Airworthiness Manual Chapter 522 Subchapter G - Operating Limitations and Information - Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)

Content last revised: 2012/06/01


  • A (522.1-522.3)
  • B (522.21-522.255)
  • C (522.301-522.597)
  • D (522.601-522.885)
  • E (522.901-522.1193)
  • F (522.1301-522.1449)
  • G (522.1501-523.1589)
  • H (522.1801-523.1857)
  • J (522.1901-523.1947)


F, G, I, J, K


Subchapter G - Operating Limitations and Information

522.1501 General

  • (a) Each operating limitation specified in 522.1505 through 522.1525 and other limitations and information necessary for safe operation must be established.

  • (b) The operating limitations and other information necessary for safe operations must be made available to the pilot as prescribed in 522.1541 through 522.1585.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1505 Airspeed Limitations

  • (a) All flight speeds must be stated in terms of airspeed indicator readings (IAS).

  • (b) The never exceed speed, VNE must not exceed 0.90 times the maximum speed demonstrated in flight tests (VDF).

  • (c) VDF must not exceed the design maximum speed, VD and must not be less than 0.9 times the design maximum speed according to 522.335(f).

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1507 Manoeuvring Speed

The manoeuvring speed must not exceed the design manoeuvring speed, VA as defined in 522.335(a).

522.1511 Wing-flap operating speed

For each positive wing-flap position, the maximum wing-flap operating speed VFE must not be greater than 0.95 times the speed VF as defined in 522.335(b) for which the structure has been designed.
(amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1513 Powerplant Extension and Retraction Speed

The flight speed range for extension and retraction of the powerplant must be established, together with any limitations associated with it.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 ((3-06-30))

522.1514 Powerplant Extended Maximum Permitted Speed
(amended 2007/07/16)

The powerplant extended maximum speed VPE must be established as required by 522.1149(b) for powered gliders capable of extending and retracting the powerplant.
(amended 2007/07/16)

522.1515 Landing Gear Operating Speed

The maximum landing gear operating speed VLO, if lower than the never exceed speed VNE, must be established for retractable landing gear. It may, however, not be lower than VT or VW, whichever is greater.

522.1517 Rough Airspeed

The rough airspeed, VRA may not exceed the design gust speed in free flight VB as defined in 522.335(c).

522.1518 Aerotow and Winch-launching Speeds

  • (a) The maximum aerotow speed may not exceed the design speed VT established in accordance with 522.335(d) and may not exceed the speed demonstrated in flight tests.

  • (b) The maximum winch-launch speed may not exceed the design speed VW established in accordance with 522.335(e) and may not exceed the speed demonstrated in flight tests.

522.1519 Weight and c.g.

  • (a) The maximum weight determined under 522.25(a) must be established as an operating limitation.

  • (b) The weight of non-lifting structural parts must be established.

  • (c) The c.g. limitations determined under 522.23 must be established as operating limitations.

  • (d) The empty weight and the corresponding c.g. positions must be determined in accordance with 522.29.

522.1521 Powerplant Limitations

  • (a) General. The powerplant limitations prescribed in this paragraph must be established so that they do not exceed the corresponding limits for which the engine or propeller is type certificated.

  • (b) Take-off and continuous operation. The take-off and continuous operation must be limited by:

    • (1) the maximum rotational speeds- (r.p.m.);

    • (2) the time limit for the use of take-off power;

    • (3) the maximum allowable cylinder head, oil, and liquid coolant temperatures, as appropriate; and

    • (4) the maximum allowable manifold pressure or any other parameter limiting the engine power if the engine is equipped with a continuously variable pitch propeller.
      (amended 2003/01/15)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1523 Solo Flight Operation
(amended 2000/11/25)

The pilot’s seat for solo flight must be designated so that it is appropriate for safe operation, considering the accessibility of the controls that must be used by the solo pilot during all normal and emergency operations, when the pilot is seated at the designated seat station.
(amended 2000/11/25)

522.1525 Kinds of Operation

The kinds of operation to which the glider is limited are established by the category in which it is eligible for certification and by the installed equipment.

