a more efficient and environmentally sustainable supply chain.
2. Advanced driver assistance systems
Motor Vehicle Test Centre
Winner of Dr. Charles H. Miller Award
In 2020, 1,745 deaths and over 100,000 injuries occurred on Canadian roads. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are a promising group of technologies that are helping to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths. Today's most common ADAS systems use sensors like cameras and radar to assess the world around the vehicle and provide information to the driver, or even take control of the vehicle if a potential collision is detected. Examples of ADAS include:
- forward and rear collision avoidance
- automatic performance enhancement features
- adaptive cruise control
- parking assistance, and
- connected vehicle technology
Although we know how these systems perform in ideal conditions, there is limited data about how they perform in challenging Canadian winter conditions, including ultra-low temperatures, roads covered by snow and ice, heavy pouring rain, limited visibility, and snow and ice accretion on sensors. To address these knowledge gaps, Transport Canada undertook a study in the winter of 2021 to test the performance of ADAS systems at the department's Motor Vehicle Test Centre in Blainville, Quebec. Testing included the following two scenarios:
- interactions with other vehicles, using Forward Collision Warning (FCW) systems
- interactions with pedestrians, using Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) systems
Testing was conducted on cleared asphalt surfaces to minimize loss of traction, while the background remained covered in snow to provide a good contrast to challenge the cameras. Environmental conditions were recorded and tests were conducted without precipitation to limit variables. The performance of FCW and AEB systems was assessed using five and four vehicles, respectively.
The vehicles' FCW systems were tested using a static target (representative of a second vehicle) at 3 different urban speeds (20, 42 and 60 km/h). Winter conditions were simulated using snow-covered targets and snow or ice-covered vehicle sensors.
Overall, vehicle performance was significantly impacted in snow conditions. The snow on the target had a noticeable effect on the warning detection occurrence and timing for 3 of the vehicles. However, 3 of the 5 test vehicles didn't provide any forward collision warning to the driver when the sensor was covered in ice, regardless of speed.
We also tested the vehicles' pedestrian automatic emergency braking systems using adult and child dummy targets wearing standard clothing (figure 5). The adult pedestrian scenario was tested multiple times with various clothing configurations and different combinations of jackets, hats, backpacks, and umbrellas. Similarly, the child target was also tested using various clothing. The goal was to represent different cold-weather clothing combinations that Canadians typically use to protect themselves from rain and snow.
The results demonstrated that changing the pedestrian target's standard appearance using winter clothing had a negative effect on some of the vehicles' capabilities to reduce speed and avoid impacts. In both pedestrian scenarios, the addition of winter clothing and winter conditions affected the performance of the vehicles. For the adult pedestrian, a combination of an umbrella with a long jacket, hat and backpack seemed to be the most challenging configuration. For the child, the addition of the backpack was the most challenging combination. The contrast with the snowy scenery also had a noticeable effect on 2 of the 4 vehicles.
Due to the major contributions this project has made to understanding ADAS technology, Transport Canada was awarded the prestigious Dr. Charles H. Miller Award in road safety. The test methodologies developed, including test equipment modifications, will be the basis of future winter testing.
3. Enhancing the cyber resiliency of Canada's on-road transportation system
U.S. Department of Transportation Volpe Center
Vehicle cyber security self-assessment tool
Guided by the Vehicle Cyber Security Strategy, which builds on Canada's Vehicle Cyber Security Guidance (PDF, 43.5 MB), Transport Canada is working with other government departments, industry and academia to better understand the vehicle cyber security environment and highlight the importance of building cyber resilience in our transportation system.
The strategy sets out 3 broad cyber security goals, with corresponding priorities, for road transportation which, taken together, constitute a robust and forward-looking approach to strengthen vehicle cyber security in Canada:
- Incorporate vehicle cyber security considerations into policy and regulatory frameworks; Transport Canada will continue to provide technology-neutral policies and guidance related to vehicle cyber security and ensure that policy and regulatory frameworks remain agile, to support ongoing industry and government developments
- Promote awareness and foster a modern, innovative approach to vehicle cyber security
- Address emerging and adjacent issues in the vehicle cyber security landscape; The complex and interconnected nature of automotive cyber security requires collaboration and cooperation among a broad range of stakeholders, and Transport Canada will continue to explore opportunities to address cyber security risks in the broader ecosystem of road transportation technology
Together, these goals form a robust and forward-looking approach to strengthening vehicle cyber security in Canada.
