Aviation Safety Letter: Issue 4/2021

Previously, the ASL was only available in PDF, but starting with issue 3/2019, it’s now also available in HTML. This change makes it easier to share articles with others—but more importantly, will make it easier to search for specific topics.

If you don’t already receive an ASL e-bulletin notification email, we encourage you to sign-up online.

Have a great aviation photo? Send it to TC.ASL-SAN.TC@tc.gc.ca for a chance to be featured on the cover page of an upcoming issue of the ASL!

Canada Adopts New Global Reporting Format for Runway Surface Conditions

Global reporting format (GRF), help mitigate the hazards and risks associated with operations on runways that are wet or contaminated with water, slush, snow, compacted snow, frost, or ice.

Cracking the Code: Understanding Runway Condition Codes

Runway Condition Codes (RWYCCs), Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM), assessment criteria, control/braking assessment criteria.


Always Expect the Unexpected

Always have an escape route, never put a student/candidate/trainee in a position that you cannot get out of.

Aircraft Ground Icing Operations

Hazards of flying with ice or snow (contamination) adhering to the critical surfaces of an aircraft, and flying into icing conditions.


Reporting Major Modifications and Major Repairs

Any major modification or major repair performed on a type certified Canadian registered aircraft must be reported to Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA).

Resuming Travel with your Family Soon?

Although children under 2 years old may be held in your arms during a flight, Transport Canada highly recommends that you use an approved child restraint system (car seat) for all phases of the flight.


TSB Final Report A19Q0153—Loss of Control and Collision with Terrain at Night

Cessna 172M, unconscious cognitive bias, visual flight rules flight into deteriorating weather conditions, loss of visual reference to the surface, spatial disorientation. (See PDF for condensed version)

TSB Final Report A20C0037—Runway Excursion

Beechcraft King Air A100, lack of an approach ban, ground visibility was below the minimum aerodrome operating visibility. (See PDF for condensed version)



The Aviation Safety Letter is published by Transport Canada, Civil Aviation. The contents do not necessarily reflect official government policy and, unless stated, should not be construed as regulations or directives.

Articles, comments and suggestions are invited. The editor reserves the right to edit all published articles. The author’s name will be withheld from publication upon request.

Please send your comments, suggestions or articles to:

Jim Mulligan, Editor
Aviation Safety Letter
E-mail: TC.ASL-SAN.TC@tc.gc.ca
Tel.: 343-553-3022
Internet: canada.ca/aviation-safety-letter

Some of the articles, photographs and graphics that appear in the Aviation Safety Letter are subject to copyrights held by other individuals and organizations. In such cases, some restrictions on the reproduction of the material may apply, and it may be necessary to seek permission from the rights holder prior to reproducing it. To obtain information concerning copyright ownership and restrictions on reproduction of the material, please contact the Aviation Safety Letter editor.

Note: Reprints of original Aviation Safety Letter material are encouraged, but credit must be given to Transport Canada’s Aviation Safety Letter. Please forward one copy of the reprinted article to the editor.

Electronic distribution:
To subscribe to the Aviation Safety Letter e-Bulletin notification service.

To purchase a Print-on-Demand (POD) version (black and white), please contact:

The Order Desk
Transport Canada
Toll-free number (North America): 1-888-830-4911
Local number: 613-991-4071
E-mail: MPS1@tc.gc.ca

Sécurité aérienne — Nouvelles est la version française de cette publication.

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Transport (2021).

ISSN: 0709-8103
TP 185E