522.1529 Maintenance Manual

A maintenance manual containing the information that the applicant considers essential for proper maintenance must be provided. The applicant must consider at least the following in developing the essential information:

  • (a) description of systems;

  • (b) lubrication instructions setting forth the frequency and the lubricants and fluids which are to be used in the various systems;

  • (c) pressures and electrical loads applicable to the various systems;

  • (d) tolerances and adjustments necessary for proper functioning of the glider;

  • (e) methods of levelling, raising and ground towing;

  • (f) methods of balancing control surfaces, and maximum permissible values of play at hingepins and control circuit backlash;

  • (g) allowed rigging tension in the cables of cable-operated control systems as established according to 522.411(b).

  • (h) identification of primary and secondary structures;

  • (i) frequency and extent of inspections necessary for proper maintenance of the glider;

  • (j) special repair methods applicable to the glider;

  • (k) special inspection techniques;

  • (l) list of special tools;

  • (m) rigging data necessary for the proper operation of the glider;

  • (n) a separate section titled “Airworthiness Limitations”, segregated and clearly distinguishable from the rest of the document, containing statement of service life limitations, replacement or mandatory overhaul of parts, components and accessories subject to such limitations and structural inspection intervals. Those limitations which are given in documents referred to in (o) must be referenced;
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (o) list of maintenance documents for parts, components and accessories approved independently of the glider;

  • (p) the materials necessary for small repairs;

  • (q) care and cleaning recommendations;

  • (r) instructions for rigging and de-rigging;

  • (s) information on supporting points for ground transport;

  • (t) of placards and markings and their locations.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Markings and Placards

522.1541 General

  • (a) the glider must contain -

    • (1) the markings and placards specified in 522.1545 through 522.1567 and

    • (2) any additional information, instrument markings, and placards required for the safe operation if it has unusual design, operating, or handling characteristics.

  • (b) Each marking and placard prescribed in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph -

    • (1) must be displayed in a conspicuous place; and

    • (2) may not be easily erased, disfigured, or obscured.

  • (c) The units of measurement used to indicate air speed on placards must be the same as those used on the indicator.

522.1543 Instrument Markings - General

For each instrument:

  • (a) when markings are on the cover glass of the instrument, there must be means to maintain the correct alignment of the glass cover with the face of the dial; and

  • (b) each arc and line must be wide enough and located to be clearly visible to the pilot and not mask any portion of the dial.

522.1545 Airspeed Indicator

Each airspeed indicator must show the following markings:

  • (a) for VNE a radial red line. If VNE varies with altitude, there must be a means to indicate to the pilot the appropriate limitations throughout the operating altitude range;
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  • (b) for the upper caution range a yellow arc extending from VNE to the allowable rough-air speed VRA;

  • (c) for the normal operating range, a green arc with the lower limit at 1.1 VS1 with maximum weight and for wing-flaps neutral (see ACJ 22.335) and landing gear retracted and the upper limit at the rough-air speed VRA;

  • (d) for the wing-flap operating range, a white arc with the lower limit at the stall speed 1.1 VSo for maximum weight and the upper limit at the allowable wing-flaps extended speed VFE;

  • (e) a yellow marking (triangle) for the lowest approach speed (at maximum weight without water ballast) recommended by the manufacturer;

  • (f) for the best rate-of-climb speed VY a blue radial line (for powered gliders only).

(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.1547 Magnetic Direction Indicator

Unless the deviation is less than 5° on all headings, the deviation values for magnetic headings in not more than 30° increments must be placarded near the magnetic direction indicator.

522.1548 Accelerometer

Each accelerometer required by 522.1303(c) must show red radial lines for the maximum positive and negative limit manoeuvring load factors.

522.1549 Powerplant Instruments

For each required powerplant instrument, as appropriate to the type of instruments:

  • (a) each maximum and, if applicable, minimum safe operating limit must be marked with a red radial line;

  • (b) each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc, not extending beyond the maximum and minimum safe limits;

  • (c) each take-off and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc.

  • (d) In the case of digital solid state displays, limitations, precautionary and operating ranges required by sub-paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this paragraph must be clearly indicated. The display must be readable under all lighting conditions likely to be met in service.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.1553 Fuel Quantity Indicator

Each fuel quantity indicator must be calibrated to read "zero" during level flight when the quantity of fuel remaining in the tank is equal to the unusable quantity determined in accordance with 522.959.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1555 Control Markings

  • (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls, must be clearly marked as to its function and method of operation.