In the summer of 2021, Transport Canada also released Canada's Vehicle Cyber Security Assessment Tool (VCAT). VCAT is a voluntary, self-assessment tool that was developed to help vehicle manufacturers and suppliers assess the cyber security performance and resilience of their vehicles and vehicle components. The self-assessment questions are applicable for all vehicle types with varying degrees of connectivity and automated features, including light passenger vehicles, heavy trucks, automated shuttles, smart trailers, and electric vehicles (EV) and electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) vendors
Transport Canada's Program to Advance Connectivity and Automation in the Transportation System (ACATS) is leading the infrastructure cyber security elements described in the strategy and is developing tools, guidance, and training to help road authorities (like infrastructure owners/operators) improve the cyber security of road transportation infrastructure systems (like traffic management systems). A primer on road infrastructure cyber security, operational technology self-assessment tool based on the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology's Cybersecurity Framework, and other resources will be released in Winter 2023.
4. Climate change adaptation in the transportation sector
The following section provides an overview of three (3) new initiatives that TC is advancing to enhance the environmental performance of Canada's transportation system.
Nexus between transportation and climate change
- U.S. Department of Transportation and Transport Canada joint action plan on reducing greenhouse gas emissions
- Electrification and decarbonization of transportation systems
Rail Climate Change Adaptation Program (R-CCAP)
- Objective: Identification and mitigation of rail climate hazards
- Funding: $ 2.2 M
Zero Emission Trucking Program (ZETP)
- Objective: Deployment of low-emission fuels and zero-emission technologies
- Funding: $75.8 M over 5 years
4A. Canada-U.S. joint statement the nexus between transportation and climate change
The impacts of climate change are affecting Canadians across the country, particularly in northern and coastal communities. Many changes, including rising temperatures and sea levels, are dramatic, and permanent, and pose risks to the health of communities, the environment, and the economy. Domestic and international efforts and planning are required to combat climate change and prevent deadly consequences.
In February 2021, the U.S. Department of Transportation and Transport Canada signed an agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the electrification of transportation, developing ambitious zero-emission standards and policies, and development of necessary key infrastructure like charging stations. Both organizations work together on innovative solutions to decrease emissions and support the use of cleaner fuels in rail transportation. Both countries will continue partnering in international forums, including the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to reduce aviation and marine greenhouse gas emissions based on Climate 2050 and Transportation 2030 goals.
4B. Rail Climate Change Adaptation Program (RCCAP)
In the Summer of 2022, Transport Canada launched the Rail Climate Change Adaptation Program (R-CCAP) to help address the increasing risks and impacts of climate change on Canada's rail sector.
The program is funding industry-led RD&D to help the rail sector adopt new technologies, construction approaches or operational practices to better assess, monitor and manage the risks of climate change. To realize these goals, we have prioritized these research areas:
- Risk assessments: Research and engineering studies that help railways better understand the risks and impacts of climate change on their rail network and operations
- Monitoring technologies: Testing, piloting, and/or implementing innovative technologies or practices to improve monitoring of climate risks (like fires, flooding, vegetation conditions, landslides) on the rail network
- Mitigation measures: Implementing and evaluating new designs or maintenance practices, technologies, or alternative materials to increase the resilience of Canada's rail network to climate change (like flooding, permafrost degradation, more extreme operational temperatures and temperature variations)
The Program's key outcomes are to develop more robust risk assessment tools, monitoring & mitigation measures to enhance the resiliency of Canada's rail sector against climate change, including severe weather events and adaption impacts.
