Content last revised: 2012/06/01
- A (522.1-522.3)
- B (522.21-522.255)
- C (522.301-522.597)
- D (522.601-522.885)
- E (522.901-522.1193)
- F (522.1301-522.1449)
- G (522.1501-523.1589)
- H (522.1801-523.1857)
- J (522.1901-523.1947)
Subchapter J - Propellers
This Subchapter J is applicable to propellers for powered gliders.
522.1903 Instruction Manual
An instruction manual containing the information that the applicant considers essential for installing, servicing and maintaining the propeller must be provided.
522.1905 Propeller Operating Limitations
Propeller operating limitations must be established on the basis of the conditions demonstrated during the tests specified in this Subchapter J.
Design and Construction
The suitability and durability of materials used in the propeller must -
(a) Be established on the basis of experience or tests; and
(b) Conform to approved specifications that ensure their having the strength and other properties assumed in the design data.
Propeller design and construction must minimize the possibility of the occurrence of an unsafe condition of the propeller between overhauls.
522.1923 Pitch Control
(a) Failure of the propeller pitch control must not cause hazardous overspeeding under intended operating conditions.
(b) If the propeller can be feathered, the control system must be designed to minimize:
(1) consequential hazards, such as a propeller runaway resulting from malfunction or failure of the control system, and
(2) the possibility of an unintentional operation.
Tests and Inspections
522.1935 Blade Retention Test
The hub and blade retention arrangement of propellers with detachable blades must be subjected to a load equal to twice the centrifugal force occurring at the maximum rotational speed (other than transient overspeed) for which approval is sought, or the maximum governed rotational speed,as appropriate. This may be done either by a whirl test or a static pull test.
522.1937 Vibration Load Limit Test
The vibration load limits of each metal hub and blade, and of each primary load-carrying metal component of non-metallic blades, must be determined for all reasonably foreseeable vibration load patterns.
522.1939 Endurance Test
(a) Fixed pitch or ground-adjustable wood or metal propellers. Fixed-pitch or ground-adjustable wood or metal propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests:
(1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in climb. At least five hours of this flight test must be with the propeller at the rated rotational speed and the remainder of the 50 hours must be with the propeller operated at not less than 90% of the rated rotational speed. This test must be conducted on a propeller of the greatest diameter for which certification is requested.
(2) A 50-hour endurance bench test on an engine at the power and propeller rotational speed for which certification is sought. This test must be conducted on a propeller of the greatest diameter for which certification is requested.
(b) Variable pitch propellers. Wood or metal variable pitch propellers (propellers the pitch of which can be changed by the pilot or by automatic means while the propeller is rotating) must be subjected to one of the following tests:
(1) A 50-hour test on an engine with the same power and rotational speed characteristics as the engine or engines with which the propeller is to be used. Each test must be made at the maximum continuous rotational speed and power rating of the propeller. If a take-off performance greater than the maximum continuous rating is to be established, an additional 10-hour bench test must be made at the maximum power and rotational speed for the take-off rating.
(2) Operation of the propeller throughout the engine endurance tests prescribed in Subchapter H.
522.1941 Functional Tests
(a) Each variable pitch propeller must be subjected to all applicable functional tests of this paragraph. The same propeller used in the endurance test must be used in the functional test and must be driven by an engine on a test stand or on a powered glider.
(b) Manually controllable propellers. 500 complete cycles of control throughout the pitch and rotational speed ranges, excluding the feathering range.
(c) Automatically controllable propellers. 1500 complete cycles of control throughout the pitch and rotational speed ranges, excluding the feathering range.
522.1945 Teardown Inspection
After the endurance test has been completed the propeller must be completely disassembled. No essential component may show rupture, cracks or excessive wear.
522.1947 Propeller Adjustments and Parts Replacement
The applicant may service and make minor repairs to the propeller during the tests. If major repairs or replacement of parts is found necessary during the tests or in the teardown inspection, any additional tests that the Minister finds necessary must be conducted.