  • (b) The colour markings of cockpit controls must be in accordance with those specified in 522.780.

  • (c) For powerplant fuel controls:

    • (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each tank.

    • (2) If safe operation requires the use of any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on or near the selector for those tanks.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1557 Miscellaneous Marking and Placards

  • (a) Baggage compartment. Each baggage compartment must have a placard stating the loading limitations.

  • (b) Fuel and oil filler openings. The following apply:

    • (1) Fuel filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with the minimum fuel grade.

    • (2) Oil filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover, indicating:
      (amended 2002/05/22)

      • (i) the grade of oil; and
        (amended 2002/05/22)

      • (ii) whether the oil is detergent or non-detergent.
        (amended 2002/05/22)

    • (3) If placards and markings at the fuel or oil opening include tank capacity, the capacity must be specified in litres. Imperial or U.S. gallons may also be included.
      (amended 2002/05/22)

  • (c) Fuel tanks. The usable fuel capacity of each tank must be marked either at the selector or on the gauge (when provided) or on the tank if this is translucent and visible to the pilot in flight.

  • (d) In-flight engine starting. A placard must be provided stating any limitations to be observed during in-flight engine starting.

  • (e) Tire pressure. In the case of gliders fitted with a landing wheel or wheels, the tire pressure must be marked on or in the glider.

  • (f) Aerobatic manoeuvres. A list of permissible aerobatic manoeuvres, including spins, must be placarded in each glider, so that it is plainly visible to the pilot.

  • (g) Removable ballast. If removable ballast is used, the place for carrying ballast must have a placard stating instructions for the proper placement of the removable ballast under each loading condition for which each removable ballast is necessary.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (h) Weight and cockpit load. The following additional data must be placarded in each glider so that they are plainly visible to the pilot:
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    • (1) maximum weight;
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    • (2) maximum and minimum cockpit weight.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1559 (Deleted)
(amended 2003/01/15)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.1561 Safety Equipment

Each attachment point for an occupant's parachute static line must be marked red.

522.1563 Airspeed Placards
(amended 2003/01/15)

The following speeds, if they are not marked on the airspeed indicator, must be placarded in each glider or powered glider so that they are plainly visible to the pilot:
(amended 2003/01/15)

  • (a) the maximum winch-launching speed, VW (when winch-launching is allowed);
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (b) the maximum aerotow speed, VT (when aerotow is allowed);
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (c) the manoeuvring speed;
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (d) the maximum landing gear operating speed, VLO, where applicable;
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (e) the powerplant extension and retraction speeds VPO min and VPO max, where applicable.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

Flight Manual

522.1581 General

  • (a) Furnishing information. A flight manual must be furnished with each glider. There must be an appropriate location for stowage of the flight manual aboard the glider and each flight manual must contain the following:

    • (1) Information required in 522.1583 through 522.1589 including the explanations necessary for their proper use and the significance of the symbols used.

    • (2) Other information that is necessary for safe operation because of design, operating or handling characteristics.

    • (3) A list of effective pages, with the identification of those containing approved information according to sub-paragraph (b).

  • (b) Approved information. Each part of the flight manual containing information prescribed in 522.1583 through 522.1587(a) must be limited to such information and must be approved, identified and clearly distinguished from each other part of the flight manual. All manual material must be of a type that is not easily erased, disfigured or misplaced and it must be in the form of individual sheets capable of being inserted in a manual provided by the applicant, or in a folder, or in any other permanent form.

  • (c) Units. The units of measurement used in the flight manual must be the same as those used on the indicators.
    (amended 2001/05/23)

(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)
(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.1583 Operating Limitations

  • (a) Airspeed limitations. The following information must be furnished:

    • (1) Information necessary for the marking of the airspeed limits on the indicator as required in 522.1545, and the significance of the colour coding used on the indicator.

    • (2) The speeds VA,, VLO, VT, VW and, where appropriate, VPO min, VPO max and VPE and their significance.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (b) Weights. The following information must be furnished:

    • (1) the maximum weight and the maximum weight of non-lifting parts. If the glider is equipped for expendable water-ballast, the maximum weight with and without water-ballast must be furnished.