4C. Zero Emission Trucking Program
Road freight is a key part of Canada's economy, with U.S. goods and services trade totalling an estimated $718.4 billion in 2019. It is also one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions with medium and heavy-duty vehicles, including cargo vans and large pick-up trucks, accounting for 35% of Canada's emissions from transportation and 9% of Canada's total emissions. With this segment expected to continue growing, it is crucial that Canada uses zero-emissions technologies if we want to meet our emissions reduction targets. The Zero Emission Trucking Program (ZEPT) was announced in the March 2022 Emissions Reduction Plan and funded in Budget 2022, in order to support these efforts.
With $75.8 million allocated over 5 years, the ZETP will help accelerate the deployment of zero-emission heavy-duty vehicles on Canadian roads by:
- supporting regulatory readiness and alignment among Canadian jurisdictions through increased engagement and dedicated contribution funding to augment regulatory capacity
- creating regulatory testbeds to evaluate technology in Canadian conditions and to inform regulatory development
- addressing data and knowledge gaps in the zero-emission trucking sector to remove technical barriers to their introduction in the Canadian marketplace
- implementing a medium- and heavy-duty zero-emission vehicle crashworthiness research program
- investing in facility upgrades at the Motor Vehicle Test Centre to augment medium- and heavy-duty zero-emission vehicle testing capabilities
Together, the Rail Climate Change Adaptation Program (R-CCAP) and Zero Emission Trucking Program (ZETP) will contribute to advancing the safe deployment of new technologies that increase the environmental performance and resiliency of Canada's rail and road transportation systems.
5. Reducing aviation emissions through electrification
National Research Council
Aviation safety standards
Mid-step in electrification of aviation
Electrification of aircraft propulsion systems, (which produce thrust to move the aircraft forward), requires replacing the engine with an electric motor and an onboard energy storage system. While this technology is in its early stages globally, Transport Canada is studying potential certification requirements for aviation electrification. For example, in 2021, Transport Canada worked with the National Research Council's Aerospace Research Centre to test their converted Cessna 337 aircraft, where one of the engines has been replaced by an electric motor and a battery system.
The aircraft and the electric propulsion system and subsystems were tested both on the ground and in flight at the National Research Council's flight research facilities to:
- develop ways to test the parts, systems and electric propulsion of an aircraft
- understand how the systems perform
- identify possible failure mechanisms and the protection measures
An area of particular interest is batteries, which are an important part of an electric propulsion system, and require safety features that can prevent failures like a thermal runaway. Thermal runaway is a process where the temperature of a battery increases uncontrollably, resulting in fire, danger to the occupants and damage to the batteries and aircraft.
Fire testing of the battery enclosure design reveals the importance of ventilation and temperature control in preventing thermal runaway, ensuring proper function of the battery system and safety. This continued collaboration effort contributes to the development of standards for the design and certification of battery systems for electric propulsion aircraft. This collaboration will help Transport Canada to define and adapt current aircraft certification standards for the safe introduction of electric aviation propulsion systems and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the aviation sector.
Annex A: How research, development and deployment is governed at Transport Canada
We have created a number of committees to strengthen the department's RD&D oversight and governance, enhance linkages with industry and government and ensure research outcomes are aligned with departmental and transportation stakeholder needs. These committees provide high-level oversight of innovation projects and engage with key external stakeholders in the project review process.
RD&D governance is overseen by the following structures:
- The Assistant Deputy Minister (ADM) Innovation Committee provides high-level oversight of RD&D activities.
- The Director General (DG) Innovation Committee is a horizontal, multi-modal committee with DG membership from across Transport Canada. The committee engages in information sharing, strategic integration and alignment, and medium-term planning of innovative departmental initiatives. The committee also supports integrated business planning and corporate reporting activities where coordination is required.
- The DG and Director-level Committees establish priorities and approve annual work plans.
- Technical Expert and Stakeholder Consultations are held regularly to engage technical staff from federal departments, Provinces, Territories, and U.S. agencies to inform work plan development.
- Interdepartmental Technical Working Groups convene regularly to share information, peer review results and methodologies, problem solve, review project plans and propose new ideas.
