Airworthiness Manual Chapter 522 Subchapter F - Equipment - Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)

Content last revised: 2012/06/01


  • A (522.1-522.3)
  • B (522.21-522.255)
  • C (522.301-522.597)
  • D (522.601-522.885)
  • E (522.901-522.1193)
  • F (522.1301-522.1449)
  • G (522.1501-523.1589)
  • H (522.1801-523.1857)
  • J (522.1901-523.1947)


F, G, I, J, K


Subchapter F - Equipment


522.1301 Function and Installation

  • (a) Each item of required equipment must:

    • (1) be of a kind and design appropriate to its intended function;

    • (2) be labelled as to its identification, function, or operating limitations, or any applicable combination of these factors;

    • (3) be installed according to limitations specified for that equipment; and

    • (4) function properly when installed.

  • (b) Instruments and other equipment may not in themselves, or by their effect upon the glider, constitute a hazard to safe operation.

522.1303 Flight and Navigation Instruments

The following are required flight and navigation instruments:

  • (a) For all gliders:

    • (1) an air-speed indicator;

    • (2) an altimeter.

  • (b) For Powered Gliders. In addition to the instruments required in 522.1303(a):

    • (1) a magnetic direction indicator.

  • (c) For Gliders of Category A. In addition to the instruments required in 522.1303(a) and (b):

    • (1) an accelerometer capable of retaining maximum and minimum values of acceleration for any selected period of flight.

  • (d) For gliders equipped for water ballast. In addition to the instruments required in 522.1303(a), (b) and (c).
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    • (1) An outside air temperature gauge.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.1305 Powerplant Instruments

The following are the required powerplant instruments for powered gliders:

  • (a) a tachometer;

  • (b) a fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank;

  • (c) an oil temperature indicator except for two stroke engines;

  • (d) an oil pressure indicator or warning device except for two stroke engines;

  • (e) a cylinder head temperature indicator for each air-cooled engine when cowl flaps are used;

  • (f) an elapsed-time indicator;

  • (g) an oil quantity indicator for each tank, e.g. dipstick.

  • (h) a manifold pressure indicator for an engine equipped with a variable pitch propeller, where manifold pressure and rotational speed are independently controllable.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (i) for pump-fed engines, one of the following instruments/procedures
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    • (1) a fuel pressure indicator;
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    • (2) a low fuel pressure warning; or
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    • (3) a special pre-flight procedure.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1307 Miscellaneous Equipment

An approved safety harness must be available to each occupant.

Instruments: Installation

522.1321 Arrangement and Visibility

Flight and navigation instruments must be clearly arranged and plainly visible to each pilot.

522.1322 Warning, Caution, and Advisory Lights
(amended 2000/11/25)

If warning, caution, or advisory lights are installed in the cockpit, they must, unless otherwise approved by the Minister, be:
(amended 2000/11/25)

  • (a) red, for warning lights (lights indicating a hazard which may require immediate corrective action);
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  • (b) amber, for caution lights (lights indicating the possible need for future corrective action);
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  • (c) green, for safe operation lights;
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  • (d) any other colour, including white, for lights not described in 522.1322 (a) to (c), provided the colour differs sufficiently from the colours prescribed in 522.1322 (a) to (c) to avoid possible confusion; and
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  • (e) effective under all probable cockpit lighting conditions.
    (amended 2000/11/25)

522.1323 Airspeed Indicating System

  • (a) The airspeed indicating system must be calibrated to indicate true airspeed at sea level in standard atmosphere with a maximum pilotstatic error not exceeding + 8 km/h or + 5% whichever is greater, throughout the following speed range 1.2 VS to VNE, and with wing-flaps neutral and air brakes closed.

  • (b) Calibration must be made in flight.

  • (c) The airspeed indicating system must be suitable for speeds between VSO and at least 1.05 times VNE.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

522.1325 Static Pressure System

  • (a) Each instrument provided with static pressure case connections must be so vented that the influence of glider speed and the opening and closing of windows, moisture or other foreign matter will not significantly affect the accuracy of the instruments.

  • (b) The design and installation of a static pressure system must be such that:

    • (1) positive drainage of moisture is provided;

    • (2) chafing of the tubing, and excessive distortion or restriction at bends in the tubing, is avoided; and

    • (3) the materials used are durable, suitable for the purpose intended, and protected against corrosion.

522.1327 Magnetic Direction Indicator

  • (a) Each magnetic direction indicator required must be installed so that its accuracy is not excessively affected by the glider's vibration or magnetic fields.

  • (b) The compensated installation must not have a deviation in level flight, greater than 10° on any heading, except that when radio is in use or the engine of a powered glider is running, the deviation may exceed 10° but must not exceed 15°.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1337 Powerplant Instruments

  • (a) Instruments and instrument lines

    • (1) Each powerplant instrument line must meet the requirements of 522.993.

    • (2) Each line carrying flammable fluids under pressure must have restricting orifices or other safety devices at the source of pressure to prevent the escape of excessive fluid if the line fails.

  • (b) Each exposed sight gauge used as a fuel quantity indicator must be protected against damage.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Electrical Systems and Equipment

522.1353 Storage Battery Design and Installation

  • (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this paragraph.

  • (b) No explosive or toxic gases emitted by any battery in normal operation, or as the result of any probable malfunction in the charging system or battery installation, may accumulate in hazardous quantities within the glider.

  • (c) No corrosive fluids or gases that may escape from the battery may damage surrounding structures or adjacent essential equipment.

522.1361 Master Switch Arrangement

  • (a) In powered gliders there must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of electric power sources from the main bus. The point of disconnection must be adjacent to the sources controlled by the switch.

  • (b) The master switch or its controls must be so installed that the switch is easily discernible and accessible to the pilot.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1365 Electric Cables and Equipment

  • (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity and correctly routed, attached and connected so as to minimize the probability of short circuits and fire hazards.

  • (b) Overload protection must be provided for each electrical equipment. No protective device may protect more than one circuit essential to flight safety.

  • (c) Unless each cable installation from the battery to a circuit protective device or master switch, whichever is closer to the battery, is of such power-carrying capacity that no hazardous damage will occur in the event of a short circuit, this length of cable shall be so protected or routed in relation to parts of the powered glider that the risk of short circuit is minimised.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-3 (93-06-30))

522.1385 External Lights

If external lights are to be installed they must be approved.

Miscellaneous Equipment

522.1431 ATC Airborne Equipment

Each ATC airborne equipment provided must comply with the following:

  • (a) The equipment and its aerials may neither in themselves nor by their mode of operation or by their effect upon the operating characteristics of the glider and its equipment constitute a hazard to safe operation.

  • (b) The equipment and its control and monitoring devices must be arranged so as to be easily controllable. Their installation must be such that they are sufficiently ventilated to prevent overheating.

522.1441 Oxygen Equipment and Supply

  • (a) Oxygen equipment must be approved.

  • (b) Oxygen equipment must be free from hazards in itself, in its method of operation, and its effect upon other components.

  • (c) There must be a means to allow the crew to readily determine, during the flight, the quantity of oxygen available in each source of supply.

  • (d) Oxygen bottles must be installed so as not to be hazardous in crash landings.

522.1449 Means for Determining Use of Oxygen

There must be a means to allow the crew to determine whether oxygen is being delivered to the dispensing equipment.