    • (2) Any other weight limit, if necessary.

  • (c) Centre of gravity. The established c.g. limits required by 522.23 must be furnished.

  • (d) Manoeuvres. Authorized manoeuvres established in accordance with 522.3(a) or 522.3(b), as appropriate, together with permissible ranges of wing-flap position must be stipulated.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (e) Flight load factors. Manoeuvring load factors; the following must be furnished:

    • (1) The factors corresponding to point A and point G of Figure 1 of 522.333(b), stated to be applicable at VA

    • (2) The factors corresponding to point D and point E of Figure 1, of 522.333(b), stated to be applicable at VNE.

    • (3) The factor with airbrakes extended as specified in 522.345.

    • (4) The factor with wing-flaps extended as specified in 522.345.

    • (5) Markings in accordance with 522.1548.

  • (f) Kinds of operation. The kinds of operation (such as VFR, cloud-flying, day-or-night operation) in which the glider may be used, must be stated. The minimum equipment required for the respective kind of operation must be listed.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (g) Aerotow, auto-tow and winch-launching. The following information on aerotowing, auto-towing and winch-launching must be stated:

    • (1) the maximum permissible nominal strength for the towing cable or weak link;

    • (2) the minimum towing cable length established in accordance with 522.151(d);

    • (3) Only textile ropes must be used for aerotowing.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (h) Powerplant limitations. The following information must be furnished:

    • (1) Limitations required by 522.1521.

    • (2) Information necessary for marking the instruments required by 522.1549 through 522.1553.

  • (i) Placards. Placards required by 522.1555 through 522.1559 must be presented.

  • (j) In the case of the two seat glider the single pilot seat location and the limitations for solo flight must be furnished as determined under 522.1523.
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  • (k) Any limitation associated with the carriage of water ballast necessary for safe operation must be furnished.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)

522.1585 Operating Data and Procedures

Information concerning normal and emergency procedures and other pertinent information necessary for safe operation must be furnished, including:

  • (a) The stall speed in the various configurations;

  • (b) Any loss of altitude of more than 30 m or any pitch attitude more than 30° below the horizon occurring during the recovery part of the manoeuvre prescribed in 522.201;

  • (c) Any loss of altitude of more than 30 m occurring in the recovery part of the manoeuvre prescribed in 522.203;

  • (d) Spinning characteristics, including loss of altitude, any tendency for the spin to turn into a spiral dive, and recommended recovery procedure.

  • (e) Recommended operational speeds and entry speeds for each authorized manoeuvre.

  • (f) Slip characteristics in landing configuration, with airbrakes extended.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (g) Any special procedures or advice to the pilot that may be necessary for aerotowing, wire or bungee launching.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (h) The take-off distances in the conditions of 522.51, unless classified as a Self-Sustaining Powered Glider, in which case there must be a statement in the limitations section of the Flight Manual that the glider is not approved for take-off by sole means of its own power. In addition, the statement must make clear which configurations are approved for launching.

  • (i) Special procedures to start the engine in flight, if necessary. The maximum demonstrated engine start density altitude, after a prolonged in-flight shutdown, and the normal height loss to be expected during extension/unfeathering restart, and the achievement of minimum climb power, must be stated.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (j) For self-sustaining powered gliders, the maximum altitude that can be sustained.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (k) Information on the total quantity of usable fuel.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (l) Special pre-flight procedures to ensure safe operation of engine and acccessories, if necessary.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  • (m) Advice to the pilot for correct adjustment and positioning of an adjustable headrest, if installed.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  • (n) Information on the use of water ballast.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)

522.1587 Performance Information

The following information must be furnished:

  • (a) Airspeed system calibration.

  • (b) The demonstrated crosswind velocity.

  • (c) The take-off performance versus density altitude and the influence of other than smooth and hard surfaces.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)

522.1589 Loading Information

The following loading information must be furnished:

  • (a) The empty weight and the position of the empty weight c.g.

  • (b) Instruction enabling the pilot of the glider to determine the water ballast load versus the useful load.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)