Annex B: List of Transport Canada's research, development, and deployment projects 2021-2022
|Air (Civil Aviation)|
|Aviation emissions research||1||Research on non-volatile particulate matter and black carbon emissions from civil aviation gas turbine engines|
|2||Particulate emissions and contrails flight research analysis|
|3||Aircraft engine emissions sampling to reduce uncertainty in measurements|
|Air (Innovation Centre)|
|Technology design and development||4||Cold climate aviation technologies – ground icing research and development|
|5||Design and Development of a Vertical Stabilizer Common Research model|
|6||Airborne in-cloud icing and large drop experiment and instrumentation research and development|
|7||Ice Crystal Icing in Aircraft Engines|
|8||Development and Certification of Electric Propulsion Systems for Civil Aviation|
|Marine (Innovation Centre)|
|Clean marine||9||Characterization of marine black carbon emissions to developing black carbon measurement methodology|
|10||Conversion of a diesel Atlantic fishing vessel to install a side-by-side electric system to compare air emissions and underwater noise between diesel and electric systems|
|11||Port Emission Inventory Tool (PEIT): development of a web-based tool and update to technical information such as emissions factors, with ECCC|
|12||Development of an assessment tool to analyze marine fleets and determine the feasibility of adopting marine-zero fuels|
|13||Supply chain study for regional implementation of liquified natural gas in the Arctic|
|14||Feasibility study to determine potential adoption of scrubber barge technology for ports across Canada to reduce emissions|
|15||Development of best practices and maintenance strategies to increase fuel savings, environmental benefits and optimize maintenance costs for hull coatings and propeller polishing on Laker vessels|
|16||Design of an on-the-go robotic ship hull cleaner for ocean-going vessels|
|Marine mammal protection – Reducing underwater noise and vessel strikes||17||Develop and test a thermal imaging camera system to detect North Atlantic right whales in the Gulf of St. Lawrence|
|18||Multi-year glider deployment in areas included in vessel traffic management measures in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to improve North Atlantic right whale detection capacity and reduce the risk of vessel strikes|
|19||Analysis of vessel usage in Boundary Pass|
|20||Examining the correlation between propeller cavitation and underwater radiated noise by evaluating propeller parameters (blade area, pitch distribution and skew)|
|21||Optimization of commercial vessel propeller design to meet underwater radiated noise reduction targets|
|22||Determining the feasibility of monitoring underwater radiated noise using dry-side vibration measurements using Kinetix on the Queen of Oak Bay ferry|
|23||Support ISO TC43/SC3 to Develop Measurement Standards for Shallow Water Vessel Source Level Measurements|
|24||Evaluating the operational feasibility of real-time shipboard cavitation monitoring and management|
|25||Underwater radiated noise and greenhouse gas reduction program for Canada's inshore fishing craft|
|26||ORCA-class vessel propeller optimization study to reduce underwater radiated noise through increasing cavitation inception speed and other means|
|27||ECHO program phase 3: analysis of underwater radiated noise data to reduce threats to endangered whales posed by vessel traffic|
|28||Real-time hydrophone deployment in the Salish Sea – Boundary Pass underwater listening station|
|29||Investigating the effect of propeller manufacturing defects on sheet and tip vortex cavitation inception speeds and proposing manufacturing tolerances to limit variations in inception speed|
|30||Establishing a noise baseline for the Salish Sea with and without the inclusion of TMX tankers and determination of noise reduction scenarios in critical habitats|
|Multi-modal (Innovation Centre)|
|Multi-modal research from the Innovation Centre||31||Assessment of a software tool that provides 3D rendering of structural deformations in transportation infrastructure networks from satellite monitoring|
|32||Remotely piloted aircraft system energy efficiency range estimator demonstration study|
|33||Maritime autonomous surface ships sensor testbed platform|
|34||Assessing an automated earth observation-based tool to improve the delivery of the Navigation Protection Program (NPP)|
|35||Satellite monitoring of transportation infrastructure networks for bridge inspections|
|36||Research in Position-Navigation-Timing (PNT) requirements for next-generation transportation systems|
|37||Determination of environmental factors that affect global navigation satellite system precision|
|38||Heavy-duty vehicle truck trailer cyber security to investigate security vulnerabilities|
|39||Investigation of the ability of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to help locate, identify and scrutinize potentially unlawful structures in navigable waters under the Navigation Protection Program (NPP)|
|Rail (Innovation Centre)|
|Innovative technologies to enhance rail safety||40||Participation in the Railway Ground Hazard Research Program (RGHRP) to share knowledge and expertise, investigate and develop standards/solutions for ground hazard risks|
|41||Testing landslide monitoring technologies to understand the causes and behaviour of landslides, and reduce the risks they pose to railways|
|42||Understanding the performance of freight train air brakes in cold weather conditions|
|43||Testing and evaluating track infrastructure materials, railway equipment, procedures and innovative technologies for the safe and efficient operations of railways in continental climates and extreme weather conditions|
|44||Testing emerging technologies for monitoring and managing water levels around railway tracks|
|45||International Collaborative Research Initiative (ICRI) on Rolling Contact Fatigue (RFC) and wear of rail on wheels|
|46||Reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding the construction and maintenance of railway lines over permafrost|
|47||Evaluating the cognitive impacts of in-cab warning technologies|
|48||Studying Automated/semi-automated machine vision inspection systems (AMVIS)|
|49||comparative analysis of Canadian rail data collection systems vis-à-vis the data collection regimes of accident investigation agencies or regulatory bodies from other countries and sectors in collaboration with TDG, rail safety, transportation policy, etc.|
|50||Developing a comprehensive, practical, and transparent risk tolerance criterion for rail transportation of dangerous goods in Canada in collaboration with TDG, rail safety, and the Canadian Rail Research Laboratory (CRRL)|
|51||Application of AI techniques to identify and quantify key leading indicators, the project is conducted in collaboration with TDG, rail safety, and the Canadian Rail Research Laboratory (CRRL)|
|Clean rail||52||Testing and evaluating locomotive emissions during revenue operation, and developing GHG and criteria air contaminants (CAC) emissions profiles|
|53||Assessment of the risks, mitigation strategies and analysis of standards for hydrail and battery locomotives|
|Road (Innovation Centre)|
|Program to Advance Connectivity and Automation in the Transportation System (ACATS)||54||City of Calgary project to establish a connected vehicle testbed along 16th Avenue North|
|55||City of Toronto pilot deployment of an automated transit shuttle on public roads|
|56||City of Vancouver study to prepare an urban CAV testing strategy for future trials and deployments, focusing on civic fleets and infrastructure|
|57||Creation of a new vehicle to everything (V2X) laboratory accreditation program with Shared Services Canada and Standards Council of Canada to help Canadian tech developers test their equipment in Canadian labs|
|58||CSA Group project to develop guidelines and a standardization roadmap for the safe deployment of connected and automated vehicle technologies in Canada|
|59||Development and execution of a maintenance and training plan for the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) architecture in Canada|
|60||Enhancing the cybersecurity readiness of Canada's road infrastructure owner/operators for higher levels of connectivity and automation|
|61||NRC Intelligent Transportation System cybersecurity vulnerability testing|
|62||University of Alberta project to investigate new approaches to help ensure that connected vehicle communications are safe, secure and consistent with Canadian privacy requirements|
|63||Updating and changing Traffic Control Devices to facilitate or improve the performance of Automated Driving Systems for Connected and Automated Vehicles|
|Road (Motor Vehicle Safety and Security)|
|Connected and automated vehicles and driver assistance||64||Advanced Driver Assistance and Safety (ADAS) systems testing|
|65||Assessing virtual testing tools for automated driving systems|
|66||Human factors assessment of driver-vehicle interaction with SAE level 2 automation systems|
|67||Transport Canada's Vehicle Cyber Security Strategy|
|68||Canada's Vehicle Cyber Security Assessment Tool|
|69||Canada's Vehicle Cyber Security Guidance|
|School bus safety||70||Testing school bus safety|
|Virtual track testing||71||Creating and assessing a digital twin of a section of a test track|
|The Enhanced Road Safety Transfer Payment Program||72||Development of the mandatory entry-level training virtual reality simulator for Class 1 novice commercial drivers to improve road safety|
|73||Robson Inspection Station: Commercial vehicle safety technology enhancement & innovation|
|74||Identifying speed trends on major Canadian highways|
|75||Road safety: Combatting distracted driving|
|76||National public opinion poll on road safety|
|77||Semi-Autonomous Vehicles: Engaging Drivers (SAV-ED)|
|78||Dose-dependent effects of cannabis on simulated driving in adults over 65 years of age|
|79||Development of national cyclist safety design guidelines for right-turn conflicts: a multi-city surrogate study using emerging technologies|
|80||Smart safe intersections that protect users|
|81||Impact of simulation technology on truck driver training and women's participation in the labour force|
|82||Mobility data and data innovation for enhanced road safety|
|83||Observation study on the use of seatbelts and handheld electronic devices across Manitoba|
|84||Intersection live object list open standards for CAV and safety application: radar-video sensor fusion|
|85||Change for Good: Collective action for road safety|
|86||For Young Drivers, By Young Drivers: Understanding how to impact knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in young drivers|
|87||Multi-Source Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) portal|
|88||Monitoring impaired driving in Canada|
|89||Improving the safety and movement of the blind when interacting with emerging vehicles in urban environments|
|90||Understanding and improving Canadian drivers' knowledge of advanced driver assistance systems|
|91||Improving road safety network screening in Canadian municipalities|
|92||Patterns and changes in risk of motor vehicle collision outcomes during covid-19 pandemic and beyond|
|Crash avoidance||93||Evaluating Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) performance in Vulnerable Road User (VRU) hazardous scenarios|
|94||Analyzing Lane Support System (LSS) performance of vehicles from a range of OEMs and evaluating Lane departure warning and lane-keeping assist.|
|95||Analyzing vehicle behaviour, challenges with current procedures and recommending the best method for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for Medium Duty.|
|96||Evaluating the perception of vehicle's reaction to Traffic Signage Recognition (TSR) for evaluation of automatic speed limiters based on the visual aspect of signage.|
|97||Collecting Radar Cross Section (RCS) data on a sub-sample of the vehicles found on Canadian roads and also collecting data on the targets used for the AEB crash avoidance program.|
|98||Developing methods to collect extra information during standard ADAS testing using: Radar, Lidar, cameras, infrared cameras|
|99||Evaluating the effect of winter conditions on Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) performance|
|Road – ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles Program (Innovation Centre)|
|Zero emission vehicles||100||Testing battery and fuel cell light and heavy-duty electric vehicles in a range of conditions to inform approaches to vehicle electrification in Canada|
|101||Testing the crashworthiness of advanced vehicle technologies, including electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.|
|102||Supporting the development of safety assessment methods by validating test procedures from the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicle UN Global Technical Regulation|
|103||Assessing real-world operational considerations of heavy-duty ZEVs, including the impact of weight and dimensions regulations and driving range on operations and operating costs|
|104||Testing the impacts of duty cycle, charge profile and thermal management strategies on EV battery cell performance durability and safety|
|105||Developing tools and reference information, based on real-world data from 60 electric buses operating in Toronto, that will inform transit authorities' transition to ZEV technology|
|106||Collecting and analyzing data from hydrogen refuelling stations to investigate leaks throughout the system, reliability of the dispenser, and accuracy of the metering system|
|Aerodynamics||107||Assessing fuel savings and GHG-reduction potential of current and emerging aerodynamic technologies for LDVs and HDVs, accounting for realistic on-road conditions such as nearby vehicles and precipitation|
|108||Supporting the development of reliable road-load and aerodynamic track-based methods for regulatory performance and compliance testing of ground vehicles|
|109||Testing the aerodynamic, field-of-view, and vulnerable road user perceptibility impacts of emerging heavy-duty vehicle design concepts and on-board vision/detection systems|
|Advanced internal combustion engines, fuels, and emission control technologies||110||Emissions performance of advanced light and heavy-duty vehicle technologies and fuels, focusing on real-world operation, cold temperature effects, and technology/fuel interactions|
|111||Comparing emissions performance of 2010 and 2025 engine and exhaust after treatment systems during cold start and idling in Canadian climate conditions|
|112||Evaluating the potential for on-board sensors to measure real-world emissions of criteria air contaminants from heavy-duty vehicles|
|113||Reviewing and testing of advanced off-road vehicle technologies to inform approaches to reducing GHG emissions|
|Tires||114||Testing and evaluating particulate matter mass, number, size, and composition from brake and tire wear; building Canadian testing capabilities to inform emission standard|
|115||Evaluating the relationship between rolling resistance and wet-grip/snow-traction to inform the development of tire standards and test procedures|
|116||Testing the durability and reliability of automated tire inflation systems in the heavy-duty vehicle sector|
|Aerodynamics||117||Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) testing to evaluate new testing protocols and performance of commercially available ADAS technologies under a range of collision scenarios|
|118||Connected vehicle safety testing to evaluate performance and failure modes of V2X systems (vehicles, infrastructure, other road users)|
|119||Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) emissions simulation and modeling to evaluate impacts of CAV adoption and vehicle-use patterns on fleet-wide emissions|
|120||Cooperative Truck Platooning Systems track-based and on-road testing to gather evidence to inform the potential development of guidelines, regulations, policies and programs that provide a modernized approach for addressing this technology|
|121||Cybersecurity testing to identify vehicle cybersecurity threats and mitigation strategies|
|Transportation of Dangerous Goods|
|122||Tank car fire risk analysis model - crude oil computational fluid dynamics (CFD) & equation of state (EOS) modelling|
|123||Analysis of crude oil pool fire testing data|
|124||Tank car fire failure assessment using combined models|
|125||Crude oil sampling and analysis campaign|
|126||Jack Rabbit II chlorine reactivity chamber studies|
|127||Extension of life for composite cylinders|
|128||Lithium battery packaging standard validation testing|
|129||Evaluation of the risks posed by sub-standard lithium batteries in transport|
|130||Numerical modelling of crude oil pool fires|
|131||Validation of dangerous goods rail car placement rules|
|132||Assessment of advanced non-destructive testing of highway and rail tank car steels|
|133||Extension of life for intermediate bulk containers|
|134||Comprehensive review of the criteria and thresholds for emergency response assistance plans (ERAPs) in the TDG Regulations|
|135||Validation of recommended emergency actions for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Emergency Response Guidebook|
|136||Evaluation of any increased risks resulting from greater amounts of hydrogen being transported to hydrogen-vehicle fuelling stations|
|137||Hazard assessment of energy storage systems (ESS) being transported in enclosed vessels for marine transport|
|138||Development of a geographic-information-system (GIS) based risk assessment methodology for the transport of dangerous goods by road|
|139||Development of a smart package for lithium battery transportation that indicates a warning about an issue inside the package|
|140||Analysis of considerations for the development of TankFax, a database of vehicle histories of highway tanks, in Canada|
|141||Review of the recommended distances for boiling-liquid expanding-vapour explosions (BLEVEs) in the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)|
|142||Development of requirements for a new standard for flexible fabric tanks for the aerial transport of fuels|
|143||Evaluation of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XII requirements for the manufacture and continued service of highway tanks in Canada|
|144||Validation of upcoming new United Nations (UN) requirements for fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) portable tanks, to consider for adoption in North America|
|145||UN classification criteria for lithium batteries – testing to support revised hazard-based requirements|
|146||Analysis of the reasons for regulatory non-compliance in the transport of lithium batteries|
|147||Analysis of current barriers to re-use or recycling of used explosives packaging|
|148||Consideration of human factors in TDG training requirements|
|149||Evaluating the applicability of damage assessment criteria for pressure tank cars towards damage assessment for general-service tank cars|
|150||Modelling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tank Fire Test|
|151||Assessing Derailment Performance of TC-117R Tank Cars|